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1.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100514], jul.-sept2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-231876

RESUMEN

Purpose: To analyze binocular vision of individuals aged 18 to 35 years diagnosed with keratoconus, utilizing spectacles and rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lenses. Research was led by the Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, México and Fundación Universitaria del Área Andina Pereira, Colombia. Methods: A single center, prospective non-randomized, comparative, interventional, open-label study, in which the differences in binocular vision performance with both spectacles and RGP contact lenses was carried out from December 2018 to December 2019. Sampling was performed according to consecutive cases with keratoconus that met the inclusion criteria until the proposed sample size was reached. Results: Rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lenses notably enhanced distance and near visual acuity in keratoconus patients compared to spectacles. Visual alignment analysis shows exophoria at both distances and is slightly higher with RGP contact lenses. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05), with 82.5 % presenting compensated phoria with spectacles and pnly 42.50% with RGP contact lenses. Stereoscopic vision improved while wearing RGP contact lenses (42.59 %), although accommodation and accommodative flexibility remained within normal ranges. Conclusions: Patients with keratoconus fitted with RGP contact lenses have improved binocular vision skills such as visual acuity, stereopsis, and accommodative flexibility. However, even when the vergence and motor system is decompensated with respect to normal ranges, the range between break and recovery points for both fusional reserves and the near point of convergence (NPC) improves with the use of RGP contact lenses, giving indications of an adaptive condition of the motor system from the medium to the long term.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Queratocono , Anteojos , Lentes de Contacto , Visión Binocular , Pruebas de Visión , Colombia , México , Oftalmología , Estudios Prospectivos
2.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 17(3): 499-508, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721516

RESUMEN

AIM: To assess effectivity and safety of trifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) and capsular tension rings in treating cataract patients with axial high myopia. METHODS: A prospective nonrandomized controlled clinical trial was conducted. Totally 98 eyes (74 patients) who underwent femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) with trifocal IOLs were enrolled in the study and followed up for 2y after surgery: 46 eyes (33 patients) with capsular tension ring implantation in the long axial lengths (AL) group (260.05). The dysfunctional lens index and total modulation transfer function (MTF) average height were similar between the two groups. The postoperative internal coma aberrations in the axial high myopia eyes were significantly higher than that in the normal AL group (P<0.05). The total satisfaction score in the long AL group (91.32±2.76) was slightly higher than that in the normal AL group (90.36±3.47), but there was no difference (P=0.136). A statistically negative correlation was found between corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and dysfunctional lens index (r=-0.382, P=0.009), and between CDVA and the total MTF average height (r=-0.374, P=0.01). But there was no significant correlation between CDVA and total satisfaction score (r=0.059, P=0.696). Postoperative complications mainly presented as posterior capsular opacity (PCO), retinal detachment and cystoid macular edema. There was no difference in the incidence of fundus disease (6.5% vs 3.8%, P=0.663) or PCO (17.4% vs 7.7%, P=0.217) between the two groups at two years. CONCLUSION: The utilization of trifocal IOL and capsular tension ring implantation is beneficial for cataract patients with axial high myopia undergoing FLACS. This approach not only ensures excellent subjective feelings and objective visual quality, but also does not increase the incidence of postoperative complications.

3.
Surv Ophthalmol ; 2024 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710236

RESUMEN

Advancements in diagnostic methods and surgical techniques for keratoconus (KC) have increased non-invasive treatment options. Successful surgical planning for KC involves a combination of clinical science, empirical evidence, and surgical expertise. Assessment of disease progression is crucial, and halting the progression should be the focus if it is progressive. While surgeons used to rely on experience alone to decide the surgical method, comparing the network of primary factors, such as visual acuity, across studies can help them choose the most appropriate treatments for each patient and achieve optimal outcomes. Meticulous tabulation methods facilitate interpretation, highlighting the importance of selecting the correct surgical and rehabilitation approach based on each patient's condition and stage of the disease. We detail the outcomes of a comprehensive network meta-analysis comparing the effectiveness of various combined therapeutic refractive treatments for KC at identical stages of the disease, spanning four distinct follow-up intervals. Additionally, the comprehensive analysis suggests that for corneas with optimal best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) preoperatively (classified as regular), combining phakic intraocular lenses with intracorneal ring segments (ICRS) and corneal cross-linking (CXL) could offer the best therapeutic approach provided the disease stage does not exceed stage 3. For irregular corneas, although initial follow-ups show a significant difference in BCVA with surface ablation, longer-term follow-ups recommend combining surface ablation with ICRS and CXL, especially at higher stages.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712751

