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1.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 14(5): 3628-3642, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720862

RESUMEN

Background: Due to the variations in surgical approaches and prognosis between intraspinal schwannomas and meningiomas, it is crucial to accurately differentiate between the two prior to surgery. Currently, there is limited research exploring the implementation of machine learning (ML) methods for distinguishing between these two types of tumors. This study aimed to establish a classification and regression tree (CART) model and a random forest (RF) model for distinguishing schwannomas from meningiomas. Methods: We retrospectively collected 88 schwannomas (52 males and 36 females) and 51 meningiomas (10 males and 41 females) who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations prior to the surgery. Simple clinical data and MRI imaging features, including age, sex, tumor location and size, T1-weighted images (T1WI) and T2-weighted images (T2WI) signal characteristics, degree and pattern of enhancement, dural tail sign, ginkgo leaf sign, and intervertebral foramen widening (IFW), were reviewed. Finally, a CART model and RF model were established based on the aforementioned features to evaluate their effectiveness in differentiating between the two types of tumors. Meanwhile, we also compared the performance of the ML models to the radiologists. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were used to evaluate the models and clinicians' discrimination performance. Results: Our investigation reveals significant variations in ten out of 11 variables in the training group and five out of 11 variables in the test group when comparing schwannomas and meningiomas (P<0.05). Ultimately, the CART model incorporated five variables: enhancement pattern, the presence of IFW, tumor location, maximum diameter, and T2WI signal intensity (SI). The RF model combined all 11 variables. The CART model, RF model, radiologist 1, and radiologist 2 achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.890, 0.956, 0.681, and 0.723 in the training group, and 0.838, 0.922, 0.580, and 0.659 in the test group, respectively. Conclusions: The RF prediction model exhibits more exceptional performance than an experienced radiologist in discriminating intraspinal schwannomas from meningiomas. The RF model seems to be better in discriminating the two tumors than the CART model.

2.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1389018, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720898

RESUMEN

Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable, despite the advent of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy. This unfulfilled potential can be attributed to two untackled issues: the lack of suitable CAR targets and formats. In relation to the former, the target should be highly expressed and reluctant to shedding; two characteristics that are attributed to the CS1-antigen. Furthermore, conventional CARs rely on scFvs for antigen recognition, yet this withholds disadvantages, mainly caused by the intrinsic instability of this format. VHHs have been proposed as valid scFv alternatives. We therefore intended to develop VHH-based CAR-T cells, targeting CS1, and to identify VHHs that induce optimal CAR-T cell activation together with the VHH parameters required to achieve this. Methods: CS1-specific VHHs were generated, identified and fully characterized, in vitro and in vivo. Next, they were incorporated into second-generation CARs that only differ in their antigen-binding moiety. Reporter T-cell lines were lentivirally transduced with the different VHH-CARs and CAR-T cell activation kinetics were evaluated side-by-side. Affinity, cell-binding capacity, epitope location, in vivo behavior, binding distance, and orientation of the CAR-T:MM cell interaction pair were investigated as predictive parameters for CAR-T cell activation. Results: Our data show that the VHHs affinity for its target antigen is relatively predictive for its in vivo tumor-tracing capacity, as tumor uptake generally decreased with decreasing affinity in an in vivo model of MM. This does not hold true for their CAR-T cell activation potential, as some intermediate affinity-binding VHHs proved surprisingly potent, while some higher affinity VHHs failed to induce equal levels of T-cell activation. This could not be attributed to cell-binding capacity, in vivo VHH behavior, epitope location, cell-to-cell distance or binding orientation. Hence, none of the investigated parameters proved to have significant predictive value for the extent of CAR-T cell activation. Conclusions: We gained insight into the predictive parameters of VHHs in the CAR-context using a VHH library against CS1, a highly relevant MM antigen. As none of the studied VHH parameters had predictive value, defining VHHs for optimal CAR-T cell activation remains bound to serendipity. These findings highlight the importance of screening multiple candidates.


