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1.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (46): 53042, Jan.-Jun. 2024. graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1550250

RESUMEN

Resumo Introdução: A violência contra idosos é um fenômeno crescente, ocasionando prejuízos à saúde, com diferentes desfechos e consequências às vítimas. A chance de idosas sofrerem-na no âmbito familiar supera a dos homens, sendo o gênero um fator de risco considerável. Objetivo: Analisar a compreensão da violência contra pessoas idosas segundo mulheres gerontes. Metodologia: Pesquisa descritiva com abordagem qualitativa desenvolvida com 22 idosas de uma comunidade no estado da Paraíba, Brasil, escolhidas por conveniência. Utilizou-se para coleta de dados entrevistas semiestruturadas, processadas pelo software Iramuteq, com posterior Análise de Conteúdo. Resultados: Foram evidenciadas cinco classes: ciclo de violência; rede de apoio ao idoso vítima de violência; Vivência de situações violentas; violência financeira; e simbologia da violência na sociedade, as quais denotam compreensão da violência envolvendo os diferentes tipos. Apoiam-se nos fatores da vivência familiar, cultura e outros, consubstanciando o profissional de saúde como fundamental para o desfecho. O gênero influenciou no que concerne ao olhar lançado sobre a violência física e psicológica, bem como na relevância dada às equipes de saúde para identificação de ocorrências e prevenção de possíveis danos. Conclusão: Os diversos tipos de violência contra a pessoa idosa foram reconhecidos, incluindo fatores individuais, comunitários e sociais no ciclo violento. Além disso, associaram o envelhecimento a maior suscetibilidade para sofrer violência, independente da tipologia. Destaca-se a potencialidade do serviço de saúde na assistência à pessoa idosa vítima de violência, elucidando casos e atuando precocemente para interrupção dos ciclos perpetrados, exigindo a necessidade constante de atualização profissional para lidar com situações detectadas.


Resumen Introducción: La violencia contra las personas adultas mayores es un fenómeno creciente, que causa daños a la salud, con diferentes desenlaces y consecuencias para las víctimas. La posibilidad de que las mujeres adultas mayores la sufran en el ámbito familiar supera la de los hombres, siendo el género un factor de riesgo considerable. Objetivo: Analizar la comprensión de la violencia contra las personas mayores según las mujeres adultas mayores. Metodología: Investigación descriptiva con enfoque cualitativo desarrollada con 22 mujeres adultas mayores de una comunidad en el estado de Paraíba, Brasil, elegidas por conveniencia. Para la recolección de datos, se utilizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas, procesadas por el software Iramuteq, con posterior análisis de contenido. Resultados: Se evidenciaron cinco tipos de violencia: ciclo de la violencia, red de apoyo población adulta mayor víctima de violencia, experimentar situaciones violentas, violencia financiera y simbología de la violencia en la sociedad, que denotan la comprensión de la violencia de diferentes tipos. Estas ideas están respaldadas en los factores de la experiencia familiar, la cultura y otros, donde la persona profesional de la salud se identifica como fundamental para el cuidado y apoyo. El género influyó en la mirada lanzada sobre la violencia física y psicológica, así como en la relevancia dada a los equipos de salud para la identificación de sucesos y la prevención de posibles daños. Conclusión: Se han reconocido los diversos tipos de violencia contra las personas mayores, incluidos los factores individuales, comunitarios y sociales en el ciclo de violencia. Además, asociaron el envejecimiento con una mayor susceptibilidad a sufrir violencia, independientemente de la tipología. Destaca la potencialidad del servicio de salud en la asistencia a la persona mayor víctima de violencia, mediante la identificación de casos y la actuación temprana para la interrupción de los ciclos perpetrados. De manera que, se evidencia la necesidad constante de actualización profesional para hacer frente a situaciones detectadas.


Abstract Introduction: Violence against the elderly is a growing phenomenon, causing damage to health, with different outcomes and consequences to the victims. The possibility of elderly women suffering it in the family context surpasses that of men, with gender being a considerable risk factor. Objective: To analyze the understanding of violence against the elderly according to elderly women. Method: Descriptive research with a qualitative approach developed with 22 elderly women from a community in the state of Paraíba, Brazil, chosen for convenience. The data collection was based on semi-structured interviews, processed by the Iramuteq software, with subsequent Content Analysis. Results: Five classes of violence against the elderly were evidenced: cycle of violence; support network for the elderly victims of violence; experience of violent situations; financial violence; and symbolism of violence in society, which denote an understanding of violence involving the different types. They are based on the factors of family experience, culture, and others, placing the health professional as a fundamental element for care and support. Gender influenced the perspective on physical and psychological violence, as well as the relevance given to health teams for the identification of occurrences and the prevention of possible damage. Conclusion: The various types of violence against the elderly have been recognized, including individual, community, and social factors in the violent cycle. In addition, they associated aging with greater susceptibility to suffering violence, regardless of the typology. It highlights the potential of the health service in assisting the elderly victim of violence, elucidating cases, and acting early to interrupt the cycles perpetrated, requiring the constant need for professional updating to deal with detected situations.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Atención a la Salud , Abuso de Ancianos/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil
2.
Arch Public Health ; 82(1): 78, 2024 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773645

