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1.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 323-334, May-Sep, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-232725

RESUMEN

Las percepciones de olvidos recurrentes o episodios de distracción en la vida diaria se denominan quejas subjetivas de memoria (QSM). Su naturaleza se ha estudiado ampliamente en adultos mayores, pero su importancia y relación con el rendimiento neurocognitivo no se han abordado por completo en adultos más jóvenes. Se han sugerido algunos rasgos psicológicos como posibles moderadores de la asociación entre el rendimiento de la memoria objetiva y subjetiva. El primer objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la correspondencia entre la percepción objetiva y subjetiva de los fallos de memoria en jóvenes. En segundo lugar, estudiamos si el rasgo psicológico del neuroticismo podría estar influyendo en esta relación. Para ello, medimos QSM, diferentes dominios cognitivos (memoria episódica y de trabajo y funciones ejecutivas) y neuroticismo en 80 hombres y mujeres jóvenes. Los resultados mostraron que solo la memoria episódica inmediata estaba estadísticamente relacionada con los QSM. Curiosamente, las relaciones negativas entre el rendimiento de la memoria objetiva y subjetiva solo aparecieron en participantes con mayor neuroticismo. Por lo tanto, las quejas de memoria reportadas por los jóvenes podrían reflejar un peor rendimiento de la memoria episódica inmediata, mientras que el neuroticismo jugaría un papel principal en la asociación entre los déficits de memoria y las QSM. Este estudio proporciona datos que pueden ayudar a comprender mejor las QSM en los jóvenes.(AU)


Perceptions of recurrent forgetfulness or episodes of distraction in daily life are referred to as subjective memory complaints (SMCs). Their nature has been extensively studied in older adults, but their significance and relationship with neurocognitive performance have not been fully ad-dressed in younger adults. Some psychological traits have been suggested as possible moderators of the association between objective and subjective memory performance. The first aim of this study was to analyze the corre-spondence between the objective and subjective perception of memory failures in young people. Second, we studied whether the psychological trait of neuroticism could be influencing this relationship. Todo this, we measured SMCs, different cognitive domains (episodic and working memory and executive functions), and neuroticism in 80 young men and women. Results showed that only immediate episodic memory was statisti-cally related to SMCs. Interestingly, the negative relationships between ob-jective and subjective memory performance only appeared in participants with higher neuroticism. Thus, memory complaints reported by young people could reflect poorer immediate episodic memory performance, whereas neuroticism would play a main role in the association between memory deficits and SMCs. This study provides data that can help to bet-ter understand SMCs in young people.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Neuroticismo , Memoria Episódica , Cognición , Trastornos Neurocognitivos , Memoria
2.
Eval Health Prof ; : 1632787241253021, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726475

RESUMEN

Cognitive deficits play an important role in Bipolar Disorder (BPD). The Cognitive Problems and Strategies Assessment (CPSA) is a measure that evaluates the patient's perception of cognitive difficulties, and the spontaneous use of compensatory strategies and could thus have potential utility for clinical practice in patients with BPD. Our aim was to determine the validity and reliability of the Cognitive Problems and Strategies Assessment (CPSA) in Bipolar Disorder (BPD). Ninety-three BPD outpatients and 90 controls completed the Assessment of Problems with Thinking and Memory (APTM) questionnaire and the Assessment of Memory and Thinking Strategies (AMTS) questionnaire which constitute the CPSA, the Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA), as a measure of convergent validity, and general sociodemographic data. Cronbach's alpha coefficient, Spearman's correlation coefficient and independent sample t tests were used for Internal consistency, Convergent validity and Discriminant validity. The APTM had a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.93 and the AMTS 0.90. The COBRA score and the APTM were significantly correlated. BPD patients exhibited higher scores on the APTM and lower scores on the AMTS than controls. The present instrument enriches the clinician's repertoire for rapid and inexpensive cognitive evaluation in BPD.

