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1.
Cell Genom ; : 100604, 2024 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959898

RESUMEN

Insulinomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors arising from pancreatic ß cells, characterized by aberrant proliferation and altered insulin secretion, leading to glucose homeostasis failure. With the aim of uncovering the role of noncoding regulatory regions and their aberrations in the development of these tumors, we coupled epigenetic and transcriptome profiling with whole-genome sequencing. As a result, we unraveled somatic mutations associated with changes in regulatory functions. Critically, these regions impact insulin secretion, tumor development, and epigenetic modifying genes, including polycomb complex components. Chromatin remodeling is apparent in insulinoma-selective domains shared across patients, containing a specific set of regulatory sequences dominated by the SOX17 binding motif. Moreover, many of these regions are H3K27me3 repressed in ß cells, suggesting that tumoral transition involves derepression of polycomb-targeted domains. Our work provides a compendium of aberrant cis-regulatory elements affecting the function and fate of ß cells in their progression to insulinomas and a framework to identify coding and noncoding driver mutations.

2.
Cureus ; 16(5): e61378, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38947643

RESUMEN

Insulinomas are rare functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors that typically manifest with classic hypoglycemic symptoms, such as diaphoresis, palpitations, and tremors. Although infrequent, neuroglycopenic symptoms associated with insulinomas have been reported, often leading to delayed diagnoses. Here, we present the case of a 31-year-old male with pancreatic insulinoma who experienced recurrent episodes of seizures and confusion preceded by diaphoresis, tremors, and palpitations. During these episodes, he was found to be hypoglycemic. Comprehensive evaluations, including brain and abdominal imaging, as well as biochemical and serological testing, were conducted. The findings confirmed a diagnosis of pancreatic insulinoma. The patient underwent surgical resection of the tumor, and a biopsy confirmed the insulinoma diagnosis. He remained asymptomatic during subsequent follow-ups.

3.
Polymers (Basel) ; 16(13)2024 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39000700

RESUMEN

Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) possess the capabilities of differentiation and immune modulation, which endow them with therapeutic potential in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, to investigate the repair mechanism of UC-MSCs in hydrogel on pancreatic ß-cells in diabetes, mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN-6) cells damaged by streptozotocin (STZ) in vitro were used in co-culture with UC-MSCs in hydrogel (UC-MSCs + hydrogel). It was found that UC-MSCs + hydrogel had a significant repair effect on injured MIN-6 cells, which was better than the use of UC-MSCs alone (without hydrogel). After repair, the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the repaired MIN-6 cells were increased, effectively reducing the oxidative stress caused by STZ. In addition, UC-MSCs + hydrogel were able to curb the inflammatory response by promoting the expression of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 and reducing inflammatory factor IL-1ß. In addition, the expression of both nuclear antigen Ki67 for cell proliferation and insulin-related genes such as Pdx1 and MafA was increased in the repaired MIN-6 cells by UC-MSCs + hydrogel, suggesting that the repair effect promotes the proliferation of the injured MIN-6 cells. Compared with the use of UC-MSCs alone, UC-MSCs + hydrogel exhibit superior antioxidant stress resistance against injured MIN-6 cells, better proliferation effects and a longer survival time of UC-MSCs because the porous structure and hydrophilic properties of the hydrogel could affect the growth of cells and slow down their metabolic activities, resulting in a better repair effect on the injured MIN-6 cells.

4.
Endocr J ; 2024 May 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825447

RESUMEN

When a neuroendocrine tumor with abundant blood flow is located in the pancreatic tail, it is difficult to distinguish it from accessory spleen. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who was admitted with impaired consciousness and hypoglycemia, raising suspicion of insulinoma. The selective arterial calcium injection test suggested a lesion in the pancreatic tail. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass in the splenic hilum; however, its continuity with the pancreas was unclear. Contrast-enhanced MRI using super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) showed no SPIO uptake in the splenic hilar mass. SPIO contrast-enhanced MRI is considered useful for differentiating pancreatic endocrine tumors from paraspleen tumors.