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is a prevalent issue in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), causing injuries and trauma with severe consequences for survivors. This scoping review aimed to explore the range of research evidence on injuries and trauma resulting from SGBV among survivors in SSA and identify research gaps. METHODS: The review employed the Arksey and O'Malley methodological framework, conducting extensive literature searches across multiple electronic databases using keywords, Boolean operators, medical subject heading terms and manual searches of reference lists. It included studies focusing on injuries and trauma from SGBV, regardless of gender or age, published between 2012 and 2023, and involved an SSA countries. Two authors independently screened articles, performed data extraction and quality appraisal, with discrepancies resolved through discussions or a third author. Descriptive analysis and narrative synthesis were used to report the findings. RESULTS: After screening 569 potentially eligible articles, 20 studies were included for data extraction and analysis. Of the 20 included studies, most were cross-sectional studies (n = 15; 75%) from South Africa (n = 11; 55%), and involved women (n = 15; 75%). The included studies reported significant burden of injuries and trauma resulting from SGBV, affecting various populations, including sexually abused children, married women, visually impaired women, refugees, and female students. Factors associated with injuries and trauma included the duration of abuse, severity of injuries sustained, marital status, family dynamics, and timing of incidents. SGBV had a significant impact on mental health, leading to post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, suicidal ideations, and psychological trauma. Survivors faced challenges in accessing healthcare and support services, particularly in rural areas, with traditional healers sometimes providing the only mental health care available. Disparities were observed between urban and rural areas in the prevalence and patterns of SGBV, with rural women experiencing more repeated sexual assaults and non-genital injuries. CONCLUSION: This scoping review highlights the need for targeted interventions to address SGBV and its consequences, improve access to healthcare and support services, and enhance mental health support for survivors. Further research is required to fill existing gaps and develop evidence-based strategies to mitigate the impact of SGBV on survivors in SSA.

3.
Front Glob Womens Health ; 5: 1335254, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774250

RESUMEN

Background: Gender-based violence (GBV) is a pervasive global public health concern and a violation of human rights, particularly pronounced in conflict settings where it is often used as a tool of warfare to instill fear and control populations. Objective: Assessment of Magnitude, Associated Factors, and Health Consequences of GBV among women living in war-affected woredas of North Shewa zone, Ethiopia, 2022. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted, involving 845 randomly selected women living in conflict zones. Data on GBV experiences over the previous 3 months were collected through interviewer-administered questionnaires developed from literature review. The collected data underwent validation, entry into EPI data, and analysis using SPSS. Findings are summarized using descriptive statistics, AOR and 95% confidence interval. Result: The magnitude of GBV in this study was (490, 58.0%) where, (466, 55.0%) psychological violence, (254, 30.1%) physical violence, and (135, 16.0%) reported sexual violence. A majority of the physical violence, (161, 63.4%), occurred during conflict period, with (143, 56.3%) of these cases involving armed forces, and (161, 63.4%) women experiencing physical violence in their homes. Urban Residence AOR = 2.65, CI, (1.82-3.89), Educational status of Secondary education AOR = 0.33, CI, (0.19-0.57, and ≥College AOR = 0.17, CI, (0.09-0.35), Occupation of Housewife AOR = 1.88, CI, (1.20-2.94), Private employee AOR = 6.95, CI, (3.70-13.04), Gov't employee AOR = 5.80, CI, (2.92-11.50), and others (Students) AOR = 3.46, CI, (1.98-6.01), Ever had sexual intercourse AOR = 0.46, CI, (0.25-0.83), Have heard about SRH AOR = 0.59, CI, (0.40-0.89), Have had previous GBV exposure AOR = 0.24, CI, (0.15-0.38), having a previous history of sexual violence AOR = 0.30, CI, (0.16-0.57), and Number of sexual partner AOR = 1.84, CI, (1.13-2.99) were identified to be associated factors of GBV in our study area. The most commonly reported consequences of GBV were Anxiety, depression, physical injuries, self-blame, women had school dropout, and abortion. Conclusion: The study reveals a higher prevalence of GBV, resulting in profound physical, social, mental, and reproductive health challenges for survivors. To address this, multi-sectoral cooperation is advised to enhance women's empowerment, access to information, and psycho-social support in affected areas. Furthermore, national policymakers are urged to implement preventive measures during conflict and establish legal mechanisms to ensure accountability for perpetrators.