3.
J Egypt Public Health Assoc ; 99(1): 10, 2024 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744733

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a significant workplace problem leading to loss of productivity and disability. Administrative workers perform computer-based tasks for long periods. Consequently, they are at risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the frequency and risk factors of work-related musculoskeletal complaints and their impact on work productivity among administrative employees of Suez Canal University, Egypt. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 administrative employees through simple random sampling. Data were collected by an interview questionnaire including sociodemographic, work-related data, ergonomic and psychological risk factors, the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ), and the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ). RESULTS: The frequency of work-related musculoskeletal complaints in at least one anatomical region over the past year was 74.7%. Neck (47.1%), lower back (40.7%), and shoulder (36.3%) were the most reported sites of complaints. Risk factors significantly associated with work-related musculoskeletal complaints were gender, age, physical activity, work experience, workplace stress, sustained body position, awkward posture, and inadequate rest breaks. Logistic regression revealed that older age (OR = 1.039, p = 0.023), being female (OR = 2.175, p = 0.011), and not having adequate rest breaks (OR = 1.979, p = 0.019) were significant predictors for the occurrence of WMSDs. The risk factors of absenteeism include gender, age, marital status, educational level, physical activity, BMI, work experience, and musculoskeletal complaints. CONCLUSION: Musculoskeletal problems were highly prevalent among administrative employees. Being female and not having adequate rest breaks were significant predictors for the occurrence of WMSDs. Ergonomic interventions and improvement of working conditions are recommended to reduce WMSDs.

4.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 11(3): 632-638, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706279

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Relationships of fish-shellfish consumption, cognitive health and mortality from Alzheimer's disease (AD) among US adults aged 60 years and older have not been adequately studied. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship of fish-shellfish consumption, cognitive health and mortality from AD in US adults aged 60 years and older. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The data of this cross-sectional study of US adults aged 60 years and older were from the National Nutrition and Health Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. Frequency of fish-shellfish consumption, its association with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and AD mortality of these participants between 1999 and 2018 and cognitive assessment scores between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: US adults aged 60 years and older consumed fish-shellfish 1.2 times/week and had a blood Hg of 1.63 ug/L on average between 1999 and 2018. Participants aged 60 years and older in the highest quartile of fish-shellfish consumption (~3 times/week) had significantly higher cognitive assessment scores than those in the lowest quartile (rare or no fish-shellfish consumption). Adults in the highest quartile of fish-shellfish consumption had a 30% lower risk (odds ratio 0.7, 95%CI 0.57-0.87) of SCD, and 44% lower risk (hazard ratio 0.56, 95%CI 0.35-0.9) of AD mortality than those in the lowest quartile. CONCLUSION: Increased fish-shellfish consumption was associated with improved scores of cognitive assessment and reduced risks of SCD and AD mortality.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Encuestas Nutricionales , Mariscos , Humanos , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/mortalidad , Anciano , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Transversales , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Cognición/fisiología , Alimentos Marinos , Peces , Animales , Disfunción Cognitiva/mortalidad , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Dieta , Anciano de 80 o más Años
5.
Foot Ankle Surg ; 2024 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714452

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: A lateral ankle sprain is the most common musculoskeletal injury in the physically active population. However, it is unclear how the clinical condition evolves during the period after the injury and what proportion of patients develops chronic symptoms. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the evolution of patient-reported outcome measures after a first time lateral ankle sprain. METHODS: A prospective clinical study assessed the patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) of a consecutive group of 100 patients during 1 year after a first lateral ankle sprain. The Karlsson score and Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) were assessed at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 1 year. The Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT)-score was assessed at 6 months, 9 months and 1 year. The difference between the time points of all scores was analysed using the positive change over time (binomial test versus 50%) and the difference in score (signed rank test). The time to sustained excellent level was also assessed overall and in several subgroups: age, gender, degree of injury (2 or 3), avulsion fracture, use of crutches, use of cast. Differences between subgroups were assessed by a generalized log-rank test. RESULTS: All clinical scores demonstrated an improvement up to 12 months after the sprain. The median Karlsson score (interquartile range) improved from 62 (50-80) at 6 weeks to 90 (72-100) at 3 months, to 97 (82-100) at 6 months to 100 (90-100) at 9 months, to 100 (100-100) at 1 year. The analysis of positive change over time demonstrated a significant positive change (P-value <.0005) between all time points except between 6 weeks and 12 weeks when using the FAOS quality score. The difference in score demonstrated a significant change (P-value <.01) between all time points except between 36 weeks and 48 weeks when using the FAOS pain and FAOS sports score. Age and presence of an avulsion fracture were correlated with a slower recovery and worse results. At 1 year, in total 13 patients (13%) had a worse outcome corresponding to a Karlsson score < 81 or CAIT score < 24. CONCLUSION: The clinical condition after a first ankle sprain demonstrated a significant improvement in PROMs between the different time points in the first year. Twelve months after a first lateral ankle sprain 13% had a fair or poor outcome. Higher age and presence of an avulsion fracture were correlated with a slower recovery and worse results. This information is useful in clinical practice to predict further progression and inform patients. Moreover, it is valuable to improve treatment strategies. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II (prospective cohort study).

