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1.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 251, 2024 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715097

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite a world-leading educational system, an achievement gap in educational outcomes exists between children of refugee background and native-born peers in Finland. To offer targeted support for children at schools, we need to be able to reliably assess and understand the interplay of the aspects of children's cognitive, social, and mental health functions that may explain the underachievement of refugee children. This study tests a novel research-based, universally applicable screening battery for evaluating cognitive, social, and mental health functioning of children at schools and planning supportive actions. It aims to answer research questions about a) the cognitive, social, and mental health functioning of refugee children compared with non-refugee immigrant and native-born children, b) the interplay of these different functions among refugee and other children, c) whether implementing a screening battery can inform schools in planning supportive actions for (refugee) children, and d) whether such supportive actions result in improvements in cognitive, social, and mental health functioning. METHODS: Four hundred fifty children aged 10-12 will be recruited from primary schools, including 150 children of refugee background, 150 of non-refugee immigrant background, and 150 native-born Finnish children. A screening battery including tasks and questionnaires on different aspects of cognitive, social, and mental health functioning will be used to assess the children in their classrooms at the start and end of a school year. Supporting information will also be collected from parents and teachers. The information gathered will be collated into class-level feedback reports for teachers and, with parental permission, individualized reports for multiprofessional student welfare bodies, for informing supportive actions. Correlational and latent profile analyses, ANOVAs, and linear regression will be used to answer the research questions. DISCUSSION: This study will help clarify how the interplay of cognitive, social, and mental health factors may explain underachievement at school among refugee children. It will provide evidence about the extent to which a standardized screening battery could be helpful in informing and planning supportive actions for children at schools, and whether such supportive actions can lead to positive cognitive, social, or mental health outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study will be preregistered on the Open Science Framework.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Salud Mental , Refugiados , Instituciones Académicas , Humanos , Refugiados/psicología , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Finlandia , Masculino , Femenino , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
Front Surg ; 11: 1280617, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721021

RESUMEN

Introduction: The easy albumin-bilirubin (EZ-ALBI) score is calculated using the equation: total bilirubin (mg/dl) - 9 × albumin (g/dl), and is used to evaluate liver functional reserve. This study was designed to investigate whether the EZ-ALBI score serves as an independent risk factor for mortality and is useful for stratifying the mortality risk in adult trauma patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from the registered trauma database of the hospital and included 3,637 adult trauma patients (1,241 deaths and 2,396 survivors) due to all trauma caused between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2021. The patients were allocated to the two study groups based on the best EZ-ALBI cutoff point (EZ-ALBI = -28.5), which was determined based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: Results revealed that the non-survivors had a significantly higher EZ-ALBI score than the survivors (-26.4 ± 6.5 vs. -31.5 ± 6.2, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that EZ-ALBI ≥ -28.5was an independent risk factor for mortality (odds ratio, 2.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.63-3.28; p < 0.001). Patients with an EZ-ALBI score ≥ -28.5 presented with 2.47-fold higher adjusted mortality rates than patients with an EZ-ALBI score < -28.5. A propensity score-matched pair cohort of 1,236 patients was developed to reduce baseline disparities in trauma mechanisms. The analysis showed that patients with an EZ-ALBI score ≥ -28.5 had a 4.12 times higher mortality rate compared to patients with an EZ-ALBI score < -28.5. Conclusion: The EZ-ALBI score was a significant independent risk factor for mortality and can serve as a valuable tool for stratifying mortality risk in adult trauma patients by all trauma causes.

3.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 85(3): 221-226, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721367