Asunto(s)
Inmunoterapia Adoptiva , Mieloma Múltiple , Receptores Quiméricos de Antígenos , Anticuerpos de Dominio Único , Mieloma Múltiple/inmunología , Mieloma Múltiple/terapia , Humanos , Receptores Quiméricos de Antígenos/inmunología , Receptores Quiméricos de Antígenos/genética , Receptores Quiméricos de Antígenos/metabolismo , Anticuerpos de Dominio Único/inmunología , Inmunoterapia Adoptiva/métodos , Animales , Línea Celular Tumoral , Ratones , Activación de Linfocitos/inmunología , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Linfocitos T/metabolismo , Familia de Moléculas Señalizadoras de la Activación Linfocitaria/inmunología , Familia de Moléculas Señalizadoras de la Activación Linfocitaria/metabolismo , Anticuerpos de Cadena Única/inmunología , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
3.
Ther Adv Hematol ; 15: 20406207241245194, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721038

RESUMEN

Treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) has evolved remarkably over the past few decades. Autologous stem cell transplantation, as well as proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, and monoclonal antibodies, has substantially improved the prognosis of patients with MM. Novel therapies, including chimeric antigen receptor-T cells, bispecific T-cell engagers, antibody-drug conjugates, histone deacetylase inhibitors, and nuclear export inhibitors, have provided more options. However, MM remains incurable. T cells are the principal weapons of antitumor immunity, but T cells display a broad spectrum of dysfunctional states during MM. The promising clinical results of T-cell-directed immunotherapies emphasize the significance of enhancing T-cell function in antimyeloma treatment. This review summarizes the potential effects of these antimyeloma agents on T-cell function and discusses possible optimized strategies for MM management by boosting T-cell immunity.

4.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743453

RESUMEN

Serum B-cell maturation antigen (sBCMA) levels can serve as a sensitive biomarker in multiple myeloma (MM). In the research setting, sBCMA levels can be accurately detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), but the approach has not been approved for clinical use. Here, we used a novel chemiluminescence method to assess sBCMA levels in 759 serum samples from 17 healthy donors and 443 patients with plasma cell (PC) diseases including AL amyloidosis, POEMS syndrome and MM. Serum BCMA levels were elevated 16.1-fold in patients with newly diagnosed MM compared to healthy donors and rare PC diseases patients. Specifically, the sBCMA levels in patients with progressive disease were 64.6-fold higher than those who showed partial response or above to treatment. The sBCMA level also correlated negatively with the response depth of MM patients. In newly diagnosed and relapsed MM patients, survival was significantly longer among those subjects whose sBCMA levels are below the median levels compared with those above the median value. We optimized the accuracy of the survival prediction further by integrating sBCMA level into the Second Revised International Staging System (R2-ISS). Our findings provide evidence that the novel chemiluminescence method is sensitive and practical for measuring sBCMA levels in clinical samples and confirm that sBCMA might serve as an independent prognostic biomarker for MM.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731853

RESUMEN

Claudins are a family of 27 proteins that have an important role in the formation of tight junctions. They also have an important function in ion exchange, cell mobility, and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, the latter being very important in cancer invasion and metastasis. Therapeutic targeting of claudins has been investigated to improve cancer outcomes. Recent evidence shows improved outcomes when combining monoclonal antibodies against claudin 18.2 with chemotherapy for patients with gastroesophageal junction cancer. Currently, chimeric antigen receptor T-cells targeting claudin 18 are under investigation. In this review, we will discuss the major functions of claudins, their distribution in the normal as well as cancerous tissues, and their effect in cancer metastasis, with a special focus on the therapeutic targeting of claudins to improve cancer outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Claudinas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Claudinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patología , Animales , Transición Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Terapia Molecular Dirigida/métodos , Uniones Estrechas/metabolismo
6.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 163: 132-142, 2024 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733703