6.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 17: 1491-1504, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38617081

RESUMEN

Introduction: This study aims to identify the negative customer experiences reflected in complaints against diagnostic centers using data mining tools. Methods: Analyzing customer complaints from a consumer complaints website, the Apriori algorithm was employed to uncover frequent patterns and identify key areas of concern. The frequency and distribution of terms used in complaints were also analyzed, and word clouds were generated to visualize the findings. Results: The study revealed that major areas of unfavorable customer experience included delayed test reports, erroneous test results, difficulties scheduling appointments, staff incivility, subpar service, and medical negligence. Discussion: These findings and the proposed model can guide diagnostic centers in incorporating data mining tools for customer experience analysis, enabling managers to proactively address issues and view complaints as opportunities for service improvement rather than legal liabilities.

7.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 12(7)2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610211

RESUMEN

Background: The COVID-19 outbreak necessitated physical distancing, as part of secondary prevention, at a personal and professional level. Working from home (WFH) became increasingly important. In this study, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on physical and mental health is investigated, compared with pre-pandemic data, and with employees who WFH and are on-site. Methods: Data from the German Saxon longitudinal study population were used. Attitudes towards WFH as well as mental and physical health assessments during the COVID-19 pandemic were examined. Comparisons were made with corresponding pre-pandemic scores and between employees WFH and on-site in 2022. Results: In total, 319 participants with equal gender distribution were included. Of those, 86 worked from home stating better organizability of their work, more time for partnership, less stress, and greater work satisfaction. Compared to pre-pandemic data, the D-score, PHQ-4, G-Score, and PHQ-SSS-8 showed a significant increase. No difference in physical or mental health between employees WFH and on-site was observed. Conclusion: In general, COVID-19 restrictions had a negative impact on mental and physical health. Although WFH is well accepted, it did not show significant health benefits.

8.
Cureus ; 16(3): e56083, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618345

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND:  Early identification of patients at higher risk of death and hospital admission is an important problem in Emergency Departments (ED). Most triage scales were developed before current electronic healthcare records were developed. The implementation of a national Emergency Care Data Set (ECDS) allows for the standardised recording of presenting complaints and the use of Electronic Patient Records (EPR) offers the potential for automated triage. The mortality risk and need for hospital admission associated with the different presenting complaints in a standardised national data set has not been previously reported. This study aimed to quantify the risks of death and hospitalisation from presenting complaints. This would be valuable in developing automated triage tools and decision support software. METHODS: We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study on patients who visited a single ED in 2021. The presenting complaints related to subsequent attendances were excluded. This patient list was then manually matched with a routinely collected list of deaths. All deaths that occurred within 30 days of attendance were included. RESULTS: Data was collected from 84,999 patients, of which 1,159 people died within 30 days of attendance. The mortality rate was the highest in cardiac arrest [32 (78.1%)], cardiac arrest due to trauma [2(50%)] and respiratory arrest [3(50%)]. Drowsy [17(12%)], hypothermia [3(13%)] and cyanosis [1(10%)] were also high-risk categories. Chest pain [34(0.6%)] was not a high-risk presenting complaint. CONCLUSION: The initial presenting complaint in ECDS may be useful to identify people at higher and lower risk of death. This information is useful for building automated triage models.