RESUMEN

Objective We completed a prospective human cadaveric study to determine the ability of a ball bearing (BB) pellet to penetrate the orbit and/or surrounding structures. Methods A single trained sergeant officer discharged an alloy steel air rifle to eight cadaver orbits from four adult human cadaver heads. Five BB pellets each were aimed at three locations (caruncle, upper eyelid, or lower eyelid) at 10 cm and 1 m, and then less specifically, at the orbital region for 3- and 5-m distances. Computed tomography (CT) of the cadaver heads was performed. Final locations of BB pellets are divided into three categories: intracranial, surrounding orbital structures including the pterygopalatine fossa and infratemporal fossa, and orbit. Results Of 40 BB pellets, 37 penetrated soft tissue and were visualized on CT: 19 (51%) rested in the intracranial space, 17 (46%) in surrounding orbital structures, and 1 (3%) within the orbit. The deepest position of a pellet was in the parietal lobe, and most superficial location anterior to the frontal bone. Pellets discharged from 1 m were more likely to rest in the intracranial space compared with those from 10 cm ( p < 0.001), 3 m ( p = 0.011), and 5 m ( p = 0.004). The distance of discharge was associated with final pellet location ( p = 0.001). Conclusion BB guns should be considered dangerous and potentially deadly when aimed at the orbit. Although the thick calvarium can protect the intracranial space from BB penetration, the orbit may be a vulnerable entry point with relatively low resistance, allowing penetration of the intracranial and periorbital spaces.

5.
J Anxiety Disord ; 104: 102876, 2024 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723405

RESUMEN

There are significant challenges to identifying which individuals require intervention following exposure to trauma, and a need for strategies to identify and provide individuals at risk for developing PTSD with timely interventions. The present study seeks to identify a minimal set of trauma-related symptoms, assessed during the weeks following traumatic exposure, that can accurately predict PTSD. Participants were 2185 adults (Mean age=36.4 years; 64% women; 50% Black) presenting for emergency care following traumatic exposure. Participants received a 'flash survey' with 6-8 varying symptoms (from a pool of 26 trauma symptoms) several times per week for eight weeks following the trauma exposure (each symptom assessed ∼6 times). Features (mean, sd, last, worst, peak-end scores) from the repeatedly assessed symptoms were included as candidate variables in a CART machine learning analysis to develop a pragmatic predictive algorithm. PTSD (PCL-5 ≥38) was present for 669 (31%) participants at the 8-week follow-up. A classification tree with three splits, based on mean scores of nervousness, rehashing, and fatigue, predicted PTSD with an Area Under the Curve of 0.836. Findings suggest feasibility for a 3-item assessment protocol, delivered once per week, following traumatic exposure to assess and potentially facilitate follow-up care for those at risk.

6.
Burns ; 2024 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724346

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Patients with combined burns and trauma are often seen in the United States. The combination of trauma with burns increases mortality. In contrast, the characteristics and outcomes of these cases remain unknown in Japan. This study investigated the characteristics and outcomes of trauma associated with burns in Japan. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted by utilizing data from the Japan Trauma Data Bank for the period between 2004 and 2017. We evaluated the characteristics of burn patients (n = 5783) divided into two groups: burns only (n = 5537) and combined burns and trauma (n = 246). Clinical characteristics, including patient background, severity of trauma, injury mechanism, total body surface area affected, injury location, treatments, and clinical outcomes, were examined. RESULTS: Most patients in both the groups were injured by flames. The number proportion of patients with 40-89% of the total body surface area affected was 1069/5537 (19.3%) in the burn-only group and 23/246 (9.3%) in the combined burn and trauma group. The in-hospital mortality was 1006/5537 (18.2%) in the burn-only group and 17/246 (6.9%) in the combined burn and trauma group. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the characteristics of Japanese patients with burns only compared with those with combined burns and trauma. Flames were the main cause of burns, and in-hospital mortality was lower in the combined burn and trauma group associated with a smaller burn area.

7.
Psychol Rep ; : 332941241253592, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743484

RESUMEN

There is a growing need for clear and definitive guidelines to prevent firearm violence in communities across the United States. Recommendations explore the utility and feasibility of universal screenings and recommend utilizing universal screening due to a lack of a clear risk to it. Providers should also work to create risk reduction plans with patients as well. Furthermore, recommendations for mental health care, counseling, and bystander training are made for institutions and their providers.