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) is common after chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the impact of preinfusion electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities and EEG findings at ICANS onset for predicting ICANS risk and severity in 56 adult patients with refractory lymphoma undergoing CAR-T therapy. STUDY DESIGN: EEGs were conducted at the time of lymphodepleting chemotherapy and shortly after onset of ICANS. RESULTS: Twenty-eight (50%) patients developed ICANS at a median time of 6 days after CAR-T infusion. Abnormal preinfusion EEG was identified as a risk factor for severe ICANS (50% vs. 17%, P = 0.036). Following ICANS onset, EEG abnormalities were detected in 89% of patients [encephalopathy (n = 19, 70%) and/or interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) (n = 14, 52%)]. Importantly, IEDs seemed to be associated with rapid progression to higher grades of ICANS within 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: If confirmed in a large cohort of patients, these findings could establish the basis for modifying current management guidelines, enabling the identification of patients at risk of neurotoxicity, and providing support for preemptive corticosteroid use in patients with both initial grade 1 ICANS and IEDs at neurotoxicity onset, who are at risk of neurological impairment.

7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 134: 112043, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733817

RESUMEN

Multiple myeloma (MM), a malignancy of plasma cells, is an incurable disease that is characterized by the neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells leading to extensive skeletal destruction. This includes osteolytic lesions, osteopenia, and pathologic fractures. MM is clinically manifested through bone pain, renal insufficiency, hypercalcemia, anemia, and recurrent infections. Its prevalence and the need for effective treatment underscore the importance of this research. Recent advancements in MM therapy have been significant, particularly with the integration of daratumumab into first-line treatments. The use of daratumumab in regimens such as DRD (Daratumumab, Revlimid, Dexamethasone) and D-RVd (Daratumumab, Lenalidomide, Bortezomib, Dexamethasone) represents a paradigm shift in the treatment landscape. GRIFFIN and CASSIOPEIA trials have highlighted the efficacy of these regimens, particularly in prolonging progression-free survival and deepening patient responses. The shift from older regimens like MPV (Melphalan, Prednisone, Velcade) to more effective ones like DRD and RVD has been pivotal in treatment strategies. This review also focuses on the potential of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell therapy and bispecific antibodies in MM. CAR-T therapy, which has shown success in other hematological malignancies, is being explored for its ability to specifically target MM cells. The latest clinical trials and research findings are analyzed to evaluate the efficacy and challenges of CAR-T therapy in MM. Additionally, the role of bispecific antibodies, which are designed to bind both cancer cells and T cells, is explored. These antibodies offer a unique mechanism that could complement the effects of CAR-T therapy.

8.
Biomark Res ; 12(1): 50, 2024 May 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735945

RESUMEN

Cell- and antibody-based CD19-directed therapies have demonstrated great potential for treating B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). However, all these approaches suffer from limited response rates and considerable toxicity. Until now, therapy decisions have been routinely based on histopathological CD19 staining of a single lesion at initial diagnosis or relapse, disregarding heterogeneity and temporal alterations in antigen expression. To visualize in vivo CD19 expression noninvasively, we radiolabeled anti-human CD19 monoclonal antibodies with copper-64 (64Cu-αCD19) for positron emission tomography (CD19-immunoPET). 64Cu-αCD19 specifically bound to subcutaneous Daudi xenograft mouse models in vivo. Importantly, 64Cu-αCD19 did not affect the anti-lymphoma cytotoxicity of CD19 CAR-T cells in vitro. Following our preclinical validation, 64Cu-αCD19 was injected into four patients with follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or mantle zone lymphoma. We observed varying 64Cu-αCD19 PET uptake patterns at different lymphoma sites, both within and among patients, correlating with ex vivo immunohistochemical CD19 expression. Moreover, one patient exhibited enhanced uptake in the spleen compared to that in patients with prior B-cell-depleting therapy, indicating that 64Cu-αCD19 is applicable for identifying B-cell-rich organs. In conclusion, we demonstrated the specific targeting and visualization of CD19+ B-NHL in mice and humans by CD19-immunoPET. The intra- and interindividual heterogeneous 64Cu-αCD19 uptake patterns of lymphoma lesions indicate variability in CD19 expression, suggesting the potential of CD19-immunoPET as a novel tool to guide CD19-directed therapies.