9.
Int J Emerg Med ; 17(1): 55, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622511

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: For most acute conditions, the phase prior to emergency department (ED) arrival is largely unexplored. However, this prehospital phase has proven an important part of the acute care chain (ACC) for specific time-sensitive conditions, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. For patients with undifferentiated complaints, exploration of the prehospital phase of the ACC may also offer a window of opportunity for improvement of care. This study aims to explore the ACC of ED patients with undifferentiated complaints, with specific emphasis on time in ACC and patient experience. METHODS: This Dutch prospective observational study, included all adult (≥ 18 years) ED patients with undifferentiated complaints over a 4-week period. We investigated the patients' journey through the ACC, focusing on time in ACC and patient experience. Additionally, a multivariable linear regression analysis was employed to identify factors independently associated with time in ACC. RESULTS: Among the 286 ED patients with undifferentiated complaints, the median symptom duration prior to ED visit was 6 days (IQR 2-10), during which 58.6% of patients had contact with a healthcare provider before referral. General Practitioners (GPs) referred 80.4% of the patients, with the predominant patient journey (51.7%) involving GP referral followed by self-transportation to the ED. The median time in ACC was 5.5 (IQR 4.0-8.4) hours of which 40% was spent before the ED visit. GP referral and referral to pulmonology were associated with a longer time in ACC, while referral during evenings was associated with a shorter time in ACC. Patients scored both quality and duration of the provided care an 8/10. CONCLUSION: Dutch ED patients with undifferentiated complaints consulted a healthcare provider in over half of the cases before their ED visit. The median time in ACC is 5.5 h of which 40% is spent in the prehospital phase. Those referred by a GP and to pulmonology had a longer, and those in the evening a shorter time in ACC. The acute care journey starts hours before patients arrive at the ED and 6 days of complaints precede this journey. This timeframe could serve as a window of opportunity to optimise care.

10.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; : 1-9, 2024 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38647537

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Primary care physicians played an important role in the global response during the COVID-19 pandemic, but with the absence of laboratory and diagnostics services, the move to telehealth and the focus on respiratory assessment, they faced increased uncertainty when making clinical decisions. OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to examine the impact of the pandemic on decisions made by primary care physicians, as measured by referrals to chest X-ray and laboratory tests and by prescriptions of antibiotics. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of all visits recorded with fever or cough, presenting to 209 community clinics in Southern Israel during the years 2018-2022. We describe changes in outcome rates across time and use multivariate generalised linear mixed effects model to compare the odds of referrals and prescriptions between periods, while accounting for gender, age, clinic sector, visit type, diagnosis, and season. RESULTS: In total, 609,823 visits to primary care physicians complied with the cohort definitions. Social restrictions were associated with a decline in all measured outcomes for primary care physician decisions, most prominently among ages 20-59, for throat culture referral during the first lockdown (OR = 0.46) and for cephalosporine prescription during the second lockdown (OR = 0.55). This trend persisted following the cancellation of the restrictions. CONCLUSIONS: Despite higher uncertainty during the COVID-19 social restrictions, the overall course of clinical decision-making processes was maintained, and was associated with a reduction in the use of auxiliary resources, which can improve the quality of patient care by lowering costs and supporting prevention of future antibiotics resistance.