5.
Endocr J ; 2024 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839345

RESUMEN

Insulinomas are the most common functional pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm; when treatment is delayed, they induce hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, which is life-threatening. As surgical resection is the only curative treatment for insulinoma, preoperative localization is crucial; however, localization based on conventional imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging is often inconclusive. Somatostatin receptor-targeted imaging is another option for detecting pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms but has low sensitivity and is not specific for insulinoma. The clinical application of other localizing approaches such as selective arterial calcium stimulation and endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is limited by their being invasive and/or technically complex. Moreover, an EUS-FNA specimen of an insulinoma may be negative on insulin immunostaining. Thus, a noninvasive and clinically practical insulinoma-specific diagnostic tool to discriminate insulinomas with high accuracy is anticipated. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-targeted imaging has emerged in the effort to fulfill this need. We recently developed the novel fluorine-18-labeled exendin-4-based probe conjugated with polyethylene glycol, [18F]FB(ePEG12)12-exendin-4 (18F-exendin-4) for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and reported its clinical benefit in a case of insulinoma in the pancreatic tail. We report here a case of insulinoma in the pancreatic head in which an EUS-FNA specimen was negative on insulin immunostaining while precise preoperative localization and conclusive evidence for curative enucleation was provided by 18F-exendin-4 PET/CT (Japan Registry of Clinical Trials; jRCTs051200156).

6.
Cureus ; 16(5): e60395, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38883112

RESUMEN

Insulinoma is a functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET). Usually benign and solitary, these tumors present with recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia due to insulin hypersecretion. It's a rare cause of post bariatric surgery hypoglycemia and hence poses a diagnostic challenge. Here, we report the first case of a 53-year-old male with insulinoma unmasked post sleeve gastrectomy with incidental renal cell carcinoma (RCC). He presented with symptoms of Whipple's triad after two months of sleeve gastrectomy done for morbid obesity. On further inquiry, the patient gave a history of an asymptomatic peripancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) for the past 11 years. With a suspicion of insulinoma, biochemical workup followed by non-invasive imaging like GA-68 DOTA and CT triphasic abdomen scan was done to guide the diagnosis of an insulinoma which also detected a second primary tumor in the right kidney, likely to be a malignant RCC. Following pancreatic mass excision with radical nephrectomy for right renal mass, histopathology (HPE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed the diagnosis of an insulinoma and a right renal clear cell carcinoma. The patient was discharged with no further episodes of hypoglycemia. Hence, persistent hypoglycemia post bariatric surgery could be an indication of a hidden insulinoma and this possibility of synchronous tumors should be kept in mind when dealing with rare tumors like insulinoma.

7.
Methods Cell Biol ; 188: 153-169, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880522

RESUMEN

Pancreatic cancer remains an unmet medical need. Late diagnosis and the lack of efficient treatment significantly impact the prognosis of patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. Improving patient outcomes requires a deeper comprehension of the tumor ecosystem. To achieve this, a thorough exploration of the tumor microenvironment using pre-clinical models that accurately replicate human disease is imperative, particularly in understanding the dynamics of immune cell subsets. Surprisingly, the impact of model variations on the composition of the tumor microenvironment has been largely neglected. In this study, we introduce an orthotopic model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and a spontaneous model of insulinoma. Our findings reveal striking differences in the innate lymphoid cell infiltrate, highlighting the importance of considering model-specific influences when investigating the tumor microenvironment.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Inmunidad Innata , Linfocitos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Microambiente Tumoral , Animales , Ratones , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patología , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/inmunología , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/inmunología , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patología , Microambiente Tumoral/inmunología , Linfocitos/inmunología , Humanos , Insulinoma/patología , Insulinoma/inmunología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL
8.
Surg Clin North Am ; 104(4): 883-890, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38944506

RESUMEN

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors originate from hormone-producing islet cells and have a propensity to metastasize to the liver once they reach 2 cm in size. Their diagnosis relies upon a combination of computed tomography, MRI, DOTATATE PET, and endoscopic ultrasound with or without tissue biopsy. Biochemical work-up is driven by patient symptoms of hormone excess.


