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1.
Cureus ; 16(6): e62088, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38989349

RESUMEN

Diazoxide is the only medication approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hyperinsulinism-induced hypoglycemia. Overdose is infrequently reported. This case describes a preterm four-week-old male who was prescribed diazoxide and chlorothiazide for perinatal stress-induced hyperinsulinism. The patient presented to the emergency department with feeding intolerance and abdominal distension following an accidental 10-fold diazoxide overdose. On presentation, vital signs were remarkable for tachycardia and intermittent tachypnea. Physical exam revealed a grossly distended abdomen. Laboratory abnormalities included a glucose of 216 mg/dL, sodium of 132 mmol/L, and chloride of 98 mmol/L. Abdominal X-ray interpretation found moderate gaseous distension suggestive of generalized ileus. The patient was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a nasogastric tube was placed. He received intravenous dextrose fluids, and enteral feeds were resumed as serial X-rays showed interval improvement. The patient remained in the NICU for several days to monitor bowel movements and resolution of ileus and he was discharged after improvement. While diazoxide overdose is rarely reported, and ileus due to such is documented even less frequently, 10-fold medication dose errors are common among infants. The source of the 10-fold mistake is often decimal points, leading zeros, or trailing zeros. Utilizing the smallest possible syringe for the prescribed dose may reduce the incidence of medication errors.

2.
JCEM Case Rep ; 2(7): luae108, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38947417

RESUMEN

Diazoxide is a commonly used first-line medication for the treatment of hyperinsulinism. Hyperglycemia may occur with diazoxide use. However, hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) secondary to diazoxide is an exceedingly rare but potentially life-threatening adverse effect. We present a case of a 2-year-old with Kabuki syndrome and hyperinsulinism on diazoxide. She presented with 4 days of fever, respiratory symptoms, and lethargy. She was influenza B positive. Initial workup indicated HHS, with an elevated serum glucose (47.1 mmol/L [847.8 mg/dL]; reference range 3.9-6.0 mmol/L; 70-108 mg/dL), serum osmolality (357 mmol/kg H2O; reference 282-300 mmol/kg H2O) but absent urine ketones and no metabolic acidosis (venous pH 7.34). Her course was complicated by an acute kidney injury. Management in the hospital included discontinuation of diazoxide and intravenous fluid resuscitation, following which hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity resolved. No insulin therapy was required. She remained normoglycemic without diazoxide for 2 weeks but subsequently required restarting of diazoxide for hypoglycemia. This case highlights the need for early recognition and prompt management of diazoxide-related HHS to reduce negative outcomes. We present the first case report of a child with Kabuki syndrome and hyperinsulinism with diazoxide-induced HHS.

3.
Clin Pediatr Endocrinol ; 33(3): 187-194, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38993725

RESUMEN

The most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in newborns and children is congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). Remarkable advancements in diagnostic tools and treatments, including novel imaging and genetic techniques, and continuous subcutaneous octreotide administration, have improved the prognosis of diazoxide-unresponsive CHI; however, in clinical practice, some issues remain. Here, we report a case series consisting of four adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium-associated CHI cases, discuss the practical use of new international guidelines published in 2023, and suggest clinical issues associated with CHI management. Based on the clinical experience of two diffuse and two focal CHI cases, we employed an updated treatment strategy, including genetic diagnosis to determine treatment plans, careful catheter management, switching from octreotide to long-acting somatostatin, effective utilization of a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device, measures for feeding problems, and individualized and systematic developmental follow-up. Particularly, our cases suggest a safe method of switching from octreotide to lanreotide, elucidate the efficacy of home-based CGM monitoring, and indicate need for personalized support for feeding problems. Severe CHI is a rare and challenging disorder; thus, further accumulation of experience according to new treatment strategies is essential in generating high-quality evidence for the development and approval of new treatment options.

4.
Clin Pediatr Endocrinol ; 33(3): 174-180, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38993720

RESUMEN

Patients with diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) refractory to drug therapy require subtotal or near-total pancreatectomy. Although almost all patients develop diabetes postoperatively, the clinical course and timing of insulin therapy remain unclear. A 7-yr-old girl presented with recurrent hypoglycemia shortly after birth and a relatively elevated insulin level, which confirmed the diagnosis of CHI. Genetic analysis revealed compound heterozygous ATP-binding cassette, Subfamily C, Member 8 pathogenic variants and diffuse CHI was suspected. Because her condition was refractory to diazoxide and octreotide, she underwent a subtotal pancreatectomy at the age of 4 mo. The drug therapy was discontinued. Although an oral glucose tolerance test at the age of 2 yr showed hyperglycemia after loading, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) revealed that her daily glucose trends were almost within the 70-180 mg/dL range, and mild hypoglycemia appeared during the daytime. After the age of 6 yr, CGM showed an elevation in glucose trends from midnight to early morning, suggesting that insulin secretion was attenuated and hepatic glucose production was insufficiently suppressed. Insulin therapy was initiated at the age of 7 yr. These results indicate that CGM can be useful for making treatment decisions.

