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1.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100497], jul.-sept2024. graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-231871

RESUMEN

Purpose: To compare the eye defocus curves (DCs) obtained with stimuli on red, green, and white backgrounds and to investigate the applicability of the duochrome test (DT) in different age groups. Methods: 12 elderly (ELD: 59.3 ± 3.9 years) and 8 young (YG: 22.1 ± 1.1 years) subjects were recruited. An optometric assessment with the DT was carried out to obtain the subjective refraction at distance. DCs at distance on green, white, and red backgrounds were measured and the following parameters were deduced: dioptric difference between red-green, green-white, red-white focal positions (minima of the DCs), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and widths of the DCs for red, green, and white. Results: The DC difference between the green-white focal positions (mean ± standard deviation) was -0.12±0.17 diopters (D) (ELD, p = 0.012) and -0.11±0.12 D (YG, p = 0.039), while the red-white difference was not statistically significant. The DC red-green difference was 0.20±0.16 D (ELD, p = 0.002) and 0.18±0.18 D (YG, p = 0.008). The ELD BCVA with green background was significantly worse than BCVA with red (p = 0.007) and white (p = 0.007). The mean value of the DC's width in ELD for green (1.01±0.36 D) was higher than for red (0.77±0.21 D) and for white (0.84±0.35 D), but with no statistical significance. Conclusion: Both age groups showed a slight focusing preference for red when using white light. Moreover, ELD showed a worse BCVA with a green compared to a red background. Despite these results deduced by DC analyses, these aspects do not compromise the possibility of using the DT in clinical practice both in the young and in the elderly. Furthermore, the difference of about 0.20 D between red-green DC in both groups confirms the clinical appropriateness of the widespread use of 0.25 D step as the standard minimum difference in power between correcting lenses.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Anciano , Visión Ocular , Agudeza Visual , Fondo de Ojo , Lentes de Contacto , Pruebas de Visión
2.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(2): [100500], Abr-Jun, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-231624

RESUMEN

Purpose: Visual snow syndrome (VSS) is a complex neurological condition presenting with an array of sensory, motor, and perceptual dysfunctions and related visual and non-visual symptoms. Recent laboratory studies have found subtle, basic, saccadic-based abnormalities in this population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine if saccadic-related problems could be confirmed and extended using three common clinical reading-related eye movement tests having well-developed protocols and normative databases. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 32 patients (ages 16–56 years) diagnosed with VSS in the first author's optometric practice. There was a battery of three reading-related tests: the Visagraph Reading Eye Movement Test, the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test, and the RightEye Dynamic Vision Assessment Test, all performed using their standard documented protocols and large normative databases. Results: A high frequency of oculomotor deficits was found with all three tests. The greatest percentage was revealed with the Visagraph (56%) and the least with the RightEye (23%). A total of 77% of patients failed at least one of the three tests. Conclusion: The present findings confirm and extend earlier investigations revealing a high frequency of saccadic-based oculomotor problems in the VSS population, now including reading-related tasks. This is consistent with the more general oculomotor/motor problems found in these individuals.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Central/complicaciones , Visión Ocular , Oftalmoplejía , Optometría , Movimientos Oculares
3.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(2): [100501], Abr-Jun, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-231626