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This randomised clinical trial assessed the impact on symptoms, tear film dynamics and ocular surface integrity of daily disposable silicone-hydrogel contact lenses (CLs) over a month, paying special attention to lid wiper epitheliopathy (LWE) and its implications for CL discomfort. METHODS: Neophyte CL wearers (n = 44, 21.09 ± 5.00 years old) were randomly assigned to either the experimental (n = 24) or control group (n = 20). Participants assigned to the experimental group were required to wear daily disposable CLs for 1 month for at least 8 h/day and 6 days/week. All participants were healthy subjects (no history of ocular surgery or active ocular disease) with spherical refractive errors between -8.00 and +5.00 D and cylindrical power <0.75 D. At the baseline and 1-month sessions, the Dry Eye Questionnaire 5 (DEQ-5) was completed, together with the measurement of tear film osmolarity with the TearLab osmometer, tear meniscus height (TMH) and lipid layer pattern (LLP) using a slit-lamp with Tearscope Plus attached, fluorescein break-up time (FBUT), maximum blink interval (MBI), corneal staining with fluorescein under cobalt blue light and LWE with lissamine green under slit lamp and halogen white light. RESULTS: At the baseline session, LWE showed a negative correlation with DEQ-5 (r = -0.37, p = 0.02). Significant differences in FBUT and LWE (p = 0.04) and a positive correlation between LWE and DEQ-5 (r = 0.49, p = 0.007) were observed at 1 month. Intrasession analysis at 1 month showed significant differences between the experimental and control groups in DEQ-5, FBUT and LWE (all p ≤ 0.02). Intersession analysis in the experimental group showed variations in DEQ-5, FBUT and LWE (all p ≤ 0.02) but no significant variation in the control group (all p ≥ 0.11). CONCLUSION: The presence of LWE was significantly correlated with higher symptom values in the DEQ-5. Also, participants in the experimental group presented higher values of LWE after 1 month of CL wear, in comparison with the control group.

5.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 140(2): 72-77, 2024.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742501

RESUMEN

The modern treatment strategy for keratoconus (KC) involves sequential application of medical technologies aimed at stabilizing pathological changes in the cornea and restoring visual acuity. PURPOSE: This study compares the effect of implantation of intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) and fitting of individual scleral rigid contact lenses (RCLs) on visual functions in patients with stage II-III KC after previously performed corneal collagen cross-linking. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Helmholtz National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases examined and treated 34 patients (69 eyes) aged 18 to 33 years with stage II-III KC. The study included patients who had previously undergone standard corneal collagen cross-linking. Depending on the type of optical correction, the patients were divided into two groups: patients in group 1 underwent ICRS implantation using a femtosecond laser; patients in group 2 were fitted with individual scleral RCLs. RESULTS: Improvement in clinical and functional parameters was observed in both groups. A higher clinical and functional result was achieved in group 2. CONCLUSION: For patients with stable stage II-III KC, it is advisable to recommend fitting of individual scleral RCLs for visual rehabilitation.


Asunto(s)
Lentes de Contacto , Queratocono , Esclerótica , Agudeza Visual , Humanos , Queratocono/cirugía , Queratocono/diagnóstico , Queratocono/fisiopatología , Queratocono/terapia , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Esclerótica/cirugía , Implantación de Prótesis/métodos , Implantación de Prótesis/instrumentación , Resultado del Tratamiento , Topografía de la Córnea , Prótesis e Implantes , Adulto Joven , Ajuste de Prótesis/métodos , Adolescente , Sustancia Propia/cirugía
6.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 140(2): 40-46, 2024.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742497