4.
Salud Colect ; 20: e4601, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753982

RESUMEN

The purpose of this research is to identify predominant problematizations in Colombian feminist Instagram accounts regarding gender-based violence during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Employing a qualitative approach, a digital ethnography based on the principles of netnography was conducted as an alternative to detail the social worlds constructed from online groups. Fifty pieces of content from @lainsumisa and twenty pieces of content from @feministasenconstrucción, published between March 2020 and March 2021, were selected based on observations made within the online fieldwork framework. These were analyzed using discourse analysis techniques. The findings discuss the following emerging categories: unpaid household work, romanticized harassment, fatphobia, and the violation of Black and racialized women's rights. In this context, cyberactivism is presented as an opportunity for the emergence of collectives and support networks for women advocating for gender equality and their rights, towards questioning patriarchal ideas that jeopardize their well-being.


El propósito de esta investigación es identificar las problematizaciones predominantes en cuentas feministas colombianas de Instagram, sobre las violencias basadas en género durante el primer año de la pandemia de covid-19. Desde un enfoque cualitativo, se realizó una etnografía digital basada en los preceptos de la netnografía, como alternativa para detallar los mundos sociales construidos a partir de los grupos en línea. A partir de las observaciones realizadas en el marco del trabajo de campo en línea se seleccionaron 50 contenidos de @lainsumisa y 20 contenidos de @feministasenconstrucción, publicados entre marzo de 2020 y marzo de 2021, los cuales se analizaron mediante técnicas de análisis del discurso. Entre los hallazgos se discuten las siguientes categorías emergentes: el trabajo no remunerado en el hogar, el acoso romantizado, la gordofobia y la vulneración a las mujeres negras y racializadas. Al respecto, se plantea el ciberactivismo como una oportunidad para el surgimiento de colectivos y redes de apoyo para las mujeres que luchan por la equidad de género y por sus derechos, hacia el cuestionamiento de ideas patriarcales que atentan contra su bienestar.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Violencia de Género , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Humanos , Colombia , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , Femenino , Derechos de la Mujer , Pandemias , Feminismo , Investigación Cualitativa , Masculino , Antropología Cultural
5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1306, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745312

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We assessed the impact of a personal agency-based training for refugee women and their male partners on their economic and social empowerment, rates of intimate partner violence (IPV), and non-partner violence (NPV). METHODS: We conducted an individually randomized controlled trial with 1061 partnered women (aged 18-45) living in a refugee camp in Rwanda. Women received two days of training, and their partners received one day of training. The follow-up survey where all relevant outcomes were assessed was carried out at 6-9 months post-intervention. RESULTS: At follow up, women in the intervention arm were more likely to report partaking in income generating activities (aIRR 1.27 (1.04-1.54), p < 0.05) and skill learning (aIRR 1.59 (1.39-1.82), p < 0.001) and reported a reduction in experience of physical or sexual NPV in the past six months (aIRR 0.65 (0.39-1.07), p < 0.09). While improved, no statistically significant impacts were seen on physical or sexual IPV (aIRR 0.80 (0.58-1.09), p = 0.16), food insecurity (ß 0.98 (0.93 to 1.03), p = 0.396), or clean cookstove uptake (aIRR 0.95 (0.88 to 1.01), p = 0.113) in the past six months. We found statistically significant reduction in physical and sexual IPV amongst those experiencing IPV at baseline (aIRR 0.72 (0.50 to 1.02), p < 0.07). Small improvements in self-efficacy scores and our indicator of adapting to stress were seen in the intervention arm. Some challenges were also seen, such as higher prevalence of probable depression and/or anxiety (aIRR 1.79 (1.00-3.22), p = 0.05) and PTSD (aIRR 2.07 (1.10-3.91), p < 0.05) in the intervention arm compared to the control arm. CONCLUSION: Our findings echo previous research showing personal agency training can support economic well-being of women. We also find potentially promising impacts on gender-based violence. However, there is some evidence that integration of evidence-based mental health support is important when enhancing agency amongst conflict-affected populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT04081441 on 09/09/2019.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Refugiados , Humanos , Rwanda , Femenino , Refugiados/psicología , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Persona de Mediana Edad , Empoderamiento , Violencia de Género/psicología , Violencia de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control
6.
Violence Against Women ; : 10778012241248456, 2024 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706218

