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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38063526

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization has defined collective violence as the instrumental use of violence by people who identify themselves as members of a group against other individuals and have political, economic, or social objectives. In Chile, the "Social Outbreak" was used to describe an episode of collective violence, which began on October 18, 2019, triggered by a multitude of socioeconomic and political factors, with protests and mobilizations in the country's large and small cities; in central, commercial, and residential areas, that lasted for several months, affecting a large part of the population. The objective of the present study was to associate the social outbreak in Chile with its biological, psychological, and social effects on people's health and quality of life, as well as its characteristics in terms of exposure, proximity, type, and frequency. This was a cross-sectional study with non-probabilistic national-level sampling, conducted from 28 November 2019, to 3 March 2020. The instrument had four sections. A total of 2651 participants answered the survey; 70.8% were female, and the mean age was 35.2. The main disturbances perceived were protests (70.9%), alarm sounds (68.1%), shooting sounds (59.0%), and tear gas bombs (56.9%). When quantifying the magnitude of these associations, people who had a medium exposure have a higher probability (OR: 1.99, CI: 1.58; 2.50) of suffering three or more biological effects than people that have a low exposure, while people with higher exposition have a 4.09 times higher probability (CI: 3.11; 5.38). A similar pattern was observed regarding psychological effects, although social effects were primarily experienced by those with high exposure. Social networks, TV, and radio were the most used media among people who perceived a greater effect. People who lived, worked, or shopped near the disturbance's areas show a higher proportion negative effect.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Violencia , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Masculino , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Chile/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades
2.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1145121, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37113117

RESUMEN

On 18 October 2019, the Chilean people witnessed an unprecedented social outbreak across most of their country. We argue that a state of anomie is a factor associated with the weakening of states, and an anomic state might negatively influence people's well-being through an increased feeling of irritation. Convenience recruitment via social networks allowed us to form a sample of 194 Chilean participants from the center-south region of the country (M = 36.53 years old, SD = 17.48; 56.7% women). All participants completed testing instruments to measure anomie, irritation, happiness, and political beliefs. Descriptive scores suggest situating Chile in the quadrant of high anomie. Two mediation analyses were conducted. The main results showed a negative indirect effect of the breakdown of the social fabric and leadership on happiness through irritation, although the findings for the former dimension were more robust. Additionally, the breakdown of the social fabric was positively related to the belief that left and right-wing democratic governments are helpless when it comes to fighting delinquency. The breakdown of leadership, on the other hand, was negatively related to political interest. The results should be interpreted with caution due to the limitations of the sample type and the construction validity of some instruments.

3.
Sleep Sci ; 15(1): 26-33, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662974

RESUMEN

Objectives: To associate the effects of the social outbreak with insomnia and daytime sleepiness according to the distance from the riots. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional analytical study; a non-probabilistic sampling was carried out at a national level. The Google Forms tool was used; a document was submitted using a national database. The instrument consisted of four sections: socio-demographic data, biopsychosocial symptoms, insomnia severity index (ISI), and the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the zero-inflated negative binomial model. Results: Of a total of 2,532 surveyed people, 29% were male; 43% was younger than 30 years old. The 50% of the sample suffers from sleepiness and 71% shows some type of insomnia. The marginal effects of the zero-inflated negative binomial model show that women, people aged 51 or older, who are neither studying a healthcare degree nor working in the healthcare sector, that are exposed to 4 or more hours per day to the news and that live in areas near or very near the riots, have significantly higher ISI (marginal effect 1.356, SE 0.381, p-value 0.000) and ESS scores (marginal effect 0.693, SE 0.320, p-value 0.030). To live/work in rioting areas has the greater marginal effect compared to other determinants. Finally, neither employment status nor educational level are associated with significant effects in the aforementioned scales. Conclusion: The riots occurred during the social outbreak of October 2019 in Chile had an effect on insomnia and daytime sleepiness. Particularly, to live/work in rioting areas has the greater marginal effect compared to other determinants.

4.
Psocial (Ciudad AutoÌün. B. Aires) ; 8(1): 10-10, ene. 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406451

RESUMEN

Resumen El objetivo de este estudio es analizar, en el contexto de Octubre-19 en Chile, el rol mediador de la eficacia grupal sobre las acciones del movimiento social y la rabia dirigida hacia la desigualdad en Chile en la relación entre identificación social con movimientos sociales y participación en acciones colectivas. La muestra se compone por 315 jóvenes chilenos, con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 29 años. Nuestros resultados indican que existe un efecto indirecto de la identidad social con el movimiento social en la participación en acciones colectivas mediado completamente por la rabia hacia la desigualdad en Chile y las percepciones de eficacia en las acciones del movimiento social.