11.
J Adolesc ; 2024 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629903

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: There is a consensus that adolescents' participation in organized leisure-time activities (OLTAs) is pro-developmental and beneficial for youth mental health. While enjoyment in OLTA is commonly regarded as positive, the role of obligation in the context of adolescents' OLTA has been scarcely researched. The present study investigated how these theoretically contradictory experiences (enjoyment and/or obligation) in OLTA participation relate to adolescents' wellbeing and incidence of psychological complaints accounting for their possible co-occurrence. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 14,128 eleven-fifteen-year-old adolescents (49.7% girls) drawn from the Czech 2021/2022 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study was used. A series of multivariate regression analyses assessed how perceptions of obligation and enjoyment in OLTA related to wellbeing and occurrence of psychological complaints. A person-centered approach derived groups of respondents on the basis of their perceptions of obligation and enjoyment. RESULTS: Regression analyses, controlled for sociodemographic and family environment factors, and dimensions of OLTA participation, indicated that adolescents enjoying their OLTA displayed more favourable mental wellbeing reports. In contrast, perceptions of obligation were only weakly associated with more frequent psychological complaints and not at all with wellbeing, unless adolescents also reported the lack of enjoyment. CONCLUSIONS: Enjoyment in OLTA plays a pivotal role in the association between OLTA participation and mental health, whereas the role of obligation is far less pronounced. In fact, if adolescents do not enjoy their participation, but feel obliged to participate, their self-assessed mental wellbeing is comparable to their peers not participating in OLTA at all.

12.
J Health Monit ; 9(1): 23-41, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559687

RESUMEN

Background: Health literacy (HL) encompasses knowledge and skills for dealing critically and confidently with health information in individual and social contexts. Current studies show that a high proportion of children and adolescents have limited health literacy, depending on aspects of their social background. Health literacy is considered an important factor influencing health. Little is known about the development of health literacy over time and its connection with psychosomatic complaints in young people. Methods: Based on the results of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, this article focusses on the level of HL in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old students (N = 6,475) over time and taking social differences into account. Finally, the relationship between HL and psychosomatic complaints is analysed. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were carried out for this purpose. Results: At 24.4 %, slightly more students have low HL in 2022 than in 2017/18 (21.4 %). There are differences in HL according to gender, age, type of school, and family affluence. Low HL is associated with a high psychosomatic burden. Conclusions: The results highlight the need for target group-specific measures to promote young people's HL, which address individual and organisational aspects of HL.

13.
J Health Monit ; 9(1): 7-22, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559686

RESUMEN

Background: Subjective health and well-being are important health indicators in childhood and adolescence. This article shows current results and trends over time between 2009/10 and 2022. Methods: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study examined subjective health, life satisfaction and psychosomatic complaints of N = 21,788 students aged 11 to 15 years in the school years 2009/10, 2013/14, 2017/18 and in the calendar year 2022. Multivariate regression analyses show the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and well-being in 2022, as well as trends since 2009/10. Results: The majority of children and adolescents indicate a good subjective health and high life satisfaction. About half of the girls and one third of the boys report multiple psychosomatic health complaints, with a clear increase over time. Older adolescents, girls and gender diverse adolescents are at an increased risk of poor well-being. Subjective health and life satisfaction varied between 2009/10 and 2022, with a significant deterioration between 2017/18 and 2022. Conclusions: The high proportion of children and adolescents with psychosomatic complaints, as well as the observed gender and age differences, underline the need for target group-specific prevention, health promotion and continuous health monitoring.

14.
Life (Basel) ; 14(4)2024 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38672698

RESUMEN

Laparoscopic surgeons are at high risk of experiencing musculoskeletal discomfort, which is considered the result of long-lasting static and awkward body postures. We primarily aimed to evaluate whether passive and active work breaks can reduce ratings of perceived discomfort among laparoscopic surgeons compared with no work breaks. We secondarily aimed to examine potential differences in performance and workload across work break conditions and requested the surgeons evaluate working with passive or active work breaks. Following a balanced, randomized cross-over design, laparoscopic surgeons performed three 90 min laparoscopic simulations without and with 2.5 min passive or active work breaks after 30 min work blocks on separate days. The simulation included the following tasks: a hot wire, peg transfer, pick-and-place, pick-and-tighten, pick-and-thread, and pull-and-stick tasks. Ratings of perceived discomfort (CR10 Borg Scale), performance per subtask, and perceived workload (NASA-TLX) were recorded, and the break interventions were evaluated (self-developed questionnaire). Statistical analyses were performed on the rating of perceived discomfort and a selection of the performance outcomes. Twenty-one participants (9F) were included, with a mean age of 36.6 years (SD 9.7) and an average experience in laparoscopies of 8.5 years (SD 5.6). Ratings of perceived musculoskeletal discomfort slightly increased over time from a mean level of 0.1 to 0.9 but did not statistically significantly differ between conditions (p = 0.439). Performance outcomes of the hot wire and peg transfer tasks did not statistically significantly differ between conditions. The overall evaluation by the participants was slightly in favor regarding the duration and content of active breaks and showed a 65% likelihood of implementing them on their own initiative in ≥90 min-lasting laparoscopic surgeries, compared with passive breaks. Both passive and active breaks did not statistically significantly influence ratings of perceived discomfort or perceived workload in a 90 min simulation of laparoscopic surgery, with an overall low mean level of perceived discomfort of 0.9 (SD 1.4). As work breaks do not lead to performance losses, rest breaks should be tested in real-life situations across a complete working shift, where perceived discomfort may differ from this laboratory situation. However, in this respect, it is crucial to investigate the acceptance and practicality of intraoperative work breaks in feasibility studies in advance of assessing their effectiveness in follow-up longitudinal trials.