RESUMEN

Extended depth of focus (EDOF) intraocular lenses (IOLs) are the latest IOL designs. In recent years, several models of EDOF IOLs have become available in Russia, two of which (Tecnis Symfony and Acrysof IQ Vivity) are implanted in our clinic. Comparative studies devoted to the results of implantation of the new EDOF IOLs are rare in the available literature. PURPOSE: This article compares the outcomes of implantation of two EDOF IOLs in patients with presbyopia and/or cataract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The prospective study included 60 patients (81 eyes) after implantation of EDOF IOL Tecnis Symfony (32 patients, 45 eyes; group 1) or EDOF IOL AcrySof IQ Vivity (28 patients, 36 eyes; group 2). The mean follow-up period was 3.9±1.3 months. RESULTS: All groups showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in uncorrected near visual acuity (UCNVA), intermediate visual acuity (UCIVA), and distance visual acuity (UCDVA) at the maximum follow-up time compared to preoperative values. In group 1, the best corrected near visual acuity (BCNVA) increased from 0.61±0.10 to 0.82±0.16 at the maximum follow-up time, and in group 2 - from 0.58±0.08 to 0.67±0.12 (p>0.05). Both groups showed a significant increase in best corrected intermediate and distance visual acuity (BCIVA and BCDVA) at the maximum follow-up time. The increase in the indicator compared to the preoperative period was not significant in both groups (p>0.05). The frequency of side optical phenomena was low in both groups. No significant differences were found between the groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: This study presents a comparative analysis of the results of implantation of two different EDOF IOLs. Both lenses were comparable in most of the studied parameters, including providing good distance and intermediate vision, functional near vision, as well as a low frequency of side optical phenomena. In all cases the patients were satisfied with the results of the surgical intervention.


Asunto(s)
Implantación de Lentes Intraoculares , Lentes Intraoculares , Presbiopía , Agudeza Visual , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Implantación de Lentes Intraoculares/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Presbiopía/cirugía , Presbiopía/fisiopatología , Diseño de Prótesis , Estudios Prospectivos , Anciano , Resultado del Tratamiento , Catarata/fisiopatología , Catarata/diagnóstico , Refracción Ocular/fisiología , Percepción de Profundidad/fisiología , Federación de Rusia
7.
Ophthalmol Ther ; 2024 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734806

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this work is to compare 20 intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulas in medium-long eyes (24.50-25.99 mm) in terms of root mean square absolute error (RMSAE), median absolute error (MedAE), and percentage of eyes with prediction error (PE) within ± 0.50 D. METHODS: The data of patients who underwent uneventful phacoemulsification between January 2017 and September 2023 were reviewed. Pre-surgery IOL power was calculated using Holladay1, SRK/T, Hoffer Q, Holladay 2, and Haigis. Three months after phacoemulsification, refraction was measured. Post-surgery IOL power calculations were performed utilizing the following formulas: Barrett Universal II, Kane, K6, Olsen (OLCR), Olsen (standalone), PEARL-DGS, Ladas Super Formula AI (LSF AI), T2, EVO, VRF, Hoffer QST, Castrop, VRF-G, Karmona, and Naeser 2. RMSAE, MedAE, and percentage of eyes with PE within ± 0.25 D, ± 0.50 D, ± 0.75 D and ± 1.00 were calculated. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-four eyes with axial length ranges between 24.52 and 25.97 mm were studied. The SRK/T formula yielded the lowest RMSAE (0.206) just before Holladay 1 (0.260) and T2 (0.261). In terms of MedAE, the best outcome was obtained by SRK/T (0.12) followed by Barrett Universal II (0.15) and LSF AI (0.15). The highest percentage of eyes with prediction error within ± 0.50 D was achieved by SRK/T, T2, and Holladay 1 (97.58, 93.55, and 93.55%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Third-generation formulas (SRK/T, Holladay 1) provided highly accurate outcomes in medium-long eyes and still can be wildly used to calculate IOL power.