RESUMEN

Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of diagnosed dry eye syndrome, meibomian gland dysfunction, and blepharitis amongst the low vision population. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients seen in the University of Colorado Low Vision Rehabilitation Service between the dates of 12/1/2017 and 12/1/2022. 74 ICD-10 codes were used to identify patients as having dry eye syndrome or not having dry eye syndrome. Data was further analyzed to determine the prevalence of blepharitis and meibomian gland dysfunction using 29 blepharitis and 9 meibomian gland dysfunction ICD-10 codes. Data were also analyzed to determine the age and sex of the patients with diagnosed dry eye syndrome. Results: The percentage of patients with a diagnosis of dry eye syndrome by an eyecare provider was 38.02 %. The prevalence of dry eye syndrome by age group was 3.57 % for 0–19 years, 14.35 % for 20–39 years, 29.07 % for 40–59 years, 43.79 % for 60–79 years, and 46.21 % for 80 and above. The prevalence of meibomian gland dysfunction and blepharitis was 11.90 % and 9.1 % respectively. Dry eye syndrome prevalence amongst males was 31.59 % and 42.47 % for females. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that dry eye syndrome in the low vision population is a significant co-morbidity occurring in over a third of patients in the University of Colorado Low Vision Rehabilitation Service. These findings are meaningful as ocular comfort should not be overlooked while managing complex visual needs. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Síndromes de Ojo Seco , Blefaritis , Glándulas Tarsales , Rehabilitación , Oftalmólogos , Estados Unidos
4.
J Vitreoretin Dis ; 8(3): 263-269, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770070

RESUMEN

Purpose: To assess the severity, progression, and treatment burden of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients after bariatric surgery compared with controls. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed of patients with type 2 diabetes and DR seen at the Duke Eye Center between 2014 and 2023. Clinical data included hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), diagnostic stage of DR, diabetic macular edema (DME) or vitreous hemorrhage (VH), visual acuity (VA), and treatment burden at baseline and follow-up. Generalized estimating equation analysis was used to account for the correlation between 2 eyes of the same patient. Results: Sixteen patients who had bariatric surgery were matched by age, sex, and duration of diabetes with 60 control patients managed medically during the same time period. The HbA1c level, severity of DR, presence of DME or VH, VA, and treatment burden were not significantly different (all P > .05) at the baseline examination. On average, patients were followed for 6 years. The HbA1c level at the follow-up was significantly lower in the bariatric surgery group (6.4% vs 8.5%; P < .001). At the follow-up, the treatment burden was reduced in the bariatric surgery group compared with the control group (P = .04). There was a clear trend toward reduced progression of DR and treatment burden in the bariatric surgery group over the follow-up. Conclusions: Bariatric surgery may improve glycemic control, stabilize DR progression, and reduce the treatment burden, which may have a significant impact on quality of life for patients with DR.

5.
Front Psychol ; 15: 1354033, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770256

RESUMEN

Introduction: Infants born <31 weeks gestational age with birth weight ≤ 1,500 grams receive routine eye examinations to screen for Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) while in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) to help prevent vision threatening complications; however, preterm infants' sensory systems are underdeveloped, and repeated exposure to painful stimuli is associated with worse developmental outcomes. Methods: An interdisciplinary NICU team designed a collaborative eye exam model (CEEM) incorporating best practice recommendations for infant pain control during exams. Pain scores and vital signs were recorded before, during, and after exams. Two sets of mixed-effects regression models with a random intercept on infants were established to investigate relationships between the intervention, birth gestational age (BGA), postmenstrual age (PMA), and outcomes associated with painful stimuli. Survey feedback was elicited from NICU stakeholders about the CEEM. Results: Thirty standard of care (SC) and 35 CEEM exams of 37 infants were included in final analysis. In infants of the same BGA, the number of desaturation events was significantly reduced in the CEEM group (p = 0.003) and became 1.53 times smaller with each additional week of BGA (p = 0.009). Probability of heart rate recovery within 15 min lowered significantly in the CEEM group (p = 0.04). In SC or CEEM or between infants of the same PMA, no differences were observed for bradycardia, heart rate range, chance of heart rate recovery, or pain scores. Increases in tachycardia (p < 0.001) events and desaturations p = 0.006 were discovered in the CEEM group. When considering interaction effects, the CEEM appeared to reduce the number of desaturations to a greater degree for infants at earliest BGAs with attenuation of this effect with greater BGA. Regarding PMA, bradycardia and tachycardia events were reduced for infants across PMAs in the CEEM, but the effect for tachycardia improves with age, while the effect for bradycardia diminishes with age. Stakeholders agreed that the infant's eye exam experience and the staff experience was "very much" improved by the CEEM. Discussion: Despite variable findings in selected outcome measures, the CEEM was positively viewed by staff. Infants may benefit from the CEEM differently based on BGA and PMA.