5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1408003, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952388

RESUMEN

We present the case of a 36-year-old female who was diagnosed at birth with CHI that caused severe hypoglycaemia unresponsive to Diazoxide. Subtotal pancreatectomy was performed at the age of three weeks. Later, histological analysis of her pancreas in a research setting revealed a focal form of CHI. Genetic testing was not available at that time. The patient developed pancreatic exocrine deficiency and insulin-dependent diabetes at the age of 9 years. In 2016, a genetic test revealed a missense heterozygous variant in the ABCC8 gene inherited from her father and classified as having a recessive inheritance. The geneticist concluded that the risk of CHI for her offspring would be low (1/600), making pregnancy favourable. As there was no consanguinity in the family, testing the future father was deemed unnecessary (carrier frequency 1/150 in the general population). The pregnancy occurred spontaneously in 2020 and at a gestational age of 28 weeks, the mother went into premature labour. An emergency C-section was performed in April 2021 resulting in the birth of bichorial bi-amniotic male twins. Following birth, both newborns experienced persistent severe hypoglycaemia which required glucagon treatment and intravenous glucose infusion initially, followed by Diazoxide from day 51 after birth, without satisfactory response. Continuous intravenous Octreotide treatment was introduced on day 72. Due to the recurrence of hypoglycaemia episodes despite reaching maximum doses of Octreotide, from day 92 the treatment was switched to Pasireotide. Genetic tests revealed the same genotypes for both infants: the exon 39 missense variant (c.4716C>A; p.Ser1572Arg) inherited from their mother and a truncating variant in exon 28 (c.3550del; p.Val1184*), inherited from their asymptomatic father. As a result of inheriting two recessive variants of the ABCC8 gene, the children were diagnosed with a diffuse form of CHI, consistent with the diazoxide-unresponsive presentation. This situation is very rare outside consanguinity. This case emphasises the significance of genetic counselling for individuals with a history of rare diseases outside the context of consanguinity, as there is a potential risk of recurrence. Prenatal diagnosis can lead to better outcomes for affected neonates, as well as help families make informed decisions about future pregnancies.


Asunto(s)
Hiperinsulinismo Congénito , Humanos , Femenino , Hiperinsulinismo Congénito/genética , Hiperinsulinismo Congénito/tratamiento farmacológico , Embarazo , Adulto , Recién Nacido , Receptores de Sulfonilureas/genética , Masculino , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética
6.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 401, 2024 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39004741

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The relationship between the dietary insulin index (DII) and the disease's risk is unknown, despite the fact that hyperinsulinemia is presumed to contribute to osteoporosis. The insulin response of various diets determines the DII. This study aimed to investigate the connection between postmenopausal Iranian women's adherence to a diet with a higher insulinemic potential and osteoporosis. METHODS: A total of 380 postmenopausal women were included in the current case-control study. A 168-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with established validity and reliability was used to evaluate individuals' daily calorie intake. The standard formula was employed to determine the dietary insulin load of each product. Subsequently, the calculation of DII was performed by dividing the dietary insulin load by the total energy consumed for each individual. In order to investigate the relationship between osteoporosis and DII, logistic regression was implemented. RESULTS: The results of the current study demonstrated a substantial inverse relationship between osteoporosis and the DII, even after accounting for confounding variables (OR = 0.927; 95% CI = 0.888-0.967). The mean scores of DII (P < 0.001) was significantly higher in control group (36.82 ± 8.98) compared to the case group (33.53 ± 6.28). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that keeping a diet high in insulin index and low in foods that are insulinogenic may improve bone mass density. Consequently, it may be essential for postmenopausal women to consume nutrients that stimulate insulin production in order to prevent osteoporosis.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Insulina , Osteoporosis Posmenopáusica , Humanos , Femenino , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Irán/epidemiología , Osteoporosis Posmenopáusica/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta/métodos , Anciano , Ingestión de Energía , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Diseases ; 12(6)2024 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38920551