RESUMEN

This article analyzes 10 autobiographical narratives of women who had experienced intimate relationship violence. In these narratives, we find several positions, that come from master narratives. These positions have some effects on the construction of subjectivities and on the process of recovery or redefinition of identity. The positions are (a) elusive, (b) victimized, and (c) agentive. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze, from a feminist perspective, the position and subjectivity of women who suffer violence to address the prevention and treatment of this problem that affects individuals and society.

7.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; : 15248380241244397, 2024 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591233

RESUMEN

Violence against women in sport is pervasive. Prevalence rates of interpersonal violence range from 26% to 74% across psychological, physical, and sexual violence. This review synthesizes adult women's experiences of gender-based interpersonal violence in sport. A systematic review of qualitative studies was conducted. Five databases were searched, including CINAHL, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts. In total, 1,617 records were retrieved and screened. Twenty-five records representing 24 studies were eligible for inclusion. Following a meta-ethnographic approach, both authors synthesized first- (participants) and second-(researcher) order constructs to create a new interpretation (third-order construct) beyond the individual studies reviewed. A feminist socio-ecological lens was applied. Five themes were constructed: women's safety work, the normalization of abusive behaviors in the sports context, sport family violence, organizational impotence and hostility, and women's status in a patriarchal system. Women's experiences of abuse are mapped within and across the individual, relational, organizational, and cultural levels of the socio-ecological model, with (lack of) power being a central factor within each level as well as flowing between the levels. A fifth socio-ecological level was developed pertaining to the unique context of sport-that of the sport family. This sits between the relational and organizational levels of the model and covers both intense familial relationships and patriarchal familial organizational structures in sport that facilitate and silence the abuse. Sporting bodies must co-design interventions encompassing all socio-ecological levels to address gender-based violence in sport.

8.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 12(7)2024 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610181

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dating violence has become a problem of social relevance with short- and long-term health consequences. Nurses are in a privileged position to detect and address this problem in health facilities and as school nurses in schools, providing health education and detecting this violence correctly. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-cultural validation of the Portuguese version of the Multidimensional Scale of Dating Violence-Short (MSDV 2.0). METHODS: A validation investigation was carried out in two phases: (1) cross-cultural adaptation of the items and content validation of the Portuguese version of MSDV 2.0 and (2) psychometric validation. RESULTS: Phase (1): The items of the original version include a cross-cultural translation from Spanish to Portuguese and analysed by a group of experts in gender violence and by the authors of the original scale, then a back translation was made and again reviewed by the experts. Young university students also participated for face validity, and a pilot test was carried out. Phase (2): Confirmatory factor analysis was performed using the robust maximum-likelihood estimation method, which confirmed the five-dimensional structure, obtaining good fit rates (chi-square significance (χ2) = 187.860 (p < 0.0001); root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.049; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.937; Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.923). Reliability analysis indicated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha (α) = 0.88 to 0.70). Finally, scores of the Portuguese versions MSDV 2.0 were correlated, as expected, positively with the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) (r = 0.36 to 0.16) and negatively with the Medical Outcomes Study Questionnaire Short Form 36, Health Survey (SF-36) (r = -0.30 to -0.14). CONCLUSIONS: To date, it is the only instrument that measures dating violence in a multidimensional way validated in the Portuguese university context.