6.
Cognition ; 249: 105765, 2024 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772254

RESUMEN

Regressions, or backward saccades, are common during reading, accounting for between 5% and 20% of all saccades. And yet, relatively little is known about what causes them. We provide an information-theoretic operationalization for two previous qualitative hypotheses about regressions, which we dub reactivation and reanalysis. We argue that these hypotheses make different predictions about the pointwise mutual information or pmi between a regression's source and target. Intuitively, the pmi between two words measures how much more (or less) likely one word is to be present given the other. On one hand, the reactivation hypothesis predicts that regressions occur between words that are associated, implying high positive values of pmi. On the other hand, the reanalysis hypothesis predicts that regressions should occur between words that are not associated with each other, implying negative, low values of pmi. As a second theoretical contribution, we expand on previous theories by considering not only pmi but also expected values of pmi, E[pmi], where the expectation is taken over all possible realizations of the regression's target. The rationale for this is that language processing involves making inferences under uncertainty, and readers may be uncertain about what they have read, especially if a previous word was skipped. To test both theories, we use contemporary language models to estimate pmi-based statistics over word pairs in three corpora of eye tracking data in English, as well as in six languages across three language families (Indo-European, Uralic, and Turkic). Our results are consistent across languages and models tested: Positive values of pmi and E[pmi] consistently help to predict the patterns of regressions during reading, whereas negative values of pmi and E[pmi] do not. Our information-theoretic interpretation increases the predictive scope of both theories and our studies present the first systematic crosslinguistic analysis of regressions in the literature. Our results support the reactivation hypothesis and, more broadly, they expand the number of language processing behaviors that can be linked to information-theoretic principles.

7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(5)2024 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772872

RESUMEN

Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare but potentially sight-threatening complication of corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) for keratoconus. In this report, we describe an early adolescent male who underwent routine CXL for progressive keratoconus in his left eye. Preprocedural left visual acuity (VA) was 6/9. At day 5 postprocedure, multifocal corneal infiltrates were identified. Corneal scrape, bandage contact lens cultures and herpetic and Acanthamoeba PCR were negative. In vivo, confocal microscopy (IVCM) identified Acanthamoeba cysts within the corneal stroma. Intensive amoebicidal therapy was initiated, but recovery was complicated by significant inflammation, resulting in widespread aggressive corneal vascularisation necessitating topical steroids and steroid-sparing agents. At 10 months, his left VA was 6/24. This report emphasises the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for AK in cases of post-CXL microbial keratitis and highlights the diagnostic value of IVCM, particularly in culture-negative and PCR-negative cases.


Asunto(s)
Queratitis por Acanthamoeba , Queratocono , Microscopía Confocal , Queratitis por Acanthamoeba/diagnóstico , Queratitis por Acanthamoeba/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Queratocono/tratamiento farmacológico , Queratocono/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Riboflavina/uso terapéutico , Colágeno , Fármacos Fotosensibilizantes/uso terapéutico , Reactivos de Enlaces Cruzados/uso terapéutico , Agudeza Visual , Córnea/parasitología , Córnea/patología , Acanthamoeba/aislamiento & purificación , Sustancia Propia/patología , Sustancia Propia/parasitología
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773022