9.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1378723, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706551

RESUMEN

Background: Strengthening the construction of community resilience and reducing disaster impacts are on the agenda of the Chinese government. The COVID-19 pandemic could alter the existing community resilience. This study aims to explore the dynamic change trends of community resilience in China and analyze the primary influencing factors of community resilience in the context of COVID-19, as well as construct Community Resilience Governance System Framework in China. Methods: A community advancing resilience toolkit (CART) was used to conduct surveys in Guangdong, Sichuan, and Heilongjiang provinces in China in 2015 and 2022, with community resilience data and information on disaster risk awareness and disaster risk reduction behaviors of residents collected. The qualitative (in-depth interview) data from staffs of government agencies and communities (n = 15) were pooled to explore Community Resilience Governance System Framework in China. Descriptive statistics analysis and t-tests were used to investigate the dynamic development of community resilience in China. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the main influencing factors of residential community resilience with such socio-demographic characteristics as gender and age being controlled. Results: The results indicate that community resilience in China has improved significantly, presenting differences with statistical significance (p < 0.05). In 2015, connection and caring achieved the highest score, while disaster management achieved the highest score in 2022, with resources and transformative potential ranking the lowest in their scores in both years. Generally, residents presented a high awareness of disaster risks. However, only a small proportion of residents that were surveyed had participated in any "community-organized epidemic prevention and control voluntary services" (34.9%). Analysis shows that core influencing factors of community resilience include: High sensitivity towards major epidemic-related information, particular attention to various kinds of epidemic prevention and control warning messages, participation in epidemic prevention and control voluntary services, and formulation of epidemic response plans. In this study, we have constructed Community Resilience Governance System Framework in China, which included community resilience risk awareness, community resilience governance bodies, community resilience mechanisms and systems. Conclusion: During the pandemic, community resilience in China underwent significant changes. However, community capital was, is, and will be a weak link to community resilience. It is suggested that multi-stages assessments of dynamic change trends of community resilience should be further performed to analyze acting points and core influencing factors of community resilience establishment at different stages.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Resiliencia Psicológica , Humanos , China/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Masculino , Femenino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias
10.
Biol Chem ; 2024 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38766710

RESUMEN

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy has led to remarkable clinical outcomes in the treatment of hematological malignancies. However, challenges remain, such as limited infiltration into solid tumors, inadequate persistence, systemic toxicities, and manufacturing insufficiencies. The use of alternative cell sources for CAR-based therapies, such as natural killer cells (NK), macrophages (MΦ), invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells, γδT cells, neutrophils, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), has emerged as a promising avenue. By harnessing these cells' inherent cytotoxic mechanisms and incorporating CAR technology, common CAR-T cell-related limitations can be effectively mitigated. We herein present an overview of the tumoricidal mechanisms, CAR designs, and manufacturing processes of CAR-NK cells, CAR-MΦ, CAR-iNKT cells, CAR-γδT cells, CAR-neutrophils, and iPSC-derived CAR-cells, outlining the advantages, limitations, and potential solutions of these therapeutic strategies.