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Individuals with hyperinsulinemia may initially not meet any diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome, though displaying a higher risk of cardiovascular complications combined with obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. AIM: The main objective of our study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of various cardiovascular risk indices in hyperinsulinemic children and adolescents; a secondary objective was to estimate the optimal cut-offs of these indices. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective single-center study was conducted on 139 patients aged 12.1 ± 2.9 years, managed for hyperinsulinism. RESULTS: We found statistically significant differences in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), triglyceride glucose index (TyG), TyG-body mass index, visceral adiposity index, lipid accumulation product index, fatty liver index, and hepatic steatosis index. At the linear logistic regression assessment, we found that insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), HOMA-IR, and ALT/AST ratio were independently associated with confirmed hyperinsulinism. At the multivariate analysis, IGF-1 levels over 203 ng/mL and HOMA-IR higher than 6.2 were respectively associated with a 9- and 18-times higher odds ratio for hyperinsulinism. The other investigated parameters were not significantly related to hyperinsulinism, and could not predict either the presence of hyperinsulinemia or a subsequent cardiovascular risk in our patients. CONCLUSION: Commonly used indices of cardiovascular risk in adults cannot be considered accurate in confirming hyperinsulinism in children, with the exception of HOMA-IR. Further studies are needed to verify the usefulness of specific cardiovascular risk indices in hyperinsulinemic children and adolescents.

8.
J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc ; 39(1): 125-128, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863913

RESUMEN

Hypoglycemic disorders are rare in persons without diabetes, and clinical evaluation to identify its etiology can be challenging. We present a case of insulin autoimmune syndrome induced by carbimazole in a middle-aged Chinese man with underlying Graves' disease, which was managed conservatively with a combination of dietary modification and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor.


Asunto(s)
Antitiroideos , Enfermedades Autoinmunes , Carbimazol , Enfermedad de Graves , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedades Autoinmunes/inducido químicamente , Enfermedad de Graves/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad de Graves/inmunología , Carbimazol/uso terapéutico , Antitiroideos/efectos adversos , Antitiroideos/uso terapéutico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Insulina , Anticuerpos Insulínicos/sangre , Síndrome , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/efectos adversos
9.
Adv Pediatr ; 71(1): 119-134, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38944478

RESUMEN

To provide a more appropriate foundation for dealing with the problem of hypoglycemia in newborn infants, this article focuses on the mechanisms which underlie the various forms of neonatal hypoglycemia and discusses their implications for newborn care. Evidence indicates that all of the major forms of neonatal hypoglycemia are the result of hyperinsulinism due to dysregulation of pancreatic islet insulin secretion. Based on these observations, the authors propose that routine measurement of B-hydroxybutyrate should be considered an essential part of glucose monitoring in newborn infants.


Asunto(s)
Hipoglucemia , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Hipoglucemia/etiología , Hipoglucemia/diagnóstico , Glucemia/análisis , Glucemia/metabolismo , Insulina , Hiperinsulinismo/diagnóstico , Hiperinsulinismo/etiología
10.
Horm Res Paediatr ; : 1-8, 2024 Jun 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38885633

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Congenital hyperinsulinism (HI) is a rare pediatric disease and the most common cause of severe, persistent hypoglycemia in childhood. It is characterized by the dysregulation of insulin secretion from the pancreas and can lead to irreversible brain damage with lifelong neurodisability. SUMMARY: The global birth prevalence of HI is currently unknown. An evidence-based estimate of HI birth prevalence is essential to improve diagnosis and patient management, to drive clinical research and the development of new treatments, and to inform public policy. In order to estimate the birth prevalence of persistent HI, a targeted literature review of studies that report HI epidemiological data was undertaken, and the strengths and limitations of each study were analyzed. Overall, eight global studies were identified that reported independently determined HI epidemiological data. KEY MESSAGES: The best estimate for the birth prevalence of persistent HI in European-ancestry populations is 3.5 per 100,000 births. Local consanguinity patterns appear to have a considerable impact on the birth prevalence of persistent HI in each country, precluding the application of this figure to all global populations. More epidemiological studies with robust methodology are needed to enable a reliable approximation of the incidence and prevalence of HI in global populations.