8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11727, 2024 05 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778161

RESUMEN

The tear fluid is a readily accessible, potential source for biomarkers of disease and could be used to monitor the ocular response to contact lens (CL) wear or ophthalmic pathologies treated by therapeutic CLs. However, the tear fluid remains largely unexplored as a biomarker source for RNA-based molecular analyses. Using a rabbit model, this study sought to determine whether RNA could be collected from commercial CLs and whether the duration of CL wear would impact RNA recovery. The results were referenced to standardized strips of filtered paper (e.g., Shirmer Strips) placed in the inferior fornix. By performing total RNA isolation, precipitation, and amplification with commercial kits and RT-PCR methods, CLs were found to have no significant differences in RNA concentration and purity compared to Schirmer Strips. The study also identified genes that could be used to normalize RNA levels between tear samples. Of the potential control genes or housekeeping genes, GAPDH was the most stable. This study, which to our knowledge has never been done before, provides a methodology for the detection of RNA and gene expression changes from tear fluid that could be used to monitor or study eye diseases.


Asunto(s)
Lentes de Contacto , ARN , Lágrimas , Lágrimas/metabolismo , Animales , Conejos , ARN/aislamiento & purificación , ARN/genética , ARN/análisis
9.
Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 2024 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741026

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To compare results from different corneal astigmatism measurement instruments; to reconstruct corneal astigmatism from the postimplantation spectacle refraction and toric intraocular lens (IOL) power; and to derive models for mapping measured corneal astigmatism to reconstructed corneal astigmatism. METHODS: Retrospective single centre study involving 150 eyes treated with a toric IOL (Alcon SN6AT, DFT or TFNT). Measurements included IOLMaster 700 keratometry (IOLMK) and total keratometry (IOLMTK), Pentacam keratometry (PK) and total corneal refractive power in 3 and 4 mm zones (PTCRP3 and PTCRP4), and Aladdin keratometry (AK). Regression-based models mapping the measured C0 and C45 components (Alpin's method) to reconstructed corneal astigmatism were derived. RESULTS: Mean C0 components were 0.50/0.59/0.51 dioptres (D) for IOLMK/PK/AK; 0.2/0.26/0.31 D for IOLMTK/PTCRP3/PTCRP4; and 0.26 D for reconstructed corneal astigmatism. All corresponding C45 components ranged around 0. The prediction models had main diagonal elements lower than 1 with some crosstalk between C0 and C45 (nonzero off-diagonal elements). Root-mean-squared residuals were 0.44/0.45/0.48/0.51/0.50/0.47 D for IOLMK/IOLMTK/PK/PTCRP3/PTCRP4/AK. CONCLUSIONS: Results from the different modalities are not consistent. On average IOLMTK/PTCRP3/PTCRP4 match reconstructed corneal astigmatism, whereas IOLMK/PK/AK show systematic C0 offsets of around 0.25 D. IOLMTK/PTCRP3/PTCRP4. Prediction models can reduce but not fully eliminate residual astigmatism after toric IOL implantation.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778634

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Soft contact lenses may be a good alternative for early-stage keratoconus (KC) patients who do not tolerate rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses due to ocular discomfort or complications. This prospective study compared outcomes obtained after 2 weeks of wearing two types of soft silicone hydrogel contact lenses for keratoconus that varied in their diameter and central thickness (cc). METHODS: Patients with Amsler-Krumeich grades I or II KC were fitted with small-diameter (14.2 or 14.8 mm) SoftK (SD-SoftK, cc = 0.48 mm) and large-diameter (17 mm) SoftK (LD-SoftK, cc = 0.60 mm) lenses, each worn for 2 weeks in a crossover design. Low (10%;10VA) and high (100%;100VA) contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity (CS, Pelli-Robson), higher order aberrations (HOAs, Visionix Vx130), the number of trial lens modifications during fitting and the subjectively preferred lens were compared using Friedman tests with post-hoc analysis. RESULTS: Forty eyes (N = 20, 10 males, mean age: 39.0 ± 9.9 years, range: 23-55 years) were examined. Their habitual median (interquartile1, interquartile3) 10VA (LogMAR), 100VA (LogMAR) and CS (LogCS) were 0.52 (0.30, 0.50), 0.14 (0.10, 0.15) and 1.35 (1.35, 1.50), respectively. For the SD-SoftK condition, the values were 0.23 (0.17, 0.30), 0.02 (0.00, 0.05) and 1.50 (1.50, 1.65), respectively. For the LD-SoftK condition, the respective values were 0.36 (0.27, 0.44), 0.09 (0.05, 0.13) and 1.50 (1.50, 1.60). SD-SoftK lenses significantly improved 10VA compared with habitual and LD-SoftK. SD-SoftK also significantly improved CS compared with habitual, but not LD-SoftK. LD-SoftK significantly improved spherical aberration compared with uncorrected (0.03 ± 0.10 µ vs. 0.07 ± 0.13 µ) but not SD-SoftK (0.04 ± 0.07 µ). Both lenses required a mean of 1.5 modifications prior to final lens fitting. Fewer adverse events were seen with SD-SoftK (N = 3) compared with LD-SoftK (N = 8), and 75% of participants preferred SD-SoftK lenses. CONCLUSION: SD-SoftK lenses were preferred by 75% of subjects, were associated with fewer adverse events and significantly improved 10VA compared with LD-SoftK lenses. SD-SoftK lenses also significantly improved CS compared with the habitual correction, but this did not differ significantly from the LD-SoftK lenses.