12.
Pharmacol Res ; 204: 107221, 2024 May 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768669

RESUMEN

Based on the concept of "Evolutionary Traps", targeting survival essential genes obtained during tumor drug resistance can effectively eliminate resistant cells. While, it still faces limitations. In this study, lapatinib-resistant cells were used to test the concept of "Evolutionary Traps" and no suitable target stand out because of the identified genes without accessible drug. However, a membrane protein PDPN, which is low or non-expressed in normal tissues, is identified as highly expressed in lapatinib-resistant tumor cells. PDPN CAR-T cells were developed and showed high cytotoxicity against lapatinib-resistant tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that CAR-T may be a feasible route for overcoming drug resistance of tumor based on "Evolutionary Trap". To test whether this concept is cell line or drug dependent, we analyzed 21 drug-resistant tumor cell expression profiles reveal that JAG1, GPC3, and L1CAM, which are suitable targets for CAR-T treatment, are significantly upregulated in various drug-resistant tumor cells. Our findings shed light on the feasibility of utilizing CAR-T therapy to treat drug-resistant tumors and broaden the concept of the "Evolutionary Trap".

13.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 25(1): 197, 2024 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769505

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: CAR-T cell therapy represents a novel approach for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. However, its implementation is accompanied by the emergence of potentially life-threatening adverse events known as cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Given the escalating number of patients undergoing CAR-T therapy, there is an urgent need to develop predictive models for severe CRS occurrence to prevent it in advance. Currently, all existing models are based on decision trees whose accuracy is far from meeting our expectations, and there is a lack of deep learning models to predict the occurrence of severe CRS more accurately. RESULTS: We propose PrCRS, a deep learning prediction model based on U-net and Transformer. Given the limited data available for CAR-T patients, we employ transfer learning using data from COVID-19 patients. The comprehensive evaluation demonstrates the superiority of the PrCRS model over other state-of-the-art methods for predicting CRS occurrence. We propose six models to forecast the probability of severe CRS for patients with one, two, and three days in advance. Additionally, we present a strategy to convert the model's output into actual probabilities of severe CRS and provide corresponding predictions. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, PrCRS effectively predicts both the likelihood and timing of severe CRS in patients, thereby facilitating expedited and precise patient assessment, thus making a significant contribution to medical research. There is little research on applying deep learning algorithms to predict CRS, and our study fills this gap. This makes our research more novel and significant. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/wzy38828201/PrCRS . The website of our prediction platform is: http://prediction.unicar-therapy.com/index-en.html .


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas , Aprendizaje Profundo , Inmunoterapia Adoptiva , Humanos , COVID-19/terapia , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/terapia , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/etiología , Inmunoterapia Adoptiva/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Neoplasias/terapia
14.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 43(1): 147, 2024 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769583

RESUMEN

A century ago, the Warburg effect was first proposed, revealing that cancer cells predominantly rely on glycolysis during the process of tumorigenesis, even in the presence of abundant oxygen, shifting the main pathway of energy metabolism from the tricarboxylic acid cycle to aerobic glycolysis. Recent studies have unveiled the dynamic transfer of mitochondria within the tumor microenvironment, not only between tumor cells but also between tumor cells and stromal cells, immune cells, and others. In this review, we explore the pathways and mechanisms of mitochondrial transfer within the tumor microenvironment, as well as how these transfer activities promote tumor aggressiveness, chemotherapy resistance, and immune evasion. Further, we discuss the research progress and potential clinical significance targeting these phenomena. We also highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting intercellular mitochondrial transfer as a future anti-cancer strategy and enhancing cell-mediated immunotherapy.


Asunto(s)
Mitocondrias , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Neoplasias/patología , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Animales , Nanotubos
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732213

RESUMEN

Multiple myeloma (MM), the second most common hematologic malignancy, remains incurable, and its incidence is rising. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell (CAR-T cell) therapy has emerged as a novel treatment, with the potential to improve the survival and quality of life of patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (rrMM). In this systematic review and meta-analysis, conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, we aim to provide a concise overview of the latest developments in CAR-T therapy, assess their potential implications for clinical practice, and evaluate their efficacy and safety outcomes based on the most up-to-date evidence. A literature search conducted from 1 January 2019 to 12 July 2023 on Medline/PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science identified 2273 articles, of which 29 fulfilled the specified criteria for inclusion. Our results offer robust evidence supporting CAR-T cell therapy's efficacy in rrMM patients, with an encouraging 83.21% overall response rate (ORR). A generally safe profile was observed, with grade ≥ 3 cytokine release syndrome (CRS) at 7.12% and grade ≥ 3 neurotoxicity at 1.37%. A subgroup analysis revealed a significantly increased ORR in patients with fewer antimyeloma regimens, while grade ≥ 3 CRS was more common in those with a higher proportion of high-risk cytogenetics and prior exposure to BCMA therapy.