11.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 28(2): 145-152, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38911113

RESUMEN

Introduction: Infants born preterm, with low birth weight (LBW), or with perinatal stress are at high risk for neonatal hypoglycemia. Low cortisol levels have also been demonstrated in this group of neonates, which is often transient. We report a series of neonates with transient hypocortisolism who had neonatal hypoglycemia. Methods: A descriptive study on clinic-biochemical parameters of a group of five neonates who had persistent neonatal hypoglycemia and had demonstrated low cortisol on critical sample testing. Results: All five neonates had birth weights below normal and four were born preterm. A history of perinatal asphyxia was seen in four cases and neonatal sepsis in two. During critical sample testing (when blood glucose [BG] was <50 mg/dl), hyperinsulinism (Insulin >2 mIU/ml) was seen in three infants whereas insulin was undetectable in two. The median cortisol during critical sample testing was 1.9 mcg/dl (0.88 - 3.7). Critical GH was normal in all, and ACTH ranged from 7.2 pg/ml to 41.3 pg/ml. None of the infants had overt clinical features of panhypopituitarism or primary adrenal insufficiency. USG brain revealed germinal matrix hemorrhage in two infants, which resolved on follow-up. USG adrenals and electrolytes were normal in all. Four of the five babies were started on oral hydrocortisone, to which they responded well with the resolution of hypoglycemia. No adverse events were noted. On follow-up, the median time to recover of serum cortisol to normal was 4 months. Conclusion: The contribution of transient hypocortisolism to hypoglycemia in infants at risk, including preterm, LBW, or those with perinatal stress, in the presence or absence of hyperinsulinism, is not well known. While the non-specific use of glucocorticoids is not advocated, the role of therapeutic glucocorticoids among at-risk neonates with documented hypocortisolism during hypoglycemia should be an area for research. Close follow-up of these neonates for spontaneous recovery of cortisol levels is warranted.

12.
Diabetologia ; 2024 Jun 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871836

RESUMEN

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Stem cell-derived islets (SC-islets) are being used as cell replacement therapy for insulin-dependent diabetes. Non-invasive long-term monitoring methods for SC-islet grafts, which are needed to detect misguided differentiation in vivo and to optimise their therapeutic effectiveness, are lacking. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to monitor transplanted primary islets. We therefore aimed to apply PET as a non-invasive monitoring method for SC-islet grafts. METHODS: We implanted different doses of human SC-islets, SC-islets derived using an older protocol or a state-of-the-art protocol and SC-islets genetically rendered hyper- or hypoactive into mouse calf muscle to yield different kinds of grafts. We followed the grafts with PET using two tracers, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor-binding [18F]F-dibenzocyclooctyne-exendin-4 ([18F]exendin) and the dopamine precursor 6-[18F]fluoro-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ([18F]FDOPA), for 5 months, followed by histological assessment of graft size and composition. Additionally, we implanted a kidney subcapsular cohort with different SC-islet doses to assess the connection between C-peptide and stem cell-derived beta cell (SC-beta cell) mass. RESULTS: Small but pure and large but impure grafts were derived from SC-islets. PET imaging allowed detection of SC-islet grafts even <1 mm3 in size, [18F]exendin having a better detection rate than [18F]FDOPA (69% vs 44%, <1 mm3; 96% vs 85%, >1 mm3). Graft volume quantified with [18F]exendin (r2=0.91) and [18F]FDOPA (r2=0.86) strongly correlated with actual graft volume. [18F]exendin PET delineated large cystic structures and its uptake correlated with graft SC-beta cell proportion (r2=0.68). The performance of neither tracer was affected by SC-islet graft hyper- or hypoactivity. C-peptide measurements under fasted or glucose-stimulated conditions did not correlate with SC-islet graft volume or SC-beta cell mass, with C-peptide under hypoglycaemia having a weak correlation with SC-beta cell mass (r2=0.52). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: [18F]exendin and [18F]FDOPA PET enable non-invasive assessment of SC-islet graft size and aspects of graft composition. These methods could be leveraged for optimising SC-islet cell replacement therapy in diabetes.

13.
J Clin Med ; 13(10)2024 May 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792494

RESUMEN

This perspective work by academic neonatal providers is written specifically for the audience of newborn care providers and neonatologists involved in neonatal hypoglycemia screening. Herein, we propose adding a screen for congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) by measuring glucose and ketone (i.e., ß-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB)) concentrations just prior to newborn hospital discharge and as close to 48 h after birth as possible, at the same time that the mandated state Newborn Dried Blood Spot Screen is obtained. In the proposed protocol, we do not recommend specific metabolite cutoffs, as our primary objective is to simply highlight the concept of screening for CHI in newborns to newborn caregivers. The premise for our proposed screen is based on the known effect of hyperinsulinism in suppressing ketogenesis, thereby limiting ketone production. We will briefly discuss genetic CHI, other forms of neonatal hypoglycemia, and their shared mechanisms; the mechanism of insulin regulation by functional pancreatic islet cell membrane KATP channels; adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae and brain injury due to missing or delaying the CHI diagnosis; the principles of a good screening test; how current neonatal hypoglycemia screening programs do not fulfill the criteria for being effective screening tests; and our proposed algorithm for screening for CHI in newborns.