Asunto(s)
Tumores Neuroendocrinos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagen , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/diagnóstico por imagen , Endosonografía/métodos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos
9.
J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc ; 39(1): 79-83, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863915

RESUMEN

Background: Insulinoma is one of the causes of recurrent hypoglycemia, one of the chief complaints for emergency department admission. The gold standard in diagnosing insulinoma is a 72-hour fasting test which is inconvenient and inefficient as it requires hospitalization. Research has found that measurement of insulin and C-peptide during OGTT may help diagnose insulinoma. We aimed to assess the diagnostic value of OGTT in diagnosing insulinoma. Methodology: The literature search was conducted on 19 August 2022 using several databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, and ScienceDirect). All studies that measured OGTT as diagnostic tools in diagnosing insulinoma and 72-hour fasting test as reference standard were included. The quality assessment of the selected studies was based on the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine University of Oxford and the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy-2 tool (QUADAS-2). Analysis of the included studies was performed qualitatively. This study was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42022360205). Results: A total of two case-control studies (106 patients) were included, which were at risk of bias and low concern of applicability. Both studies demonstrated that the combination of insulin and C-peptide levels measured during OGTT had high specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value in diagnosing insulinoma compared to the reference standard. A logistic regression model of 8.305 - (0.441 × insulin 2-h/0-h) - (1.679 × C-peptide 1-h/0-h) >0.351 has the highest diagnostic value in one study (AUC 0.97, Sensitivity 86.5%, Specificity 95.2%, PPV 94.1, NPV 88.9). Conclusion: The measurement of 0-h and 2-h insulin and C-peptide levels during 2-h OGTT was found in two small case-control studies with a total of 106 patients to have good sensitivity and specificity. However, due to these limitations, future research is still needed to validate the potential use of OGTT for the diagnosis of insulinoma.


Asunto(s)
Péptido C , Prueba de Tolerancia a la Glucosa , Insulina , Insulinoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Péptido C/sangre , Insulinoma/diagnóstico , Insulinoma/sangre , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangre , Insulina/sangre , Insulina/metabolismo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Secreción de Insulina
10.
Molecules ; 29(9)2024 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731628

RESUMEN

Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) has proven to be a useful method for analyzing various aspects of material science and biology, like the supramolecular organization of (slightly) fluorescent compounds or the metabolic activity in non-labeled cells; in particular, FLIM phasor analysis (phasor-FLIM) has the potential for an intuitive representation of complex fluorescence decays and therefore of the analyzed properties. Here we present and make available tools to fully exploit this potential, in particular by coding via hue, saturation, and intensity the phasor positions and their weights both in the phasor plot and in the microscope image. We apply these tools to analyze FLIM data acquired via two-photon microscopy to visualize: (i) different phases of the drug pioglitazone (PGZ) in solutions and/or crystals, (ii) the position in the phasor plot of non-labelled poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), and (iii) the effect of PGZ or PGZ-containing NPs on the metabolism of insulinoma (INS-1 E) model cells. PGZ is recognized for its efficacy in addressing insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and polymeric nanoparticles offer versatile platforms for drug delivery due to their biocompatibility and controlled release kinetics. This study lays the foundation for a better understanding via phasor-FLIM of the organization and effects of drugs, in particular, PGZ, within NPs, aiming at better control of encapsulation and pharmacokinetics, and potentially at novel anti-diabetics theragnostic nanotools.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas , Pioglitazona , Pioglitazona/farmacología , Pioglitazona/química , Nanopartículas/química , Animales , Línea Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Microscopía Fluorescente/métodos , Ratas , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico-Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Hipoglucemiantes/química
11.
Cureus ; 16(4): e59388, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38817472

RESUMEN

Nesidioblastosis is a term used to describe histologic changes in the pancreatic cell, which are defined by beta cell hypertrophy and the formation of ductoinsular complexes. It is a disease previously most extensively identified in neonates and is a rare cause of endogenous hypoglycemia in the adult population. However, with increasing numbers of gastric bypass surgeries for the management of obesity in recent years, there has been a growing number of populations with post-gastric bypass surgery-related nesidioblastosis. Here, we will present a case of a 60-year-old female with a history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery who initially presented with loss of consciousness and episodes of suspected hypoglycemia. Insulinoma was ruled out, supporting the diagnosis of adult onset RYGB-associated nesidioblastosis.This article was previously presented as a poster presentation at the 2023 Research Symposium, International Conference on Health Disparities, on September 8, 2023.