Abstract This study aims to analyze, in the context of October-19 in Chile, the mediating role of group efficacy on social movement actions and anger directed towards inequality in Chile in the relationship between social identification with social movements and participation in collective actions. The sample consists of 315 young Chileans, aged between 18 and 29. Our results indicate that there is an indirect effect of social identity with the social movement on participation in collective action mediated entirely by anger towards inequality in Chile and perceptions of efficacy in social movement actions.

5.
Front Psychol ; 13: 1111184, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37457673

RESUMEN

Introduction: In 2019, there was a period of social outbreaks in several Latin American countries, which share a background of social inequality, distrust in authorities, a crisis of representativeness, and discontent towards social and economic policies. In October 2019, in Ecuador and Chile, participation in these protests was characterized by street protests and broad political participation in social networks and alternative media, which were followed or interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. These facts have been deeply researched, addressing causal and structural factors of the phenomenon, the alternatives of political participation, and the role of emotions as determinants of action in these contexts. The objective of this study is to explore offline and online political participation (Facebook) after the social outbreak of 2019 in both countries, based on political interest, and how emotions intervene, especially negative ones, in a context of high demobilization. Methods: A descriptive, correlational ex post facto and cross-sectional methodology was used, with the participation of 367 people, 210 from Ecuador (57.2%) and 157 from Chile (42.8%), aged between 17 and 48 years (M = 22.13, SD = 3.73). The measurement was carried out from 2020 to 2021. Results: A mediation analysis showed that people who are more interested in politics are more likely to experience anger and anxiety with the political and economic situation, which motivates conventional political participation (Model 1). In Model 2 people who showed greater concern about the political and economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and together with anger, favor online political participation, especially local support. Discussion: These results suggest the influence of emotions on political participation, which occurs when there is an increase in social discontent due to government policies adopted during the pandemic and which represents a continuity of the discontent that was expressed in the October 2019 social outbreak.

6.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 19(1): 176-203, ene.-abr. 2021.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251882

RESUMEN

Resumen (analítico) En este artículo analizamos la participación de los jóvenes en los movimientos alteractivistas de 2011 y los estallidos sociales de 2019, quienes, al parecer, han sido protagonistas de nuevas formas de acción colectiva y conectiva. Desde el enfoque cualitativo de investigación y el método de análisis documental, se revisó un corpus de 61 documentos que comprenden literatura académica e información mediática sobre estos hechos. En los resultados se destacan: la redefinición ontológica y sociopolítica de la condición juvenil a partir de la acción colectiva; el tránsito de prácticas políticas antiglobalización a repertorios de acción colectiva más radicales que buscan resistir a la precariedad y la violencia; y acciones conectivas que transitan de estrategias de replicación a intercambios entre gestores de contenidos y audiencias, por medio de textos multimodales-performativos.


Abstract (analytical) In this article we analyze the participation of young people in the alteractivist movements of 2011 and the social outbreaks of 2019, who, apparently, have been protagonists of new forms of collective and connective action. From the qualitative research approach and the documentary method, we check a corpus of 61 documents about academic literature and media information. The results show: the ontological and sociopolitical redefinition of the youth condition based on collective action; the transition from anti-globalization political practices to more radical repertoires of collective action that seek to resist precariousness and violence; and connective actions that go from replication strategies to exchanges between content managers and audiences, through multimodal-performative texts.


Resumo (analítico) Neste artigo, analisamos a participação dos jovens nos movimentos alterativistas de 2011 e os surtos sociais de 2019, que, aparentemente, foram protagonistas de novas formas de ação coletiva e conectiva. A partir da abordagem qualitativa da pesquisa e do método de análise documental, foi revisado um corpus de 61 documentos que compõem a literatura acadêmica e informações midiáticas sobre esses eventos. Destacam-se os resultados: a redefinição ontológica e sociopolítica da condição juvenil a partir da ação coletiva; a transição das práticas políticas antiglobalização para repertórios mais radicais de ação coletiva que buscam resistir à precariedade e à violência; e ações conectivas que vão desde estratégias de replicação até trocas entre gestores de conteúdo e públicos, por meio de textos multimodal-performativos.


Asunto(s)
Pobreza , Adolescente , Represión Psicológica , Participación Social
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