14.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 327, 2024 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773407

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Donohue syndrome (DS), also referred to as leprechaunism, is a remarkably uncommon autosomal recessive disorder that primarily affects the endocrine system. Its incidence rate is exceedingly low, with only 1 case reported per 4 million live births. The syndrome is distinguished by a series of characteristic clinical features. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a twenty-month-old male with DS who experienced a range of dysmorphic and clinical features with the involvement of multiple systems. These features include skin hyperpigmentation, hypertrichosis, distinct facial features, abdominal distension, and microcephaly, with the involvement of the endocrine, renal, respiratory, and cardiac systems. CONCLUSION: The primary features of DS involve severe insulin resistance and growth abnormalities, the association with pulmonary hypertension (PHTN) has not been reported before. This finding adds more complexity to the condition. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report for a patient with DS who has PHTN. Further investigation is required since the mechanisms behind the development of PHTN in DS are not entirely understood. Shedding light on this association will contribute to better management strategies and outcomes for affected patients.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Donohue , Hipertensión Pulmonar , Humanos , Masculino , Hipertensión Pulmonar/etiología , Hipertensión Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Lactante , Síndrome de Donohue/complicaciones , Síndrome de Donohue/diagnóstico
16.
Horm Res Paediatr ; : 1-13, 2024 May 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38806014

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: To evaluate and describe the diagnostic process, medical, nutritional, and surgical approach, and neurological outcome, we report data from a large Italian cohort of patients with congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 154 CHI patients admitted to Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù from 1985 to 2022. RESULTS: Hypoglycemia occurred within the first year of life in 85.5% of patients, median time to diagnosis was 1 day (IQR 14 days). Ninety-two percent of patients were treated with diazoxide: 66.9% were responsive. Octreotide was administered to 28.6% of patients: 61.4% were responsive. Forty percent of patients were off-therapy, mostly from diazoxide. Thirty-four percent of patients carried mutations in ABCC8, 12.6% were syndromic, and 9.2% were transient CHI. Surgery was performed in 23/47 diazoxide-unresponsive and 2/95 diazoxide-responsive patients: 64.0% were focal at histology. Combining data from genetics, pancreatic venous sampling, 18F-DOPA PET/CT, and histology, 80.6% resulted diffuse, 16.7% focal, and 2.8% atypical CHI. Post-surgical diabetes developed in 6 patients. Neurocognitive evaluation revealed developmental delay or intellectual disability in 15.7% of 70 patients, mostly of a mild degree. Epilepsy was documented in 13.7% of 139 patients. CONCLUSION: Our diagnostic and therapeutic results are mainly consistent with the international indications and the CHI Global Registry data, with relatively low rates of neurological outcomes. Good outcomes were likely associated with early diagnosis and prompt management of patients because the majority of patients were diagnosed within 2 weeks. Remarkably, it is of utmost importance to spread the knowledge and refer CHI patients to multidisciplinary expert centers.

17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629854

RESUMEN

After birth, healthy neonates undergo a period of altered glucose metabolism, known as "transitional hypoglycemia". During the first 0-4 hours of life, the mean plasma glucose concentration decreases to 57 mg/dL, then by 72-96 hours of life increases to 82 mg/dL, well within the normal adult range. Recent data suggests that transitional hypoglycemia is due to persistence of the fetal beta cell's lower threshold for insulin release, resulting in a transient hyperinsulinemic state. While hypoglycemia is an expected part of the transition to postnatal life, it makes the identification of infants with persistent hypoglycemia disorders challenging. Given the risk of neurologic injury from hypoglycemia, identifying these infants is critical. Hyperinsulinism is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in neonates and infants and carries a high risk of neurocognitive dysfunction given the severity of the hypoglycemia and the inability to generate ketones, a critical alternative cerebral fuel. Screening neonates at risk for persistent hypoglycemia disorders and completing evaluations prior to hospital discharge is essential to prevent delayed diagnoses and neurologic damage.