Asunto(s)
Inmunoterapia Adoptiva , Mieloma Múltiple , Receptores Quiméricos de Antígenos , Mieloma Múltiple/terapia , Mieloma Múltiple/inmunología , Humanos , Inmunoterapia Adoptiva/efectos adversos , Inmunoterapia Adoptiva/métodos , Receptores Quiméricos de Antígenos/inmunología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Calidad de Vida , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/etiología
16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 16(9)2024 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730674

RESUMEN

(1) Background: The combination of CAR-T with ASCT has been observed to enhance the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy. However, the impact of this combination on adverse reactions is still uncertain. (2) Methods: Between January 2019 and February 2023, 292 patients diagnosed with r/r B-cell lymphoma received either CAR-T therapy alone or in combination with ASCT at our institution. We evaluated the incidence of CRS and CRES and utilized a logistic regression model to identify factors contributing to severe CRS (grade 3-4) and CRES (grade 3-4). (3) Results: The overall incidence of CRS and CRES was 78.9% and 8.2% in 147 patients receiving CAR-T alone, and 95.9% and 15.2% in 145 patients receiving CAR-T combined with ASCT, respectively. The incidence of overall CRS (p < 0.0001) and mild CRS (grade 1-2) (p = 0.021) was elevated in the ASCT combined with CAR-T group. No significant difference was observed in severe CRS and CRES between the groups. Among the 26 cases of lymphoma involving the central nervous system (CNS), 96.2% (25/26) developed CRS (15.4% grade 3-4), and 34.6% (9/26) manifested CRES (7.7% grade 3-4). Female patients had a lower incidence of severe CRS but a higher incidence of severe CRES. Lymphomas with CNS involvement demonstrated a higher risk of CRES compared to those without central involvement. (4) Conclusions: The combination of ASCT with CAR-T demonstrated a preferable option in r/r B-cell lymphoma without an increased incidence of severe CRS and CRES.

17.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1380451, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38765003

RESUMEN

Corticosteroid therapy is the mainstay of immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) management, although its use has been associated with worse overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) after chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T cell) therapy. Many options are being investigated for prophylaxis and management. Accumulating evidence supports the use of intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy for the management of high-grade ICANS. Here, we describe a case of a patient with stage IV Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) successfully treated with IT methotrexate, cytarabine, and dexamethasone as first-line therapy for CD19 CAR-T cell-associated grade IV ICANS. The stable and rapid resolution of ICANS to grade 0 allowed us to discontinue systemic corticosteroid use, avoiding CAR-T cells ablation and ensuring preservation of CAR-T cell function. The described patient achieved a complete radiologic and clinical response to CD19 CAR-T cell therapy and remains disease-free after 9 months. This case demonstrates a promising example of how IT chemotherapy could be used as first-line treatment for the management of high-grade ICANS.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Citarabina , Dexametasona , Inyecciones Espinales , Metotrexato , Humanos , Dexametasona/administración & dosificación , Dexametasona/uso terapéutico , Metotrexato/administración & dosificación , Metotrexato/uso terapéutico , Citarabina/administración & dosificación , Citarabina/uso terapéutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Masculino , Síndromes de Neurotoxicidad/etiología , Síndromes de Neurotoxicidad/diagnóstico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Resultado del Tratamiento , Inmunoterapia Adoptiva/efectos adversos , Linfoma de Células B/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino
18.
Mater Today Bio ; 26: 101077, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38765247