RESUMEN

"Pavlovian" or "motivational" biases describe the phenomenon that the valence of prospective outcomes modulates action invigoration: Reward prospect invigorates action, whereas punishment prospect suppresses it. The adaptive role of these biases in decision-making is still unclear. One idea is that they constitute a fast-and-frugal decision strategy in situations characterized by high arousal, e.g., in presence of a predator, which demand a quick response. In this pre-registered study (N = 35), we tested whether such a situation-induced via subliminally presented angry versus neutral faces-leads to increased reliance on Pavlovian biases. We measured trial-by-trial arousal by tracking pupil diameter while participants performed an orthogonalized Motivational Go/NoGo Task. Pavlovian biases were present in responses, reaction times, and even gaze, with lower gaze dispersion under aversive cues reflecting "freezing of gaze." The subliminally presented faces did not affect responses, reaction times, or pupil diameter, suggesting that the arousal manipulation was ineffective. However, pupil dilations reflected facets of bias suppression, specifically the physical (but not cognitive) effort needed to overcome aversive inhibition: Particularly strong and sustained dilations occurred when participants managed to perform Go responses to aversive cues. Conversely, no such dilations occurred when they managed to inhibit responses to Win cues. These results suggest that pupil diameter does not reflect response conflict per se nor the inhibition of prepotent responses, but specifically effortful action invigoration as needed to overcome aversive inhibition. We discuss our results in the context of the "value of work" theory of striatal dopamine.

9.
Korean J Ophthalmol ; 2024 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773958

RESUMEN

Thyroid eye disease (TED) is the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease. There has been no effective medication to prevent proptosis in thyroid eye disease until 2020 when the anti-IGF-1R receptor antibody, Teprotumumab, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), sparking increased interest in immune-based drug development. This study aims to review the newly developed drug therapy as well as conventional treatment for TED. Treatment of TED has traditionally been high-dose steroids and orbital radiotherapy, but recently there has been a paradigm shift in the treatment of TED in the US with the introduction of the therapeutic agent teprotumumab, which dramatically reduces proptosis. However, concerns remain about the development of hearing impairment as a potentially fatal complication and long-term safety. Recently, several clinical trials are underway to assess the efficacy and safety of novel drugs targeting mTORC1, IL-6, FcRN, and IGF-1R in treating TED. With the explosive increase in interest from academia and pharmaceutical companies in TED, there is anticipation for the development of drugs that are equivalent or superior to teprotumumab while being safer.

10.
Cureus ; 16(4): e57786, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721195

RESUMEN

Pterygium is a degenerative eye condition marked by the abnormal growth of conjunctival tissue over the cornea, primarily affecting individuals near the equator. When it reaches the cornea's center, patients may experience obstructed and blurry vision, necessitating pterygium surgery. The standard surgical approach involves excision with a blade, using a conjunctival autograft to address the defect, and securing it with fibrin glue. Recurrence rates exhibit variability, with approximately half occurring within the initial three months. In this case, we present a more cost-effective surgical approach, avoiding the use of a blade to minimize intraoperative complications. Additionally, autologous blood is employed instead of fibrin glue. We evaluate immediate and post-operative complications, as well as the incidence of recurrence rates at the three-month mark.

11.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 17(3): 435-443, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721521

RESUMEN

AIM: To investigate the underlying mechanism of dry environment (autumn dryness) affecting the lacrimal glands in rats. METHODS: Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. The rats were fed in specific pathogen free environment as the control group (n=10), and the rats fed in dry environment as the dryness group (n=10). After 24d, lacrimal glands were collected from the rats. The tissues morphology was observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Tandem mass tags (TMT) quantitative proteomics analysis technology was used to screen the differential expressed proteins of lacrimal glands between the two groups, then bioinformatics analysis was performed. Further, the immunohistochemical (IHC) method was used to verify the target proteins. RESULTS: In dryness group, the lacrimal glands lobule atrophied, the glandular cavities enlarged, the sparse nuclear distribution and scattered inflammatory infiltration between the acinus were observed. The proteomics exhibited that a total of 195 up-regulated and 236 down-regulated differential expressed proteins screened from the lacrimal glands of rats. It was indicated that the biological processes (BP) of differential expressed proteins mainly included cell processes and single BP. The cellular compositions of differential expressed proteins mainly located in cells, organelles. The molecular functions of differential expressed proteins mainly included binding, catalytic activity. Moreover, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the differential expressed proteins mainly involved lysosome, complement and coagulation cascade, and ribosome pathway. The IHC result verified that the up-regulated expression proteins of Protein S100A9 (S100A9), Annexin A1 (Anxa1), and Clusterin (Clu) in lacrimal glands of rats in dryness group were higher than control group. CONCLUSION: The up-regulated expression proteins of S100A9, Anxa1, and Clu may be the potential mechanisms of dry eye symptoms caused by dry environment. This study provides clues of dry environments causing eye-related diseases for further studies.