18.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 12(2)2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575153

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Congenital hyperinsulinism (HI) is the leading cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infants. Current models to study the most common and severe form of HI resulting from inactivating mutations in the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) are limited to primary islets from patients and the Sur1 -/- mouse model. Zebrafish exhibit potential as a novel KATPHI model since they express canonical insulin secretion pathway genes and those with identified causative HI mutations. Moreover, zebrafish larvae transparency provides a unique opportunity for in vivo visualization of pancreatic islets. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated zebrafish as a model for KATPHI using a genetically encoded Ca2+ sensor (ins:gCaMP6s) expressed under control of the insulin promoter in beta cells of an abcc8 -/- zebrafish line. RESULTS: We observed significantly higher islet cytosolic Ca2+ in vivo in abcc8 -/- compared with abcc8 +/+ zebrafish larvae. Additionally, abcc8 -/- larval zebrafish had significantly lower whole body glucose and higher whole body insulin levels compared with abcc8 +/+ controls. However, adult abcc8 -/- zebrafish do not show differences in plasma glucose, plasma insulin, or glucose tolerance when compared with abcc8 +/+ zebrafish. CONCLUSIONS: Our results identify that zebrafish larvae, but not adult fish, are a demonstrable novel model for advancement of HI research.


Asunto(s)
Hiperinsulinismo Congénito , Canales de Potasio de Rectificación Interna , Lactante , Adulto , Animales , Ratones , Humanos , Canales KATP/genética , Pez Cebra/genética , Pez Cebra/metabolismo , Canales de Potasio de Rectificación Interna/genética , Hiperinsulinismo Congénito/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Glucosa , Adenosina Trifosfato
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(8)2024 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673928

RESUMEN

There are two paralogs of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in humans encoded by the GLUD1 and GLUD2 genes as a result of a recent retroposition during the evolution of primates. The two human GDHs possess significantly different regulation by allosteric ligands, which is not fully characterized at the structural level. Recent advances in identification of the GDH ligand binding sites provide a deeper perspective on the significance of the accumulated substitutions within the two GDH paralogs. In this review, we describe the evolution of GLUD1 and GLUD2 after the duplication event in primates using the accumulated sequencing and structural data. A new gibbon GLUD2 sequence questions the indispensability of ancestral R496S and G509A mutations for GLUD2 irresponsiveness to GTP, providing an alternative with potentially similar regulatory features. The data of both GLUD1 and GLUD2 evolution not only confirm substitutions enhancing GLUD2 mitochondrial targeting, but also reveal a conserved mutation in ape GLUD1 mitochondrial targeting sequence that likely reduces its transport to mitochondria. Moreover, the information of GDH interactors, posttranslational modification and subcellular localization are provided for better understanding of the GDH mutations. Medically significant point mutations causing deregulation of GDH are considered from the structural and regulatory point of view.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Molecular , Glutamato Deshidrogenasa , Procesamiento Proteico-Postraduccional , Animales , Humanos , Glutamato Deshidrogenasa/metabolismo , Glutamato Deshidrogenasa/genética , Glutamato Deshidrogenasa/química , Ligandos , Mutación , Primates/genética
20.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; : 19322968241245923, 2024 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616550

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Patients with congenital hyperinsulinism (HI) require constant glucose monitoring to detect and treat recurrent and severe hypoglycemia. Historically, this has been achieved with intermittent self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG), but patients are increasingly using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Given the rapidity of CGM device development, and increasing calls for CGM use from HI families, it is vital that new devices are evaluated early. METHODS: We provided two months of supplies for the new Dexcom G7 CGM device to 10 patients with HI who had recently finished using the Dexcom G6. Self-monitoring blood glucose was performed concurrently with paired readings providing accuracy calculations. Patients and families completed questionnaires about device use at the end of the two-month study period. RESULTS: Compared to the G6, the G7 showed a significant reduction in mean absolute relative difference (25%-18%, P < .001) and in the over-read error (Bland Altman +1.96 SD; 3.54 mmol/L to 2.95 mmol/L). This resulted in an improvement in hypoglycemia detection from 42% to 62% (P < .001). Families reported an overall preference for the G7 but highlighted concerns about high sensor failure rates. DISCUSSION: The reduction in mean absolute relative difference and over-read error and the improvement in hypoglycemia detection implies that the G7 is a safer and more useful device in the management of hypoglycemia for patients with HI. Accuracy, while improved from previous devices, remains suboptimal with 40% of hypoglycemia episodes not detected.

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