11.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2024 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38780148

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To manage patient dissatisfaction following multifocal intraocular lens (MF-IOL) implantation by IOL exchange with either a monofocal or an alternative MF-IOL, and to compare outcomes in these two groups. METHODS: MF-IOL exchange was performed in 32 patients (64 eyes) with neuroadaptation failure. The MF-to-MF group involved patients who had a MF-IOL exchanged with another MF-IOL of a different optical profile and the MF-to-MO group involved patients who had a MF-IOL exchanged to a monofocal IOL. Visual outcomes and complications were analysed. The Quality of Vision (QoV) questionnaire, Visual Function Index (VF-14) and its Rasch-revised version (VF-8R) were also used to assess outcomes. RESULTS: There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the QoV scores between the two groups, both preoperatively and postoperatively. Preoperatively, there were no significant differences in VF-14 scores between both groups (p > 0.05). Postoperatively, there were statistically significant differences in VF-14 (total score, intermediate vision and near vision) in favour of the MF-to-MF group (p < 0.05). The postoperative VF-8R score in the MF-to-MF group was significantly better than the MF-to-MO group (p ≤ 0.001). Uncorrected and corrected near as well as corrected distance visual acuities were significantly better (p < 0.05) in the MF-to-MF group compared to the MF-to-MO group at 3 months. CONCLUSION: Patient dissatisfaction and neuroadaptation failure following MF-IOL implantation can be managed by an IOL exchange with an alternative optical design of MF-IOL or a monofocal IOL. Although, in the current study, the MF-to-MF group showed some better postoperative results, both options are feasible solutions.

12.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2024 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697800

RESUMEN

AIMS: To develop a generative adversarial network (GAN) capable of generating realistic high-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images. METHODS: This study included 142 628 AS-OCT B-scans from the American University of Beirut Medical Center. The Style and WAvelet based GAN architecture was trained to generate realistic AS-OCT images and was evaluated through the Fréchet Inception Distance (FID) Score and a blinded assessment by three refractive surgeons who were asked to distinguish between real and generated images. To assess the suitability of the generated images for machine learning tasks, a convolutional neural network (CNN) was trained using a dataset of real and generated images over a classification task. The generated AS-OCT images were then upsampled using an enhanced super-resolution GAN (ESRGAN) to achieve high resolution. RESULTS: The generated images exhibited visual and quantitative similarity to real AS-OCT images. Quantitative similarity assessed using FID scored an average of 6.32. Surgeons scored 51.7% in identifying real versus generated images which was not significantly better than chance (p value >0.3). The CNN accuracy improved from 78% to 100% when synthetic images were added to the dataset. The ESRGAN upsampled images were objectively more realistic and accurate compared with traditional upsampling techniques by scoring a lower Learned Perceptual Image Patch Similarity of 0.0905 compared with 0.4244 of bicubic interpolation. CONCLUSIONS: This study successfully developed and leveraged GANs capable of generating high-definition synthetic AS-OCT images that are realistic and suitable for machine learning and image analysis tasks.