15.
Neuropsychologia ; 199: 108887, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621578

RESUMEN

Robust and sensitive clinical measures are needed for more accurate and earlier detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD), for staging preclinical AD, and for gauging the efficacy of treatments. Mild impairment on episodic memory tests is thought to indicate a cognitive risk of developing AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), considered to be a transitional stage between normal aging and AD. Novel tests of semantic memory, such as memory for news events, are also impaired early on but have received little clinical attention even though they may provide a novel way to assess cognitive risk for AD. We examined memory for news events in older adults with normal cognition (NC, N = 34), amnestic MCI (aMCI, N = 27), or non-aMCI (N = 10) using the Retrograde Memory News Events Test (RM-NET). We asked if news event memory was sensitive to 1) aMCI and also non-aMCI, which has rarely been examined, 2) genetic risk for dementia (positive family history of any type of dementia, presence of an APOE-4 allele, or polygenic risk for AD), and 3) subjective memory functioning judgments about the past. We found that both MCI subgroups exhibited impaired RM-NET Lifespan accuracy scores together with temporally-limited retrograde amnesia. For the aMCI group amnesia extended back 45 years prior to testing, but not beyond that time frame. The extent of retrograde amnesia could not be reliably estimated in the small non-aMCI group. The effect sizes of having MCI on the RM-NET were medium for the non-aMCI group and large for the aMCI group, whereas the effect sizes of participant characteristics on RM-NET accuracy scores were small. For the combined MCI group (N = 37), news event memory was significantly related to positive family history of dementia but was not related to the more specific genetic markers of AD risk. For the NC group, news event memory was not related to any measure of genetic risk. Objective measures of past memory from the RM-NET were not related to subjective memory judgements about the present or the recent past in either group. By contrast, when individuals subjectively compared their present versus past memory abilities, there was a significant association between this judgment and objective measures of the past from the RM-NET (direct association for the NC group and inverse for the MCI group). The RM-NET holds significant promise for early identification of those with cognitive and genetic risk factors for AD and non-AD dementias.

16.
Ital J Pediatr ; 50(1): 86, 2024 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38659045

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To date, the etiology and risk factors of torticollis are still poorly defined in the pediatric literature. Especially in the Emergency Department (ED) scenario, it is critical to reliably distinguish benign and transient conditions from (potentially) life-threatening disorders. This study describes the clinical characteristics of a large sample of children with torticollis. The aim of our study was to detect epidemiology, etiology and predictive variables associated with a higher risk of life-threatening conditions in acute torticollis. METHODS: We conducted a pediatric retrospective study of acute torticollis over a 13-year period referred to the ED of a tertiary pediatric Hospital. We reported the characteristics in the overall sample and in two subgroups divided according to urgency of the underlying condition. Furthermore, we developed a multivariate model aimed at identifying the main clinical predictors of the need for urgent care. RESULTS: 1409 patients were analyzed (median age 5.7 years, IQR 5.8). A history of trauma was present in 393 patients (27.9%). The symptom most frequently associated with torticollis were pain (83.5%). At least one pathological finding was found in 5.4 to 7.9% of patients undergoing further imaging. Hospitalization was required in 11.1% of cases (median duration 4 days). The most frequent etiologies of torticollis were postural cause (43.1%), traumatic (29.5%), and infective/inflammatory (19.1%). A longer time from onset of torticollis and the presence of headache or vomiting were strongly correlated with an underlying urgent condition, after adjusting for the other clinically and statistically significant variables in the bivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that an urgent condition most commonly occur in patients presenting with history of trauma or headache, vomiting and torticollis for more than 24 h should undergo further diagnostic evaluation and short-term follow-up, restricting invasive or expensive investigations to patients with clinical suspicion of an underlying harmful condition.