9.
J Adv Nurs ; 2024 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38666414

RESUMEN

AIM: To examine healthcare providers' extent of and perceived barriers and facilitators to screening for intimate partner violence in pregnant women attending prenatal clinics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive design was used to collect data from 130 healthcare providers. METHODS: Seventeen healthcare providers from 17 prenatal clinics in Kanungu district, Uganda, were recruited via convenience sampling to participate in an online survey implementing a modified Normalization Measure Development instrument. Data were collected between February 2023 and March 2023 (02/8/2023 to 03/12/2023) and analysed using descriptive and Mann-Whitney U test and chi-square tests. RESULTS: Slightly more than half (56%) of healthcare providers report screening pregnant women for intimate partner violence. There was a statistically significant relationship between healthcare providers screening for intimate partner violence and having previous training on intimate partner violence screening. The only barrier to screening identified was a lack of understanding of how intimate partner violence screening affects the nature of participant's own work. There were numerous potential facilitators identified for healthcare providers' intimate partner violence screening. CONCLUSION: Although higher-than-expected number of healthcare providers reported screening of pregnant women for intimate partner violence, the extent of screening is still suboptimal. The barrier to screening identified needs to be addressed and facilitators promoted. Receiving training among healthcare providers on intimate partner violence screening was associated with higher levels of screening; thus, this needs to be enhanced to optimize screening rates. Future studies should assess screening practices objectively and implement interventions to improve healthcare providers' intimate partner violence screening rates. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PROFESSION AND/OR PATIENT CARE: Screening for intimate partner violence should be part of standard care provided by healthcare providers to all pregnant women during prenatal clinic visits. The study supports the need for more training for healthcare providers in aspects related to intimate partner violence screening in order to ensure prompt diagnosis and treatment of those affected, identify those at risk and increase awareness. There is a need to enhance healthcare providers' capacity for intimate partner violence screening through education by integrating intimate partner violence screening pre- and post-registration courses and preparation programs or curriculum. IMPACT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) in pregnancy is a global health problem. Screening for IPV by healthcare providers is suboptimal. This study found that only 56% of healthcare providers were routinely screening for IPV in Ugandan prenatal clinics. This study identified the main facilitators and one barrier to IPV screening. REPORTING METHOD: This study has adhered to the relevant EQUATOR guidelines for quantitative studies. PATIENT AND PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: No patient was involved in this study.

10.
J Interpers Violence ; : 8862605241243372, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587260

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Young Latinas and Black women drink less than women of other racial/ethnic groups but experience more alcohol-related problems in midlife. This study aims to identify modifiable factors to prevent adult onset of alcohol use disorder (AUD) in this population. METHODS: Data were collected at six time points as part of the Harlem Longitudinal Development Study from 365 Latinas (47%) and Black (53%) women (mean age at time 1 = 14, standard deviation 1.3). Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized pathways from childhood physical and sexual abuse to AUD via depressive mood, anxiety disorders, and somatic complaints in the 20s. We also tested the moderation effect of the high school academic environment by including in the structural equation model two latent variable interaction terms between the school environment and each of the abuse variables. RESULTS: Childhood physical and sexual abuse was positively associated with depressive mood, anxiety disorders, and somatic complaints when participants were in the 20s. Depressive mood mediated childhood abuse and AUD when women were in the 30s. The high school academic environment attenuated the effect of physical, but not sexual abuse, on depressive mood (ß = -0.59, B = -9.38, 95% CI [-14.00, -4.76]), anxiety symptoms (ß = -0.61, B = -14.19, 95% CI [-21.76, -6.61]), appetite loss (ß = -0.41, B = -10.52, 95% CI [-15.61, -5.42]), and sleeplessness (ß = -0.50, B = -9.56, 95% CI [-13.95, -5.17]) in the early 20s. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underscore the need to invest in early violence prevention interventions and in education to ensure equitable access to quality, academically oriented, and safe schools.

11.
Glob Health Action ; 17(1): 2336708, 2024 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38660982

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is widespread in war-torn North Kivu province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Timely access to care is crucial for the healing and wellbeing of survivors of sexual violence, but is problematic due to a variety of barriers. Through a better understanding of care-seeking behaviours and factors influencing timely access to care, programmes can be adapted to overcome some of the barriers faced by survivors of sexual violence. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe demographics, care-seeking patterns and factors influencing timely care-seeking by survivors of sexual violence. METHODS: Retrospective file-based data analysis of sexual violence survivors accessing care within two Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) programmes supporting the Ministry of Health, in North Kivu, DRC, 2014-2018. RESULTS: Most survivors (66%) sought care at specialised sexual violence clinics and a majority of the survivors were self-referred (51%). Most survivors seeking care (70%) did so within 3 days. Male survivors accessing care were significantly more likely to seek care within 3 days compared to females. All age groups under 50 years old were more likely to seek care within 3 days compared to those aged 50 years and older. Being referred by the community, a family member, mobile clinic or authorities was significantly associated with less probability of seeking care within 3 days compared to being self-referred. CONCLUSION: Access to timely health care for survivors of sexual violence in North Kivu, DRC, is challenging and varies between different groups of survivors. Providers responding to survivors of sexual violence need to adapt models of care and awareness raising strategies to ensure that programmes are developed to enable timely access to care for all survivors. More research is needed to further understand the barriers and enablers to access timely care for different groups of survivors.