12.
Cureus ; 16(4): e57793, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721178

RESUMEN

Insulinoma is a neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas, and its identification with bedside ultrasonography (US) is extremely rare. With the aim of providing a comprehensive description of the main US characteristics of this rare form of neuroendocrine neoplasm, we are here describing an interesting case of a young woman with insulinoma, identified by using both bedside and endoscopic ultrasounds.

13.
ACG Case Rep J ; 11(5): e01350, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38746622

RESUMEN

Insulinomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors characterized by episodic hypoglycemia. Typically, insulinomas are benign, solitary, intrapancreatic, and measure less than 2 cm in diameter. When insulinomas are multicenter or recurrent, they are often associated with genetic conditions such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, neurofibromatosis type 1, or von Hippel-Lindau disease. Most insulinomas can be resolved with surgery. Multicenter and recurrent insulinomas, known as insulinomatosis, may require additional medical and surgical management. We report a distinctive case involving recurrent multicenter insulinomatosis devoid of any identified genetic familial predisposition. The patient's complex medical history spans nearly 2 decades, marked by unsuccessful attempts at resolution through surgical enucleation and noninvasive medical management, culminating in the decision for total pancreatectomy.

14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 28(10): e18397, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38766687

RESUMEN

Malignant insulinoma is an extremely rare type of functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour with a high degree of malignancy and a high incidence of metastasis. However, it is still unclear how malignant insulinomas develop and metastasize. Serum amyloid P component (SAP), a member of the pentraxin protein family, is an acute-phase protein secreted by liver cells. The role of SAP in insulinoma and the related mechanism are still unknown. To determine the effect of SAP on insulinoma, we crossed Rip1-Tag2 mice, which spontaneously develop insulinoma, and SAP knockout (KO) mice to generate Rip1-Tag2;SAP-/- mice. We found that SAP deletion significantly promoted the growth, invasion and metastasis of malignant insulinoma through C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) secreted by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Further study showed that SAP deletion promoted CXCL12 secretion by CAFs through the CXCR4/p38/ERK signalling pathway. These findings reveal a novel role and mechanism of SAP in malignant insulinoma and provide direct evidence that SAP may be a therapeutic agent for this disease.


Asunto(s)
Quimiocina CXCL12 , Insulinoma , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas , Ratones Noqueados , Receptores CXCR4 , Animales , Insulinoma/metabolismo , Insulinoma/patología , Insulinoma/genética , Quimiocina CXCL12/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL12/genética , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Ratones , Fibroblastos Asociados al Cáncer/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Asociados al Cáncer/patología , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patología , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteínas Quinasas p38 Activadas por Mitógenos/metabolismo , Eliminación de Gen , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular
15.
Chin Med Sci J ; 39(2): 102-110, 2024 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755752