8.
Soc Work ; 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745387

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to examine the associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the high levels of social service usage by women who are sex trafficked. Fifty (N = 50) women who were sex trafficked were surveyed using purposive and snowball sampling methods. The ACEs score for respondents ranged from 2 to 10 with an average score of 7.4 (SD = 2.3). Emotional and sexual abuse tied at 88 percent as the most frequently cited ACEs among the women in this sample. The prevalence of ACEs was significantly higher in this sample compared with known estimates in similar populations, ranging from 20 percent to 54 percent (p < .001). Considering the well-established link between ACEs and poor health outcomes, these findings point to the need for innovative and targeted social service provisions to women who were formerly sex trafficked that take into consideration the high level of ACEs of the women. Given the sociodemographic diversity of this sample, there is a need for services that are trauma-informed, innovative, and culturally sensitive in a variety of social service settings.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747171

RESUMEN

Background: Management of submental gunshot wounds is becoming more common and requires complex surgical decisions. Objective: Compare outcomes of early and definitive reconstructive techniques following submental gunshot wounds. Methods: Retrospective chart review evaluated subjects who sustained a self-inflicted submental gunshot. The incidence of complications requiring unplanned operations was compared for early management techniques of skin/soft tissue, bone, and mucosal lining and definitive reconstructive techniques using Fisher's or Pearson Chi-square exact test with p ≤ 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: The total of 27 patients were included. Early techniques included skin = primary soft tissue closure (n = 19) versus wound vacuum-assisted closure (n = 8); mandible = open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) (n = 19) versus external fixation (n = 8); and oral mucosal lining = primary mucosal closure (n = 20) versus dermal substitute (n = 7). Definitive management included ORIF (n = 10, 37%), ORIF with bone grafting (n = 8, 30%), and microvascular free-flap (n = 9, 33%). The incidence of complications requiring unplanned operation when using dermal substitutes for mucosal lining management was statistically higher than primary closure (p < 0.001); otherwise the complication rates of surgical techniques were equivalent. Conclusion: Several surgical decisions and techniques can be utilized at the time of early and definitive management of submental gunshot wounds. Only the use of dermal substitutes for mucosal lining is associated with a significantly higher rate of unplanned operation.

10.
J Clin Psychol ; 2024 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747513

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for anxiety and depression disorders. Nonetheless, nearly 50% of all patients do not respond. Besides other factors, nonresponse may be linked to traumatic life events. This study aims to assess the relationship between trauma history, applied therapy interventions, and therapy outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed data from 340 CBT outpatients diagnosed with a depression or anxiety disorder and possibly a trauma history treated under naturalistic conditions. Based on their therapy files, we collected information on trauma history, diagnoses, applied interventions, and severity of depression and anxiety symptoms at the start and end of therapy. The relationship between trauma, diagnoses, and intervention use and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms was analyzed using Linear Mixed Models. RESULTS: Patients with a trauma history reported higher pre- and posttreatment symptom severity than those without trauma. No differences in applied interventions or decrease in symptom severity were found between patients with and without a trauma history. Specialized interventions were seldom applied. CONCLUSION: Although no differences between patients with and without a trauma history were found in therapy response, patients with a trauma history maintained higher levels of symptom severity. These results indicate a need for more personalized interventions and evidence-based guidelines to personalize CBT for patients with a trauma history and high symptom severity.

11.
J Clin Med ; 13(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731088

RESUMEN

Traumatic pain is frequently encountered in emergency care and requires immediate analgesia. Unfortunately, most trauma patients report sustained pain upon arrival at and discharge from the Emergency Department. Obtaining intravenous access to administer analgesics can be time-consuming, leading to treatment delay. This review provides an overview of analgesics with both fast onset and parenteral, non-intravenous routes of administration, and also indicates areas where more research is required.