Main findings: Timely access to care for survivors of sexual violence is crucial yet challenging in many places, including in North Kivu, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This study shows that a majority of survivors access care through specialised clinics, that access is limited for male and child survivors, and highlights factors influencing timely access to care for survivors of sexual violence.Added knowledge: This study shows that age, sex, and different referral pathways impact timely care seeking among survivors of sexual violence accessing care.Global health impact for policy and action: A better understanding of care-seeking patterns and which factors influence timely care seeking is useful when designing and implementing programmes responding to survivors of sexual violence.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Delitos Sexuales , Sobrevivientes , Humanos , República Democrática del Congo , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Masculino , Adulto , Sobrevivientes/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Persona de Mediana Edad , Niño
12.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 14(4)2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38667127

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic brought on a marked increase in intimate partner violence (IPV) worldwide, Mexico being no exception. Factors that exacerbated gender-based violence (GBV) in the household during the pandemic include gendered loss of income, regression in access to social and legal justice resources, reversal to more traditional gender norms and roles, and increased alcoholism. While there are studies about the prevalence and determinants of IPV in rural and urban Mexico, there appears to be a lack of information regarding how these realities differed as they interacted with the compounding pressures of the COVID-19 pandemic. Stemming from 10 ethnographic interviews with women across rural and urban localities of Oaxaca, Mexico City, and Mexico State, who were recruited from NGOs providing psychological and legal services against GBV, we analyze some factors associated with the prevalence of IPV during confinement. We conclude that all women in our study experienced IPV both before and during the pandemic, with variations in IPV patterns influenced by their rural or urban residence, socio-economic status, ethnic-racial identity, and proximity to the abuser's network. We also found that not all impacts were negative, rather COVID-19 measures had a paradoxical effect for some women where restrictions on geographical mobility and decrease in access to alcohol became pivotal protective factors. We recommend that public policymakers and civil society organizations alike pay attention to these differential challenges and benefits in their crisis responses.

13.
Public Health Nurs ; 2024 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683059

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Social networking sites perpetuate gender stereotypes, inequalities, and gender violence, generating adverse health effects. METHODS: This study aimed to analyze the relationship between Instagram, alcohol consumption and effects on health, through interviews and discussion groups involving adolescents (high school or university students and workers), during the period from the third to the sixth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 118 individuals participated in the study. Three coding clusters were identified: (1) Inequality in the representation of men and women on SNSs; (2) Violence towards women's bodies and sexual violence on SNSs; and (3) Health problems derived from violence against women's body image on SNSs. The main focus of our analysis was the exhibition of the female body, in which eroticization of the body prevails and gender roles are perpetuated. Violence is generated towards women in the form of misogynistic attacks for daring to challenge conventional stereotypes. Many interviewees coincide that the main health effects include low self-esteem, anxiety and eating disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The institutional response to the abuses and violence committed on SNSs against women is weak, and public policies are needed to protect women in these environments where they are especially vulnerable.

14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38686462

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rough sex refers to consensual sexual activities that incorporate playful aggression, such as hair pulling, spanking, or choking. It is relevant in the context of sexual health as it can enhance sexual arousal, pleasure, and intimacy among consenting partners. However, it can also be associated with consent violations, discomfort, and injuries ranging from mild to severe or even fatal. The prevalence of rough sex in Germany is widely unknown. Our study aims to establish, for the first time, the overall age-related and gender-related prevalence rates of active and passive rough sex involvement among adults in Germany. METHODS: A national online sample of 1101 adults from Germany, aged 18-69 years (50% men, 49% women, 1% gender-diverse individuals) gave informed consent and reported on their lifetime engagement in rough sex in active and passive roles. We recruited participants through a professional panel provider for a multi-themed sexual health survey. Data analysis was conducted using R, with 95% confidence intervals of prevalence rates computed to answer the research questions. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence of rough sex involvement was 29%. Adults below the age of 40 reported higher rates of involvement (up to 43%) than people over 40 (up to 26%). Men reported predominantly active role involvement and women reported primarily passive role involvement. DISCUSSION: Results show that rough sex is common. Sexual health professionals, educators, and researchers should be prepared to guide current and aspiring practitioners of rough sex, helping them understand potential benefits, risks, and age- and gender-related differences.