RESUMEN

Objective To investigate the efficacy of raw corn starch (RCS) in clinical management of insulinoma-induced hypoglycemia. Methods We retrospectively collected clinical data of insulinoma patients who received RCS-supplemented diet preoperatively, and analyzed the therapeutic effects of the RCS intervention on blood glucose control, weight change, and its adverse events. Results The study population consisted of 24 cases of insulinoma patients, 7 males and 17 females, aged 46.08±14.15 years. Before RCS-supplemented diet, all patients had frequent hypoglycemic episodes (2.51±3.88 times/week), concurrent with neuroglycopenia (in 83.3% of patients) and autonomic manifestations (in 75.0% of patients), with the median fasting blood glucose (FBG) of 2.70 (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.50-2.90) mmol/L. The patients' weight increased by 0.38 (IQR: 0.05-0.65) kg per month, with 8 (33.3%) cases developing overweight and 7 (29.2%) cases developing obesity. All patients maintained the RCS-supplemented diet until they underwent tumor resection (23 cases) and transarterial chemoembolization for liver metastases (1 case). For 19 patients receiving RCS throughout the day, the median FBG within one week of nutritional management was 4.30 (IQR: 3.30-5.70) mmol/L, which was a significant increase compared to pre-nutritional level [2.25 (IQR: 1.60-2.90) mmol/L; P < 0.001]. Of them, 10 patients receiving RCS throughout the day for over four weeks had sustained improvement in FBG compared to pre-treatment [3.20 (IQR: 2.60-3.95) mmol/L vs. 2.15 (IQR: 1.83-2.33) mmol/L; P < 0.001). Five patients who received RCS only at night also had a significant increase in FBG within one week of nutritional management [3.50 (IQR: 2.50-3.65) mmol/L vs. 2.20 (IQR:1.80-2.60) mmol/L; P < 0.001], but only one patient who continued to receive RCS for over four weeks did not have a significant improvement in FBG. No improvement in weight gain was observed upon RCS supplementation. Mild diarrhea (2 cases) and flatulence (1 case) occurred, and were relieved by reduction of RCS dose. Conclusion The RCS-supplemented diet is effective in controlling insulinoma-induced hypoglycemia.


Asunto(s)
Hipoglucemia , Insulinoma , Almidón , Humanos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Masculino , Insulinoma/complicaciones , Insulinoma/terapia , Adulto , Almidón/uso terapéutico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Glucemia/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicaciones , Anciano
16.
Front Neurol ; 15: 1371055, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595852

RESUMEN

Insulinomas are rare gastrointestinal tumors with an incidence of 1-3 per million inhabitants annually. These tumors result in excessive insulin production, culminating in hypoglycemia. Such hypoglycemia triggers various central nervous system (CNS) manifestations, including headache, confusion, abnormal behavior, and epileptic seizures, which can lead to misdiagnosis as epilepsy. This case report documents a 46-year-old male who presented seizure-like episodes. Episodes occurred mainly during the night, lasting several minutes to hours. Initial seizures were characterized by bizarre behavior and altered responsiveness. Over time, seizure frequency, complexity, and severity escalated. We managed to record two episodes during long-term EEG and report, as the first ones, the detailed quantitative EEG analysis of these hypoglycemia-related events. EEG changes preceded the development of clear-cut pathological motor activity in tens of minutes and were present in all investigated frequency bands. The development of profound motor activity was associated with other increases in EEG power spectra in all frequencies except for delta. The most pronounced changes were found over the left temporal region, which can be the most susceptible to hypoglycemia. In our patient, the seizure-like episodes completely disappeared after the insulinoma removal, which demonstrates their relationship to hypoglycemia.

17.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1384406, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596681

RESUMEN

Introduction: The autoimmune response in type 1 diabetes (T1D), in which the beta cells expressing aberrant or modified proteins are killed, resembles an effective antitumor response. Defective ribosomal protein products in tumors are targets of the anti-tumor immune response that is unleashed by immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment in cancer patients. We recently described a defective ribosomal product of the insulin gene (INS-DRiP) that is expressed in stressed beta cells and targeted by diabetogenic T cells. T1D patient-derived INS-DRiP specific T cells can kill beta cells and are present in the insulitic lesion. T cells reactive to INS-DRiP epitopes are part of the normal T cell repertoire and are believed to be kept in check by immune regulation without causing autoimmunity. Method: T cell autoreactivity was tested using a combinatorial HLA multimer technology measuring a range of epitopes of islet autoantigens and neoantigen INS-DRiP. INS-DRiP expression in human pancreas and insulinoma sections was tested by immunohistochemistry. Results: Here we report the induction of islet autoimmunity to INS-DRiP and diabetes after ICI treatment and successful tumor remission. Following ICI treatment, T cells of the cancer patient were primed against INS-DRiP among other diabetogenic antigens, while there was no sign of autoimmunity to this neoantigen before ICI treatment. Next, we demonstrated the expression of INS-DRiP as neoantigen in both pancreatic islets and insulinoma by staining with a monoclonal antibody to INS-DRiP. Discussion: These results bridge cancer and T1D as two sides of the same coin and point to neoantigen expression in normal islets and insulinoma that may serve as target of both islet autoimmunity and tumor-related autoimmunity.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Insulinoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Autoinmunidad/genética , Insulinoma/genética , Insulinoma/terapia , Insulinoma/complicaciones , Autoantígenos , Insulina , Epítopos , Inmunoterapia/métodos
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1367068, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38645424