12.
J Clin Med ; 13(9)2024 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731232

RESUMEN

(1) Background: The Festival of Sacrifice, commonly known as Eid al-Adha, has a profound religious and cultural impact on nations with a Muslim majority. This festival is celebrated every year in Muslim countries; however, it is a time in which patients present to the emergency department with serious injuries. In our study, we examined current injuries occurring during Eid al-Adha in one of the largest hospitals in Türkiye, providing the largest patient population to date. This included mapping tendon and maxillofacial injuries, a first in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest case series of injuries sustained during Eid al-Adha. The significance of this study lies in its potential to significantly benefit patients and healthcare systems by providing reference data. (2) Methods: Patients admitted to Ankara City Hospital during Eid al-Adha between 2019 and 2023 were examined. The demographic characteristics, injury patterns, and injury sites of patients admitted on the four days of Eid al-Adha were collected and analyzed. Maxillofacial traumas during the festival were analyzed. Tendon injuries on the left hand, which is the most commonly injured body part in the literature, were mapped into a figure. To compare the change in the number of patients, a comparison was made with the number of patients in our hospital for four consecutive days 2 weeks before Eid. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows. (3) Results: A total of 610 patients, including 101 female and 509 male patients, were included in this study. A statistically significant increase (p < 0.001 for all years) in hospital admission due to injury was observed. Individuals between the ages of 30 and 40 years were the most frequently admitted patients (n = 182, 29.8%). Knife injuries were significantly more common in all patients (p < 0.001). When the total number of patients was evaluated in terms of injured areas where patients present to the emergency department, left-hand injuries were found to be significantly more common than injuries in other areas (p < 0.001 for all). The extensor pollicus longus tendon was the most commonly injured tendon among all extensor and flexor tendon injuries (n = 104). The most commonly injured tendon was the flexor tendon in zone 2 of the first finger (n = 45). This study showed that injuries to the extensor tendon in zone 1 of the fifth finger, the flexor tendon in zone 4 of the first finger, and the flexor tendon in zone 1 of the fifth finger were never seen. Twenty-five patients with maxillofacial injuries were admitted to the hospital. Orbital floor fractures were the most common type of maxillofacial injury. The anesthesia technique we preferred for all patients was local anesthesia (n = 267). Wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT) was the second most preferred anesthetic technique. The number of patients who were selected in a random 4-day period for each year were compared with the number of patients who came during Eid al-Adha. The Mann-Whitney U tests revealed a significant increase in injuries on the first day of Eid al-Adha compared to non-festival days (p < 0.001). However, no significant differences were observed on the subsequent days or in the overall injury counts during the festival period (p = 0.841 for day 2, p = 0.151 for day 3, p = 0.310 for day 4). (4) Conclusions: According to this study, which is the largest known case series in the literature, the number of patients admitted to the hospital increased annually. In our study, we observed a significant increase in injuries only on the first day of Eid al-Adha compared to a randomly selected 4-day period of the same year. Left-hand extensor tendon injuries from a knife were the most common injuries in middle-aged men. The extensor pollicis longus tendon was the most commonly injured extensor tendon, with zones 3 and 4 being the most commonly affected. The flexor pollicis longus tendon was the most commonly injured flexor tendon in zone 2. During this period, patients may not only need hand surgery but also maxillofacial plastic surgery. We recommend, in addition to the indications I,n the literature that during Eid al-Adha, the WALANT technique should be widely adopted in patients where local anesthesia will be insufficient. We also recommend utilizing a diagram to manage the patient load during Eid al-Adha and prevent overburdening the healthcare system.

13.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 14(9)2024 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732372

RESUMEN

Previous investigations have found a correlation between abnormal curvatures and a variety of patient complaints such as cervical pain and disability. However, no study has shown that loss of the cervical curve is a direct result of exposure to a motor vehicle collision (MVC). This investigation presents a retrospective consecutive case series of patients with both a pre-injury cervical lateral radiograph (CLR) and a post-injury CLR after exposure to an MVC. Computer analysis of digitized vertebral body corners on CLRs was performed to investigate the possible alterations in the geometric alignment of the sagittal cervical curve. METHODS: Three spine clinic records were reviewed over a 2-year period, looking for patients where both an initial lateral cervical X-ray and an examination were performed prior to the patient being exposed to a MVC; afterwards, an additional exam and radiographic analysis were obtained. A total of 41 patients met the inclusion criteria. Examination records of pain intensity on numerical pain rating scores (NPRS) and neck disability index (NDI), if available, were analyzed. The CLRs were digitized and modeled in the sagittal plane using curve fitting and the least squares error approach. Radiographic variables included total cervical curve (ARA C2-C7), Chamberlain's line to horizontal (skull flexion), horizontal translation of C2 relative to C7, segmental translations (retrolisthesis and anterolisthesis), and circular modelling radii. RESULTS: There were 15 males and 26 females with an age range of 8-65 years. Most participants were drivers (28) involved in rear-end impacts (30). The pre-injury NPRS was 2.7 while the post injury was 5.0; p < 0.001. The NDI was available on 24/41 (58.5%) patients and increased after the MVC from 15.7% to 32.8%, p < 0.001. An altered cervical curvature was identified following exposure to MVC, characterized by an increase in the mean radius of curvature (265.5 vs. 555.5, p < 0.001) and an approximate 8° reduction of lordosis from C2-C7; p < 0.001. The mid-cervical spine (C3-C5) showed the greatest curve reduction with an averaged localized mild kyphosis at these levels. Four participants (10%) developed segmental translations that were just below the threshold of instability, segmental translations < 3.5 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The post-exposure MVC cervical curvature was characterized by an increase in radius of curvature, an approximate 8° reduction in C2-C7 lordosis, a mild kyphosis of the mid-cervical spine, and a slight increase in anterior translation of C2-C7 sagittal balance. The modelling result indicates that the post-MVC cervical sagittal alignment approximates a second-order buckling alignment, indicating a significant alteration in curve geometry. Future biomechanics experiments and clinical investigations are needed to confirm these findings.