RESUMEN

Glioblastoma (GBM) presents a significant therapeutic challenge due to the limited efficacy of existing treatments. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy offers promise, but its potential in solid tumors like GBM is undermined by the physical barrier posed by the extracellular matrix (ECM). To address the inadequacies of traditional 2D cell culture, animal models, and Matrigel-based 3D culture in mimicking the mechanical characteristics of tumor tissues, we employed biomaterials and digital light processing-based 3D bioprinting to fabricate biomimetic tumor models with finely tunable ECM stiffness independent of ECM composition. Our results demonstrated that increased material stiffness markedly impeded CAR-T cell penetration and tumor cell cytotoxicity in GBM models. The 3D bioprinted models enabled us to examine the influence of ECM stiffness on CAR-T cell therapy effectiveness, providing a clinically pertinent evaluation tool for CAR-T cell development in stiff solid tumors. Furthermore, we developed an innovative heat-inducible CAR-T cell therapy, effectively overcoming the challenges posed by the stiff tumor microenvironment.

19.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 482, 2024 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773607

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cellular immunotherapy, represented by the chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T), has exhibited high response rates, durable remission, and safety in vitro and in clinical trials. Unfortunately, anti-CD19 CAR-T (CART-19) treatment alone is prone to relapse and has a particularly poor prognosis in relapsed/refractory (r/r) B-ALL patients. To date, addressing or reducing relapse remains one of the research priorities to achieve broad clinical application. METHODS: We manufactured second generation CART-19 cells and validated their efficacy and safety in vitro and in vivo. Through co-culture of Nalm-6 cells with short-term cultured CART-19 cells, CD19-negative Nalm-6 cells were detected by flow cytometry, and further investigation of the relapsed cells and their resistance mechanisms was evaluated in vitro. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrated that CART-19 cells had enhanced and specific antileukemic activities, and the survival of B-ALL mouse models after CART-19 treatment was significantly prolonged. We then shortened the culture time and applied the serum-free culture to expand CAR-T cells, followed by co-culturing CART-19 cells with Nalm-6 cells. Surprisingly, we observed the proliferation of CD19-negative Nalm-6 cells around 28 days. Identification of potential resistance mechanisms showed that the relapsed cells express truncated CD19 proteins with decreased levels and, more importantly, CAR expression was detected on the relapsed cell surface, which may ultimately keep them antigen-negative. Furthermore, it was validated that CART-22 and tandem CART-22/19 cells could effectively kill the relapsed cells, but neither could completely eradicate them. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully generated CART-19 cells and obtained a CD19-negative refractory relapsed B-ALL cell line, providing new insights into the underlying mechanisms of resistance and a new in vitro model for the treatment of r/r B-ALL patients with low antigen density.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos CD19 , Receptores Quiméricos de Antígenos , Antígenos CD19/metabolismo , Antígenos CD19/inmunología , Animales , Humanos , Receptores Quiméricos de Antígenos/metabolismo , Receptores Quiméricos de Antígenos/inmunología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Inmunoterapia Adoptiva/métodos , Resistencia a Antineoplásicos , Ratones , Técnicas de Cocultivo , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/terapia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/inmunología
20.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2400969, 2024 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774947

RESUMEN

Novel active DNA transposons, such as Spy transposons from the PHIS superfamily, are identified through bioinformatics in this study. The native transposases cgSpy and cvSpy displayed transposition activities of approximately 85% and 35% compared to the hyperactive piggyBac transposase (hyPB). The cgSpy transposon showed unique characteristics, including a lack of overproduction inhibition and reduced efficiency for insertion sizes between 3.1 to 8.5 kb. Integration preferences of cgSpy are found in genes and regulatory regions, making it suitable for genetic manipulation. Evaluation in T-cell engineering demonstrated that cgSpy-mediated chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modification is comparable to the PB system, indicating its potential utility in cell therapy. This study unveils the promising application of the active native transposase, Spy, from Colletes gigas, as a valuable tool for genetic engineering, particularly in T-cell manipulation.

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