Asunto(s)
Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Tortícolis , Humanos , Tortícolis/epidemiología , Tortícolis/etiología , Tortícolis/diagnóstico , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Preescolar , Niño , Factores de Riesgo , Lactante , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente
17.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604939

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment (CI) is common among older patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). The failure to recognize CI at ED presentation constitutes a high risk of additional morbidity, mortality, and functional decline. The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a well-established cognitive screening test. AIM: In patients presenting to the ED with non-specific complaints (NSCs), we aimed to investigate the usability of the CDT and its prognostic value regarding length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality. METHOD: Secondary analysis of the Basel Non-specific Complaints (BANC) trial, a prospective delayed type cross-sectional study with a 30-day follow-up. In three EDs, patients presenting with NSCs were enrolled. The CDT was administered at enrollment. RESULTS: In the 1,278 patients enrolled, median age was 81 [74, 87] years and 782 were female (61.19%). A valid CDT was obtained in 737 (57.7%) patients. In patients without a valid CDT median LOS was higher (29 [9, 49] days vs. 22 [9, 45] days), and 30-day mortality was significantly higher than in patients with a valid CDT (n = 45 (8.32%) vs. n = 39 (5.29%)). Of all valid CDTs, 154 clocks (20.9%) were classified as normal, 55 (7.5%) as mildly deficient, 297 (40.3%) as moderately deficient, and 231 (31.3%) as severely deficient. Mortality and LOS increased along with the CDT deficits (p = 0.012 for 30-day mortality; p < 0.001 for LOS). CONCLUSION: The early identification of patients with CI may lead to improved patient management and resource allocation. The CDT could be used as a risk stratification tool for older ED patients presenting with NSCs, as it is a predictor for 30-day mortality and LOS.

18.
Syst Rev ; 13(1): 104, 2024 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594759

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is uncertain if patient's characteristics are associated with complaints and claims against doctors. Additionally, evidence for the effectiveness of remedial interventions on rates of complaints and claims against doctors has not been synthesised. METHODS: We conducted a rapid review of recent literature to answer: Question 1 "What are the common characteristics and circumstances of patients who are most likely to complain or bring a claim about the care they have received from a doctor?" and Question 2 "What initiatives or interventions have been shown to be effective at reducing complaints and claims about the care patients have received from a doctor?". We used a systematic search (most recently in July 2023) of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and grey literature. Studies were screened against inclusion criteria and critically appraised in duplicate using standard tools. Results were summarised using narrative synthesis. RESULTS: From 8079 search results, we reviewed the full text of 250 studies. We included 25 studies: seven for Question 1 (6 comparative studies with controls and one systematic review) and 18 studies for Question 2 (14 uncontrolled pre-post studies, 2 comparative studies with controls and 2 systematic reviews). Most studies were set in hospitals across a mix of medical specialties. Other than for patients with mental health conditions (two studies), no other patient characteristics demonstrated either a strong or consistent effect on the rate of complaints or claims against their treating doctors. Risk management programs (6 studies), and communication and resolution programs (5 studies) were the most studied of 6 intervention types. Evidence for reducing complaints and medico-legal claims, costs or premiums and more timely management was apparent for both types of programs. Only 1 to 3 studies were included for peer programs, medical remediation, shared decision-making, simulation training and continuing professional development, with few generalisable results. CONCLUSION: Few patient characteristics can be reliably related to the likelihood of medico-legal complaints or claims. There is some evidence that interventions can reduce the number and costs of claims, the number of complaints, and the timeliness of claims. However, across both questions, the strength of the evidence is very weak and is based on only a few studies or study designs that are highly prone to bias.