14.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 14(9)2024 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732381

RESUMEN

We report the case of a 61-year-old woman who was referred to the Oral Surgery and Implantology Unit of the University Hospitals of Geneva to take care of edentulous sites after the dental avulsions of teeth 11 and 21 following traumatic shock due to endotracheal intubation under general anesthesia. The dental history revealed that the patient had a history of generalized chronic periodontitis that had been treated several years earlier. The treatment consisted, for the first time to our knowledge, of the immediate insertion of implants at sites 11 and 21 with simultaneous bone augmentation in a single surgical procedure and immediate restorations.

15.
Radiol Case Rep ; 19(8): 2992-2995, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737182

RESUMEN

The occurrence of testicular dislocation resulting from blunt trauma to the scrotum or abdominopelvic region is infrequent. Due to the presence of significant associated injuries, the diagnosis of this condition can often be missed. This case study presents a case of an adult male who experienced bilateral testicular dislocation following a motorbike accident. Additionally, a concise review of relevant literature is included.

16.
J Affect Disord Rep ; 162024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737193

RESUMEN

Background: Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) has detrimental impacts on neural development, especially hippocampal morphometry. Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) has been shown to induce adaptive hippocampal changes especially at the subiculum. The present study aims to investigate the effects of MBI on subiculum volumes among ACE survivors, as well as the effects on episodic memory as a probe into hippocampal functionality. Methods: We analyzed anatomical MRI data and performance indices from an episodic memory task called the Mnemonic Similarity Task (MST) collected from a randomized controlled longitudinal study that compared an 8-week MBI (N = 20) to an active control condition of Stress Management Education (SME) (N = 19). FreeSurfer 6.0 was used for automated hippocampal subfield segmentation and volumetric estimation. Results: Significant group differences were observed with the volumetric changes of the right whole hippocampus and right subiculum. Only the MBI group showed improved pattern separation capability from MST, which was associated with stress reduction and right subiculum volumetric changes. Limitations: Modest sample size. MST task was performed outside of MRI. Conclusions: These findings suggest beneficial effects of MBI for hippocampal volumes and episodic memory, while highlighting the importance of the subiculum for MBI-induced neural and cognitive changes. The subiculum's known role in inhibitory control was interpreted as a potential mechanism for it to exhibit MBI-induced volumetric changes, which sheds light on the potential neural underpinnings of mindfulness meditation for reducing stress reactivity among ACE survivors.

17.
Anaesth Rep ; 12(1): e12299, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737502

RESUMEN

The anaesthetic management of multiple traumatic injuries poses numerous challenges. In this report, we present the cases of two patients with polytrauma including pneumothoraces and multiple rib fractures. The first patient, a 39-year-old man, presented with multiple left upper limb fractures, multiple bilateral rib fractures, bilateral pneumothoraces and fractures of multiple facial and cranial bones. The second patient, a 39-year-old woman, presented with right-sided radial and ulnar fractures, a right-sided pelvic fracture, and multiple right-sided rib fractures with an associated pneumothorax. We used ultrasound-guided superficial cervical plexus, interscalene and supraclavicular blocks in the first case and a combined spinal and epidural after ultrasound-guided fascia iliaca and supraclavicular blocks in the second case. In both cases, the use of multiple regional techniques allowed us to avoid the risks of general anaesthesia in patients with conservatively managed pneumothoraces.