13.
Curr Eye Res ; : 1-10, 2024 May 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38762982

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: A cataract is a cloudy area in the crystalline lens. Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness and the second cause of severe vision impairment worldwide. During cataract surgery, the clouded lens is extracted and replaced with an artificial intraocular lens, which restores the optical power. The fabrication of intraocular lenses using existing molding and lathing techniques is a complex and time-consuming process that limits the development of novel materials and designs. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a stereolithography-based process for producing models of clear lens designs without refractive function, serving as a proof of concept. This process has the potential to contribute toward new lens development, allowing for unlimited design iterations and an expanded range of materials for scientists to explore. METHODS: Lens-like 3D objects without refractive function were fabricated by using stereolithography. A photopolymerizable resin containing 2-phenoxyethyl acrylate, poly (ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate, and a suitable photoinitiator was developed for the production of lens-like 3D object prototypes. The morphology of the printed devices was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The transparency and thermal properties were analyzed using spectrophotometry and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The biocompatibility of the devices was investigated in a cultured human lens cell line (FHL-124), using a standard lactate dehydrogenase assay, and the lenses were folded and implanted in the human capsular bag model. RESULTS: One-piece lens-like 3D objects without refractive function and with loop-haptic design were successfully fabricated using Stereolithography (SLA) technique. The resulting 3D objects were transparent, as determined by UV spectroscopy. The lactate dehydrogenase test demonstrated the tolerance of lens cells to the prototyping material, and apparent foldability and shape recovery was observed during direct injection into a human capsular bag model in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-principle study demonstrated the potential and significance of the rapid prototyping process for research and development of lens-like 3D object prototypes, such as intraocular lenses.

14.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 198, 2024 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38671381

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Postoperative performance, including best corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA) and optical metrics (from the OQAS and iTrace devices), was compared among 4 different intraocular lenses (IOLs). METHODS: This prospective observational study included 104 eyes from 104 subjects who underwent cataract surgery combined with implantation of 4 different IOLs: monofocal (Mon) IOLs, segmental refractive (SegRef) IOLs, diffractive (Dif) IOLs and extended depth of focus (EDoF) IOLs. Postoperative BCDVA and optical metrics were collected at the 6th month. The OQAS optical metrics included the objective scattering index (OSI), Strehl ratio (SR), modulation transfer function (MTF) cut-off frequency, and predicted visual acuity (PVA); the iTrace optical metrics included blur/double vision, glare/halo, starburst, mixed focus, night myopia, and night hyperopia. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in BCDVA among the 4 groups (P = 0.059; power = 70.3%). Differences were observed in all OQAS optical metrics among the groups (all P < 0.001). Overall, Mon IOLs and EDoF IOLs exhibited better performance than Dif IOLs and SegRef IOLs. Starburst was the only iTrace optical metric that differed among the groups (P < 0.001): SegRef IOLs caused more starbursts than Mon IOLs (P = 0.001), Dif IOLs (P = 0.006) and EDoF IOLs (P < 0.001). Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to determine the relationships among the iTrace optical metrics, OQAS optical metrics and BCDVA: starburst was negatively correlated with BCDVA, PVA at contrasts of 100% and 20%, OSI, and MTF cut-off frequency (all P ≤ 0.001); mixed focus was positively correlated with BCDVA, PVA at contrasts of 100% and 20%, OSI, and MTF cut-off frequency (all P ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative BCDVA and optical metrics varied among the different IOLs, which should be taken into account in the selection and management of IOLs for cataract patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was approved by the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University Ethical Review Board (No. 50 2022).


Asunto(s)
Lentes Intraoculares , Agudeza Visual , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Agudeza Visual/fisiología , Femenino , Masculino , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Facoemulsificación , Refracción Ocular/fisiología , Implantación de Lentes Intraoculares , Diseño de Prótesis , Periodo Posoperatorio , Seudofaquia/fisiopatología , Óptica y Fotónica
15.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 257: 116284, 2024 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657379