12.
J Radiol Prot ; 2024 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722296

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the occupational doses (eye lens, extremities and whole body) in paediatric cardiac interventional and diagnostic catheterization procedures performed in a paediatric reference hospital located in Recife, Pernambuco. For eye lens dosimetry, the results show that the left eye receives a higher dose than the right eye, and there is a small difference between the doses received during diagnostic (D) and therapeutic (T) procedures. The extrapolated annual values for the most exposed eye are close to the annual limit. For doses to the hands, it was observed that in a significant number of procedures (37 out of 45 therapeutic procedures, or 82%) at least one hand of the physician was exposed to the primary beam. During diagnostic procedures, the physician's hand was in the radiation field in 11 of the 17 catheterization procedures (65%). This resulted in a 10-fold increase in dose to the hands. The results underscore the need for optimization of radiation safety and continued efforts to engage staff in a radiation safety culture. .

13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722320

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The PERSPECTIVE study was a real-world European, non-interventional, multicenter, observational study that evaluated the effectiveness, tolerability, and safety of ciclosporin A (CsA) 0.1% cationic emulsion (CE) in routine clinical practice as a treatment for adults with severe keratitis and dry eye disease (DED) that remained insufficiently controlled with artificial tears. This sub-analysis examined data from ophthalmology clinics in Germany to provide more precise insights into treatment patterns, outcomes, and clinical decision-making related to CsA 0.1% CE. METHODS: Study data were collected from adults starting CsA 0.1% CE (one drop in both eyes at bedtime) and followed up at Week 4, 12, and 24, and Month 12. The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline in corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) score (Oxford Grade Scale) at Month 12. Secondary endpoints examined the severity of ocular signs and symptoms, and adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: A total of 236 patients from 20 ophthalmology clinics in Germany participated in the PERSPECTIVE study (69.9% female; mean age 60.8 years). Following treatment with CsA 0.1% CE, patients experienced significant reductions in CFS score from Week 4, which were maintained through to Month 12 (P < 0.0001). From baseline, 81.6% of patients experienced an improvement in CFS score at Month 12. CsA 0.1% CE provided significant reductions in the severity of eyelid and conjunctival erythema at Month 12 compared with baseline (P < 0.001), as well as significant reductions in the severity of subjective ocular symptoms (all P ≤ 0.015). Safety data were consistent with the known safety profile of CsA 0.1% CE. Tolerability was rated as "satisfactory," "good," or "very good" by 97.2% of physicians and 95.7% of patients. CONCLUSION: Outcomes in Germany were similar to those reported for the overall European study population and are indicative of the treatment results that ophthalmologists may expect to see with CsA 0.1% CE treatment in real-life clinical practice. Treatment with CsA 0.1% CE provided long-term improvements over 12 months and was generally well tolerated.