15.
J Interpers Violence ; : 8862605241234357, 2024 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501666

RESUMEN

Violence Against Women is a global problem that affects millions of women around the world. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the Mental Health and Quality of Life of Ecuadorian women exposed or not exposed to Gender Violence mediated by sociodemographic factors. A total of 433 Ecuadorian women, 18 to 64 years of age, most of whom (69%) reported being exposed to gender violence. Most of the women lived in the province of Pichincha and were selected through a type of nonprobabilistic sampling based on a survey about gender violence. Women exposed to gender violence showed a greater impact on personality profiles, clinical tests, and quality of life in the physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains compared to women not exposed to violence. In addition, these effects were mediated by age, economic level, education, marital status, and exposure to physical violence and psychological or sexual abuse within the socio-family or work contexts. The results of this study could contribute to improving public health systems, showing improvements in care programs for victims of violence.

16.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 28(2): 116-124, 2024 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38425273

RESUMEN

The study was cross-sectional research that surveyed 410 nurses and midwives from March 2020 to March 2021 in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of nurses and midwives towards recognizing violence against women. The "Scale for Nurses' and Midwives' Recognition of the Symptoms of Violence against Women" were used. The average total scale score was 20.3 ± 3.2. The score of participants who are receiving postgraduate education, working in the field of gynaecology and obstetrics, and considering intervention as a professional responsibility when encountering a woman who has experienced violence was found to be significantly higher than the other groups (p<.05). It is important for midwives and nurses to be aware of signs of violence to identify violence against women. Providing education to midwives and nurses regarding signs of violence against women will contribute to the recognition, prevention, and awareness of violence.


L'étude était une recherche transversale qui a enquêté sur 410 infirmières et sages-femmes de mars 2020 à mars 2021 en Turquie. L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer les connaissances et les attitudes des infirmières et des sages-femmes envers la reconnaissance de la violence contre les femmes. L'échelle de reconnaissance des symptômes de la violence contre les femmes des infirmières et des sages-femmes a été utilisée. Le score moyen total de l'échelle était de 20,3 ± 3,2. Le score des participants qui suivent une formation de troisième cycle, travaillant dans le domaine de la gynécologie et de l'obstétrique, et considérant l'intervention comme une responsabilité professionnelle lorsqu'ils rencontrent une femme victime de violence s'est avéré significativement plus élevé que les autres groupes (p<.001). Il est important que les sages-femmes et les infirmières soient conscientes des signes de violence pour identifier la violence contre les femmes. Fournir une éducation aux sages-femmes et aux infirmières concernant les signes de violence contre les femmes contribuera à la reconnaissance, à la prévention et à la sensibilisation à la violence.


Asunto(s)
Partería , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Partería/educación , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Estudios Transversales , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Violencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 50(1): 29-39, Ene.-Mar. 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés, Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229295

RESUMEN

Introducción/objetivos la violencia contra la mujer sigue siendo un grave problema social y de salud a pesar de las medidas puestas en marcha en los últimos años. La exploración de las víctimas por el médico forense en los juzgados es de gran interés puesto que recibe información relacionada no solo con la agresión, sino también de su entorno social, familiar y económico. El objetivo es utilizar dicha información para identificar grupos de riesgo y mejorar/obtener las medidas necesarias. Material y métodos en este trabajo, el forense ha recogido, durante 8 años, una toma abundante de datos sobre las víctimas exploradas en L’Hospitalet de Llobregat. La muestra incluye 1.622 casos de mujeres víctimas de violencia de género. Se realiza un estudio descriptivo poblacional y de las lesiones. Resultados se exponen las principales variables estudiadas tanto socioeconómicas como referentes a la agresión en sí. Se trabaja también con base en la reentrada de las víctimas o repetición de las agresiones (revictimización), que son el 10,9% de la muestra. Finalmente, se presentan los resultados obtenidos tras aplicar técnicas de inteligencia artificial, en este caso, árboles de clasificación CaRT. Conclusiones con los resultados obtenidos concluimos que el tratamiento de la información recogida y sistematizada de la intervención médico-forense permite una mejor comprensión de la violencia sobre la mujer, de la que podemos extraer sugerencias sobre la adopción de medidas de atención y soporte a las víctimas y a los colectivos más vulnerables, así como sobre los recursos administrativos y la optimización de programas de prevención. (AU)


Introduction/objectives Violence against women is still a serious social and health problem, despite the measures implemented in recent years. The examination of the victims by the forensic doctor in the courts is of great interest since it provides information related not only to the aggression, but also to their social, family and economic environment. The objective is to use this information to identify groups at risk and improve/implement the necessary measures. Material and methods In this work, the forensic has collected, for eight years, abundant data on the victims examined in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat. The sample includes 1,622 cases of women who have been victims of gender violence. A descriptive study of the population and of the lesions has been carried out. Results The paper presents the main variables studied, both socioeconomic and referring to the aggression itself. This study also analyzes the reentry of the victims, the repetition of aggressions (revictimization), which are 10.9% of the sample. Finally, the results obtained after applying artificial intelligence techniques -in this case, CaRT classification trees- are presented. Conclusions With the results obtained, we conclude that the treatment of the information collected and systematized from the medical-forensic intervention allows a better understanding of Violence Against Women, from which we can extract suggestions on the adoption of care and support measures for the victims and the most vulnerable groups, as well as administrative resources and the optimization of prevention programs. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Violencia de Género/etnología , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Inteligencia Artificial , Violencia contra la Mujer , Análisis de Datos , España
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429986