RESUMEN

Smart contact lenses (SCLs) have been considered as novel wearable devices for out-of-hospital and self-monitoring applications. They are capable of non-invasively and continuously monitoring physiological signals in the eyes, including vital biophysical (e.g., intraocular of pressure, temperature, and electrophysiological signal) and biochemical signals (e.g., pH, glucose, protein, nitrite, lactic acid, and ions). Recent progress mainly focuses on the rational design of wearable SCLs for physiological signal monitoring, while also facilitating the treatment of various ocular diseases. It covers contact lens materials, fabrication technologies, and integration methods. We also highlight and discuss a critical comparison of SCLs with electrical, microfluidic, and optical signal outputs in health monitoring. Their advantages and disadvantages could help researchers to make decisions when developing SCLs with desired properties for physiological signal monitoring. These unique capabilities make SCLs promising diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Despite the extensive research in SCLs, new technologies are still in their early stages of development and there are a few challenges to be addressed before these SCLs technologies can be successfully commercialized particularly in the form of rigorous clinical trials.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles , Lentes de Contacto , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Humanos , Técnicas Biosensibles/instrumentación , Monitoreo Fisiológico/instrumentación , Monitoreo Fisiológico/métodos , Diseño de Equipo
16.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 44(4): 774-786, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578134

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate gaze and behavioural metrics at different viewing distances with multifocal contact lenses (MFCLs), single vision contact lenses (SVCLs) and progressive addition lenses (PALs). METHODS: Fifteen presbyopic contact lens wearers participated over five separate study visits. At each visit, participants were randomly assigned to wear one of five refractive corrections: habitual PAL spectacles, delefilcon A (Alcon Inc.) MFCLs and three separate pairs of delefilcon A single vision lenses worn as distance, intermediate and near corrections. Participants wore a Pupil Core headset to record eye and head movements while performing three visual tasks: reading, visual search and scene observation. Data were investigated using linear regression and post-hoc testing. Parameters of interest included gaze (fixation duration, head movement) and behavioural (reading speed, reading accuracy, visual search time) metrics. RESULTS: Reading speed in SVCLs was significantly faster than in MFCLs and PAL spectacles (F = 16.3, p < 0.0001). Refractive correction worn did not influence visual search times (F = 0.16, p = 0.85). Fixation duration was significantly affected by the type of visual task (F = 60.2, p < 0.001), and an interaction effect was observed between viewing distance and refractive correction (F = 4.3, p = 0.002). There was significantly more horizontal and vertical head movement (F = 3.2, p = 0.01 and F = 3.3, p = 0.01, respectively) during visual search tasks when wearing PAL spectacles compared to SVCLs or MFCLs. CONCLUSION: This work showed that the type of refractive correction affects behavioural metrics such as reading speed and gaze behaviour by affecting horizontal and vertical head movements. The findings of this study suggest that under certain conditions, wearers of MFCLs make fewer head movements compared to PAL spectacles. Gaze behaviour metrics offer a new approach to compare and understand contact lens and spectacle performance, with potential applications including peripheral optical designs for myopia management.


Asunto(s)
Lentes de Contacto , Anteojos , Fijación Ocular , Presbiopía , Lectura , Refracción Ocular , Agudeza Visual , Humanos , Presbiopía/fisiopatología , Presbiopía/terapia , Femenino , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Agudeza Visual/fisiología , Fijación Ocular/fisiología , Refracción Ocular/fisiología , Adulto , Movimientos de la Cabeza/fisiología , Movimientos Oculares/fisiología
17.
Cont Lens Anterior Eye ; 47(3): 102160, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570253

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the differences in contact lens sagittal depth (CL-SAG), base curve (BC), and overall lens diameter (OAD) of daily disposable (DD) SCLs at room temperature (20 °C) and on-eye (34 °C) temperature. METHODS: Twelve different spherical daily SCLs were analyzed (labeled power -3.00 D) at 20 °C and 34 °C. The posterior CL-SAG, BC, and OAD were measured directly using a spectral domain OCT-based instrument (Optimec is830). RESULTS: The CL-SAG range for the daily disposable lenses measured at 20 °C was 3468-4016 µm. At 34 °C, the DD CL-SAG of all lenses individually decreased compared to 20 °C (t = 7.78, p < 0.001), ranging from 3385 to 3913 µm. On average at the higher temperature, the measured overall lens diameter was smaller (t = 8.18, p < 0.001) and the BC was marginally steeper (t = 2.11, p = 0.058). CONCLUSIONS: Soft lens parameters change when equilibrated from room temperature (20 °C) to on-eye temperature (34 °C). All lenses shrink when going to on-eye temperature (both lens diameter and CL-SAG decreases), compared to lenses measured at room temperature by ISO standards. Higher water content materials tend to have greater changes to the lens parameters compared to lower water content material lenses.