14.
J Proteome Res ; 2024 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723043

RESUMEN

Acupuncture is widely used to treat dry eye disease (DED), but its effect has not been reported in treating video display terminal (VDT)-related dry eye, and the mechanism of acupuncture on VDT-related dry eye is also unknown. In our study, the tear proteome was compared with identifying possible mechanisms and biomarkers for predicting acupuncture effectiveness in VDT-related dry eye. The results showed that the ocular surface disease index scores were significantly different between the acupuncture group (AC group) and artificial tears group (AT group) at the end of the study, whereas tear film breakup time (TFBUT) and Schirmer I test (SIT) were not significantly different between the groups. Proteome changes pre- and post-treatment in the AC group were associated with B cell-related immune processes, inflammation, glycolysis, and actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, the proteins hexosaminidase A and mannose-binding lectin 1 could prospectively predict whether acupuncture treatment was effective. Therefore, we believe that acupuncture can provide greater improvement in the clinical symptoms of VDT-related dry eye than artificial tears. The mechanism of acupuncture in VDT-related dry eye treatment may be associated with glycolysis- and actin cytoskeleton remodeling-mediated inflammatory and immune processes. Additionally, hexosaminidase A and mannose-binding lectin 1 are biomarkers for predicting the efficacy of acupuncture for VDT-related dry eye.

16.
Cont Lens Anterior Eye ; : 102175, 2024 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724426

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) can be defined as a metabolic disorder that results from either the inability of insulin to perform its normal functions or decreased insulin secretion. Dry eye disease is a complex ailment of the tear film resulting in discomfort characterised by pain, a feeling of heavy eyes, grittiness, burning, dryness, itchiness, foreign body sensation, and visual disturbances. Patients with chronic conditions, i.e. DM, are more susceptible to developing dry eye due to various complications that may arise, such as, peripheral neuropathy, inflammatory alterations and reduced lacrimal gland function. AIM: To identify the prevalence of dry eye syndrome in paediatric patients diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1/2). METHOD: 37 children with diabetes and 40 healthy, age group matched controls were enrolled in this study. Participants underwent a complete dry eye assessment in the following order: Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and McMonnies questionnaire, meibomian gland evaluation using white light, Tear Break-up Test (TBUT), Phenol Red Thread (PRT) test and Tear film Osmolarity test. Duration of diabetes was used as the parameter. RESULTS: The incidence of dry eye syndrome was found to be higher among diabetics, with 15 (40.5 %) from the diabetic population compared to 4 (10.0 %) from the control group. TBUT and PRT test values were significantly reduced in children with diabetes (p < 0.001). TFO values were higher in the diabetics. No statistically significant differences were found the questionnaire scores, of the two groups, however the diabetic group appeared to be less symptomatic. CONCLUSION: Dry eye is more common in the diabetic paediatric population. TBUT and PRT results were found to be lower in diabetics. Results showed a strong correlation between duration of diabetes and TBUT values. Healthcare practitioners, working with children diagnosed with diabetes, should raise awareness as well as encourage early dry eye screening and intervention. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Due to the steady increase in the number of children and adolescents with diabetes, the characteristics and prevalence of dry eye syndrome in this population has become more valuable.

17.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(5)2024 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725291

RESUMEN

A widely used psychotherapeutic treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves performing bilateral eye movement (EM) during trauma memory retrieval. However, how this treatment-described as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)-alleviates trauma-related symptoms is unclear. While conventional theories suggest that bilateral EM interferes with concurrently retrieved trauma memories by taxing the limited working memory resources, here, we propose that bilateral EM actually facilitates information processing. In two EEG experiments, we replicated the bilateral EM procedure of EMDR, having participants engaging in continuous bilateral EM or receiving bilateral sensory stimulation (BS) as a control while retrieving short- or long-term memory. During EM or BS, we presented bystander images or memory cues to probe neural representations of perceptual and memory information. Multivariate pattern analysis of the EEG signals revealed that bilateral EM enhanced neural representations of simultaneously processed perceptual and memory information. This enhancement was accompanied by heightened visual responses and increased neural excitability in the occipital region. Furthermore, bilateral EM increased information transmission from the occipital to the frontoparietal region, indicating facilitated information transition from low-level perceptual representation to high-level memory representation. These findings argue for theories that emphasize information facilitation rather than disruption in the EMDR treatment.