18.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 9(1): e001280, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737811

RESUMEN

Background: Tiered trauma team activation (TTA) allows systems to optimally allocate resources to an injured patient. Target undertriage and overtriage rates of <5% and <35% are difficult for centers to achieve, and performance variability exists. The objective of this study was to optimize and externally validate a previously developed hospital trauma triage prediction model to predict the need for emergent intervention in 6 hours (NEI-6), an indicator of need for a full TTA. Methods: The model was previously developed and internally validated using data from 31 US trauma centers. Data were collected prospectively at five sites using a mobile application which hosted the NEI-6 model. A weighted multiple logistic regression model was used to retrain and optimize the model using the original data set and a portion of data from one of the prospective sites. The remaining data from the five sites were designated for external validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and the area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC) were used to assess the validation cohort. Subanalyses were performed for age, race, and mechanism of injury. Results: 14 421 patients were included in the training data set and 2476 patients in the external validation data set across five sites. On validation, the model had an overall undertriage rate of 9.1% and overtriage rate of 53.7%, with an AUROC of 0.80 and an AUPRC of 0.63. Blunt injury had an undertriage rate of 8.8%, whereas penetrating injury had 31.2%. For those aged ≥65, the undertriage rate was 8.4%, and for Black or African American patients the undertriage rate was 7.7%. Conclusion: The optimized and externally validated NEI-6 model approaches the recommended undertriage and overtriage rates while significantly reducing variability of TTA across centers for blunt trauma patients. The model performs well for populations that traditionally have high rates of undertriage. Level of evidence: 2.

19.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 9(1): e001310, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737815

RESUMEN

Background: Blood transfusions have become a vital intervention in trauma care. There are limited data on the safety and effectiveness of submassive transfusion (SMT), that is defined as receiving less than 10 units packed red blood cells (PRBCs) in the first 24 hours. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet transfusions in patients undergoing SMT. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort, reviewing the Trauma Quality Improvement Program database spanning 3 years (2016 to 2018). Adult patients aged 18 years and older who had received at least 1 unit of PRBC within 24 hours were included in the study. We used a multivariate regression model to analyze the cut-off units of combined resuscitation (CR) (which included PRBCs along with at least one unit of FFP and/or platelets) that leads to survival improvement. Patients were then stratified into two groups: those who received PRBC alone and those who received CR. Propensity score matching was performed in a 1:1 ratio. Results: The study included 85 234 patients. Based on the multivariate regression model, transfusion of more than 3 units of PRBC with at least 1 unit of FFP and/or platelets demonstrated improved mortality compared with PRBC alone. Among 66 319 patients requiring SMT and >3 units of PRBCs, 25 978 received PRBC alone, and 40 341 received CR. After propensity matching, 4215 patients were included in each group. Patients administered CR had a lower rate of complications (15% vs 26%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (3% vs 5%) and acute kidney injury (8% vs 11%). Rates of sepsis and venous thromboembolism were similar between the two groups. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that patients receiving 4 to 7 units of PRBC alone had significantly higher ORs for mortality than those receiving CR. Conclusion: Trauma patients requiring more than 3 units of PRBCs who received CR with FFP and platelets experienced improved survival and reduced complications. Level of evidence: Level III retrospective study.

20.
Cureus ; 16(4): e57946, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737996

RESUMEN

Mesiodens are common supernumerary teeth that prominently erupt in the midline between the maxillary central incisors. If two or more mesiodens are present, they are termed mesiodentes, indicating the presence of multiple supernumerary teeth in the midline. These often cause aesthetic disharmony in the anterior teeth due to their abnormal position, leading to extraction in most cases and resulting in midline diastema when impacted or partially erupted. This case is uncommon, as the patient expressed a desire to preserve their mesiodens as a distinctive feature, considering them a familial trait worth retaining. The family history of the patient revealed the occurrence of mesiodens in three generations, highlighting a hereditary pattern of supernumerary teeth within the family. The endodontic therapy involving root canal treatment successfully treated the mesiodens, alleviating pain, and preserving them as desired.

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