Asunto(s)
Lentes de Contacto Hidrofílicos , Equipos Desechables , Temperatura , Humanos , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica
18.
Cont Lens Anterior Eye ; : 102155, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609792

RESUMEN

Presbyopia is often the first sign of ageing experienced by humans. Standardising terminology and adopting it across the BCLA CLEAR Presbyopia reports, improves consistency in the communication of the evidence-based understanding of this universal physiological process. Presbyopia can be functionally and psychologically debilitating, especially for those with poor access to eyecare. Presbyopia was defined as occurring when the physiologically normal age-related reduction in the eye's focusing range reaches a point that, when optimally corrected for far vision, the clarity of vision at near is insufficient to satisfy an individual's requirements. Accommodation is the change in optical power of the eye due to a change in crystalline lens shape and position, whereas pseudo-accommodation is the attainment of functional near vision in an emmetropic or far-corrected eye without changing the refractive power of the eye. Other definitions specific to vision and lenses for presbyopia were also defined. It is recommended that these definitions be consistently adopted in order to standardise future research, clinical evaluations and education.

19.
Adv Mater ; : e2313848, 2024 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583064

RESUMEN

The increasing prevalence of dry eye syndrome in aging and digital societies compromises long-term contact lens (CL) wear and forces users to regular eye drop instillation to alleviate discomfort. Here a novel approach with the potential to improve and extend the lubrication properties of CLs is presented. This is achieved by embedding lubricant-secreting biofactories within the CL material. The self-replenishable reservoirs autonomously produce and release hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural lubrication and wetting agent, long term. The hydrogel matrix regulates the growth of the biofactories and the HA production, and allows the diffusion of nutrients and HA for at least 3 weeks. The continuous release of HA sustainably reduces the friction coefficient of the CL surface. A self-lubricating CL prototype is presented, where the functional biofactories are contained in a functional ring at the lens periphery, outside of the vision area. The device is cytocompatible and fulfils physicochemical requirements of commercial CLs. The fabrication process is compatible with current manufacturing processes of CLs for vision correction. It is envisioned that the durable-by-design approach in living CL could enable long-term wear comfort for CL users and minimize the need for lubricating eye drops.

20.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604620

RESUMEN

AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyse the effective lens position (ELP) in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) and ectopia lentis (EL). METHODS: Patients with MFS undergoing lens removal and primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation were enrolled in the study. The back-calculated ELP was obtained with the vergence formula and compared with the theoretical ELPs. The back-calculated ELP and ELP error were evaluated among demographic and biometric parameters, including axial length (AL), corneal curvature radius (CCR) and white-to-white (WTW). RESULTS: A total of 292 eyes from 200 patients were included. The back-calculated ELP was lower in patients undergoing scleral-fixated IOL than those receiving in-the-bag IOL implantation (4.54 (IQR 3.65-5.20) mm vs 4.98 (IQR 4.56-5.67) mm, p<0.001). The theoretical ELP of the SRK/T formula exhibited the highest accuracy, with no difference from the back-calculated ELP in patients undergoing in-the-bag IOL implantation (5.11 (IQR 4.83-5.65) mm vs 4.98 (IQR 4.56-5.67) mm, p=0.209). The ELP errors demonstrated significant correlations with refraction prediction error (PE): a 1 mm ELP error led to PE of 2.42D (AL<22 mm), 1.47D (22 mm≤AL<26 mm) and 0.54D (AL≥26 mm). Multivariate analysis revealed significant correlations of ELP with AL (b=0.43, p<0.001), CCR (b=-0.85, p<0.001) and WTW (b=0.41, p=0.004). CONCLUSION: This study provides novel insights into the origin of PE in patients with MFS and EL and potentially refines existing formulas.

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