Asunto(s)
Electroencefalografía , Desensibilización y Reprocesamiento del Movimiento Ocular , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Desensibilización y Reprocesamiento del Movimiento Ocular/métodos , Movimientos Oculares/fisiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/fisiopatología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Memoria/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Memoria a Corto Plazo/fisiología
18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 11: 1414997, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725463

RESUMEN

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2024.1362336.].

19.
Front Neurosci ; 18: 1365307, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751861

RESUMEN

Objective/background: To assess whether cerebral structural alterations in isolated rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are progressive and differ from those of normal aging and whether they are related to clinical symptoms. Patients/methods: In a longitudinal study of 18 patients with iRBD (age, 66.1 ± 5.7 years; 13 males; follow-up, 1.6 ± 0.6 years) and 24 age-matched healthy controls (age, 67.0 ± 4.9 years; 12 males; follow-up, 2.0 ± 0.9 years), all participants underwent multiple extensive clinical examinations, neuropsychological tests, and magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and follow-up. Surface-based cortical reconstruction and automated subcortical structural segmentation were performed on T1-weighted images. We used mixed-effects models to examine the differences between the groups and the differences in anatomical changes over time. Results: None of the patients with iRBD demonstrated phenoconversion during the follow-up. Patients with iRBD had thinner cortices in the frontal, occipital, and temporal regions, and more caudate atrophy, compared to that in controls. In similar regions, group-by-age interaction analysis revealed that patients with iRBD demonstrated significantly slower decreases in cortical thickness and caudate volume with aging than that observed in controls. Patients with iRBD had lower scores on the Korean version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination (p = 0.037) and frontal and executive functions (p = 0.049) at baseline than those in controls; however, no significant group-by-age interaction was identified. Conclusion: Patients with iRBD show brain atrophy in the regions that are overlapped with the areas that have been documented to be affected in early stages of Parkinson's disease. Such atrophy in iRBD may not be progressive but may be slower than that in normal aging. Cognitive impairment in iRBD is not progressive.

20.
Clin Exp Optom ; : 1-6, 2024 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755754

RESUMEN

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The behaviour of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in tears reflects its role in maintaining the ocular surface homoeostasis, as it is increased after the initial fitting of contact lenses and post-overnight lid closure. BACKGROUND: hTERT has been shown to respond to cellular stress in neurodegenerative diseases and to enhance axonal regeneration after peripheral axotomy in an animal model. This work investigated whether the behaviour of hTERT in the tear film reflects ocular surface inflammation and neuronal changes in the presence of dry eye disease. METHODS: Flush tears were collected from 18 participants with dry eye disease (14 females, 4 males, mean age 34.7 ± 5.2 years) and from 18 healthy participants without dry eye disease (8 females, 10 males, mean age 31.9 ± 5.8 years). Dry eye disease status was defined using the TFOS DEWS II diagnostic criteria. hTERT levels in tears were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Confocal images were taken at the level of the subbasal nerve plexus at the central cornea and at the inferior whorl, and the densities of corneal immune cells were evaluated as well as corneal nerve morphology metrics using a fully automated technique (University of Manchester, United Kingdom). RESULTS: In participants with dry eye disease, hTERT levels were significantly higher compared to controls (median [interquartile range]: 434 [320-600] ng/ml, and 184 [42-390] ng/ml, respectively, p = 0.01). Increased nerve fibre width at the inferior whorl, was seen in those with dry eyes (0.0219 [0.0214-0.0236] mm/mm compared to controls 0.0217 [0.0207 0.0222] p < 0.001), but no significant differences were found in the density of corneal immune cells. CONCLUSIONS: hTERT levels were elevated in participants with dry eye disease, and this was accompanied by increased nerve thickness in the inferior cornea. The hTERT response may reflect the stress induced to the ocular surface and corneal nerves due to having dry eye disease.

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