RESUMEN

Background and aims: Most pancreatic insulinomas can be treated by minimally invasive modalities. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the clinical outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided ablation and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in the treatment of pancreatic insulinoma. Materials and methods: Online databases were searched for relevant studies. The primary aim was to compare the rates of adverse events (AEs) and the secondary aims were to compare the clinical and technical success rates, length of hospital stays, and symptom recurrence rates between EUS and MIS approaches. Results: Eight studies with 150 patients were identified that reported EUS-guided ablation outcomes, forming the EUS group, and 9 studies with 236 patients reported MIS outcomes, forming the MIS group. The pooled median age of the included patients in the EUS group was greater than that of the MIS group (64.06 vs. 44.98 years old, p < 0.001). Also, the technical success rate was significantly higher in the EUS group (100% vs. 96.6%, p = 0.025), while the clinical success was significantly higher (6%) in the MIS group (94% vs. 98.7%, p = 0.021). The AE rates (18.7% vs. 31.1%, p = 0.012) and severe AE rates (1.3% vs. 7.9%, p = 0.011) were significantly lower in the EUS group. The median length of hospital stay in the EUS group (2.68 days, 95% CI: 1.88-3.48, I2 = 60.3%) was significantly shorter than in the MIS group (7.40 days, 95% CI: 6.22-8.58, I2 = 42.2%, p < 0.001). The recurrence rate was significantly higher in the EUS group (15.3% vs. 1.3%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: EUS-guided ablation is associated with a lower AE rate and a shorter length of hospital stay, but a higher recurrence rate for the treatment of insulinoma compared with MIS. The EUS approach may be an alternative, even first-line, treatment for poor surgery candidates.


Asunto(s)
Endosonografía , Insulinoma , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Mínimamente Invasivos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Insulinoma/cirugía , Insulinoma/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Mínimamente Invasivos/métodos , Endosonografía/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
Cureus ; 16(3): e56893, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38659544

RESUMEN

This case study reports a rare case of a non-functioning metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET) transforming into a functioning pNET. A 59-year-old male, previously treated with distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, lymph node dissection, liver metastasectomy, and pharmacotherapy, presented with weakness, hypoglycemia, and daily episodes of watery diarrhea. A functioning neuroendocrine liver metastasis expressing insulin and gastrin was identified. Surgical intervention, including left lateral hepatectomy and microwave ablation of multiple intrahepatic lesions, resulted in symptom resolution and uneventful recovery. However, metastatic liver disease re-emerged seven months post-surgery, necessitating chemotherapy. This case highlights the importance of vigilance for symptom development in non-functioning pNETs, signaling potential disease relapse and phenotype transformation, and suggests surgical treatment as a viable option in select cases.

20.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 35(3): 111-119, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619602

RESUMEN

Hypoglycaemic syndromes are rare in apparently healthy individuals and their diagnosis can be a difficult challenge for clinicians as there are no shared guidelines that suggest how to approach patients with a suspect hypoglycaemic disorder. Since hypoglycaemia symptoms are common and nonspecific, it's necessary to document the Whipple Triad (signs and/or symptoms compatible with hypoglycaemia; relief of symptoms following glucose administration; low plasma glucose levels) before starting any procedure. Once the triad is documented, a meticulous anamnesis and laboratory tests (blood glucose, insulin, proinsulin, C-peptide, ß-hydroxybutyrate and anti-insulin antibodies) should be performed. Results can guide the physician towards further specific tests, concerning the suspected disease. In this review, we consider all current causes of hypoglycaemia, including rare diseases such as nesidioblastosis and Hirata's syndrome, describe appropriate tests for diagnosis and suggest strategies to differentiate hypoglycaemia aetiology.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia , Hipoglucemia , Humanos , Hipoglucemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglucemia/sangre , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Glucemia/análisis , Insulina/administración & dosificación
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