RESUMEN

WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Gender-based violence (GBV) has long-term devastating effects on psychological health, resulting in depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. Beyond physical and mental health symptoms, GBV can affect survivors on many personal, social, and spiritual levels, impacting their ability to connect to themselves, others, and the world around them. While most research on recovery following GBV has focused on recognizing factors associated with distress or adverse outcomes, there is limited information about how they recover. WHAT THE PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We know little about the internal characteristics that enable or support the healing journey (factors) or what the survivors do to build capacity or support for health and change (strategies). Therefore, this study discovered the main factors or strategies that GBV survivors used throughout their recovery process which included; social connection, self-care, self-understanding and spiritual connection. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Mental health nurses always encounter and deal with the GBV survivors as they always suffer from mental health issues related to their trauma. Therefore, mental health nurses can utilize our research findings to establish nursing interventions or psychoeducational programs with the aim of facilitating trauma recovery among the survivors. ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Gender-based violence (GBV) is a severe worldwide phenomenon mainly affecting women. Little studies focus on the details of the recovery process that survivors of GBV go through. AIM: To identify the enabling factors that facilitate recovery among survivors of GBV. METHOD: We used the thematic qualitative analysis approach to analyse 20 interviews with the women survivors of GBV. RESULTS: Our study resulted in four factors that survivors used in their recovery process (social connection, self-care, self-understanding and spiritual connection). DISCUSSION: Recovering from an abusive relationship is a social, spiritual, cultural and psychological process. Current study confirmed the positive impact of our identified enabling factors in the recovery process of GBV survivors. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The current study illustrates findings that provide a deeper understanding of the journey to recovery following GBV, which can be helpful when guiding and supporting women who have suffered GBV to start and pursue their journey toward recovery.

19.
Heliyon ; 10(5): e27158, 2024 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38455545

RESUMEN

Background: Women experiencing domestic violence might have restrictions in the pregnancy-related decision-making and care-seeking process leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We explored the association between domestic violence and undesirable pregnancy events. Methods: 63,796 women aged 18-49 years covered under the domestic violence module of National Family Health Survey-5, 2019-21. Stratification and clustering in the complex sampling design of the survey were accounted in analysis. Using Poisson regression, prevalence ratio (PR) was reported to provide association of domestic violence with undesirable pregnancy events. Results: Prevalence of undesirable pregnancy events was 25.0% (95%CI: 24.4%-25.7%) amongst women aged 18-49 years. Prevalence of unintended, terminated pregnancy and complications during pregnancy was 3.2%, 5.1% and 20.9%, respectively. Women aged ≥35 years, educated, unemployed, primi or multi parity, intimate partner/husband being uneducated, facing problem with access to healthcare, belonging to large number of household members (≥4) and poorest or poorer quintile had significantly higher chance of having undesirable pregnancy events. Sexual violence (aPR: 1.11, p = 0.02) had higher chance of having undesirable pregnancy events. Conclusion: One-fourth of reproductive-age group women had undesirable pregnancy events. Sexual violence was significantly associated with these events. Effective policy should protect women from domestic violence to promote maternal well-being.

20.
Epidemiol Prev ; 48(1): 66-73, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482787

RESUMEN

This article explores the persistent and deeply troubling issue of conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) throughout history and in contemporary conflicts. It examines the roots of wartime sexual violence in wartime, the evolving international legal framework for the protection of civilians, and the emergence of concerns about the protection of women and girls from such violence. The article delves into controversial aspects, including competing theories to explain CRSV, the challenges in obtaining accurate data on its prevalence, and the often-overlooked issue of CRSV against men and boys. It also addresses the cultural and societal factors that perpetuate CRSV and the long-lasting consequences on survivors. The article concludes by underscoring the importance of comprehensive care for survivors and the need to tackle the deep-seated causes of this violence, including gender inequality.


Asunto(s)
Delitos Sexuales , Violencia , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Italia/epidemiología , Sobrevivientes , Prevalencia
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