Asunto(s)
Medicina , Médicos , Humanos , Comunicación
19.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1326412, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38686035

RESUMEN

Aging is characterized by substantial changes in sleep architecture that negatively impact fitness, quality of life, mood, and cognitive functioning. Older adults often fail to reach the recommended level of physical activity to prevent the age-related decline in sleep function, partly because of geographical barriers. Implementing home-based interventions could surmount these obstacles, thereby encouraging older adults to stay active, with videoconference administration emerging as a promising solution. Increasing the availability of biological rhythms synchronizers, such as physical activity, light exposure, or vestibular stimulation, represents a viable non-pharmacological strategy for entraining circadian rhythms and potentially fortifying the sleep-wake cycle, thereby enhancing sleep in aging. This study aims to (1) assess the impact of remote physical exercise training and its combination with bright light exposure, and (2) investigate the specific contribution of galvanic vestibular stimulation, to sleep quality among healthy older adults with sleep complaints. One hundred healthy older adults aged 60-70 years with sleep complaints will be randomly allocated to one of four groups: a physical exercise training group (n = 25), a physical exercise training combined with bright light exposure group (n = 25), a galvanic vestibular stimulation group (n = 25) or a control group (i.e., health education) (n = 25). While physical exercise training and health education will be supervised via videoconference at home, bright light exposure (for the physical exercise training combined with bright light exposure group) and vestibular stimulation will be self-administered at home. Pre-and post-tests will be conducted to evaluate various parameters, including sleep (polysomnography, subjective questionnaires), circadian rhythms (actigraphy, temperature), fitness (physical: VO2 peak, muscular function; and motor: balance, and functional mobility), cognition (executive function, long-term memory), quality of life and mood (anxiety and depression). The findings will be anticipated to inform the development of recommendations and non-pharmaceutical preventive strategies for enhancing sleep quality in older adults, potentially leading to improvements in fitness, cognition, quality of life, and mood throughout aging.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación por Videoconferencia , Humanos , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Femenino , Masculino , Ejercicio Físico , Calidad de Vida , Sueño/fisiología
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9773, 2024 04 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684725

RESUMEN

Adolescent psychosomatic complaints remain a public health issue globally. Studies suggest that cyberbullying victimisation, particularly on social media, could heighten the risk of psychosomatic complaints. However, the mechanisms underlying the associations between cyberbullying victimisation and psychosomatic complaints remain unclear. This cross-cultural study examines the mediating effect of problematic social media use (PSMU) on the association between cyberbullying victimisation and psychosomatic complaints among adolescents in high income countries. We analysed data on adolescents aged 11-16.5 years (weighted N = 142,298) in 35 countries participating in the 2018 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Path analysis using bootstrapping technique tested the hypothesised mediating role of PSMU. Results from the sequential binary mixed effects logit models showed that adolescents who were victims of cyberbullying were 2.39 times significantly more likely to report psychosomatic complaints than those who never experienced cyberbullying (AOR = 2.39; 95%CI = 2.29, 2.49). PSMU partially mediated the association between cyberbullying victimisation and psychosomatic complaints accounting for 12% ( ß  = 0.01162, 95%CI = 0.0110, 0.0120) of the total effect. Additional analysis revealed a moderation effect of PSMU on the association between cyberbullying victimisation and psychosomatic complaints. Our findings suggest that while cyberbullying victimisation substantially influences psychosomatic complaints, the association is partially explained by PSMU. Policy and public health interventions for cyberbullying-related psychosomatic complaints in adolescents should target safe social media use.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Ciberacoso , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Humanos , Adolescente , Ciberacoso/psicología , Masculino , Femenino , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos/epidemiología , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos/psicología , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos/etiología , Niño
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