Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 372
Filtrar
1.
Acad Radiol ; 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614828

RESUMEN

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Neurological complications associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been reported in children; however, data on neuroimaging findings remain limited. This study aimed to comprehensively examine neuroimaging patterns of COVID-19 in children and their relationship with clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study involved reviewing the medical records and MRI scans of 95 children who developed new neurological symptoms within 2-4 weeks of clinical and laboratory confirmation of COVID-19. Patients were categorized into four groups based on guidelines approved by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Initial brain/spinal MRI was performed. Images were reviewed by three blinded radiologists, and the findings were analyzed and categorized based on the observed patterns in the brain and spinal cord. Follow-up MRI was performed and analyzed to track lesion progression. RESULTS: Encephalopathy was the most common neurological symptom (50.5%). The most common initial MRI involvement patterns were non-confluent multifocal hyperintense white matter (WM) lesions (36.8%) and ischemia (18.9%). Most patients who underwent follow-up MRI (n = 56) showed complete resolution (69.9%); however, some patients developed encephalomalacia and myelomalacia (23.2% and 7.1%, respectively). Non-confluent hyperintense WM lesions were associated with good outcomes (45.9%, P = 0.014), whereas ischemia and hemorrhage were associated with poor outcomes (44.1%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study revealed diverse neuroimaging patterns in pediatric COVID-19 patients. Non-confluent WM lesions were associated with good outcomes, whereas ischemia and hemorrhage were associated with poorer prognoses. Understanding these patterns is crucial for their early detection, accurate diagnosis, and appropriate management.

2.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 85: 105558, 2024 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569381

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neuro-Behçet's disease (NBD) is defined as primary neurological involvement in patients with systemic symptoms of BD. The variety of clinical presentations seen in NBD and the long list of similar conditions make diagnosis challenging. This retrospective study aimed to estimate the prevalence and describe neurological involvement in patients with Behçet's disease who presented to King Abdulaziz Medical Cities in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This was a retrospective, cohort study which utilized a non-probability consecutive sampling technique to include all patients diagnosed with NBD patients. All patients with BD (215) were screened for neurological symptoms. Thirty-five patients were found to be diagnosed with NBD. Outcomes were estimated using the modified Rankin scale (mRS). RESULTS: In our cohort, one in six patients with BD was diagnosed with NBD. A total of 35 patients were diagnosed with NBD (mean age 27.56 ± 10.36 years; [2.88:1; Male: Female]). The main clinical features of NBD were headaches, weakness, unsteadiness, and dysarthria. The most commonly involved sites on imaging were the brainstem, diencephalon, cerebellum and basal ganglia. Oligocolonal bands were negative in all patients. Maintenance therapy most commonly included oral corticosteroids, azathioprine, and/or infliximab. Most patients received pulse corticosteroids alone when presenting with acute relapse. Half of our cohort was asymptomatic and three in four had favorable outcomes. CONCLUSION: NBD is common among patients with BD in our population with most patients having favorable outcomes. Patients might have a wide array of symptoms which might make the diagnosis challenging.

3.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2024 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429545

RESUMEN

There are increasing reports of neurological manifestation in children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the frequency and clinical outcomes of in hospitalized children infected with the Omicron variant are unknown. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics, neurological manifestations, and risk factor associated with poor prognosis of hospitalized children suffering from COVID-19 due to the Omicron variant. Participants included children older than 28 days and younger than 18 years. Patients were recruited from December 10, 2022 through January 5, 2023. They were followed up for 30 days. A total of 509 pediatric patients hospitalized with the Omicron variant infection were recruited into the study. Among them, 167 (32.81%) patients had neurological manifestations. The most common manifestations were febrile convulsions (n = 90, 53.89%), viral encephalitis (n = 34, 20.36%), epilepsy (n = 23, 13.77%), hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (n = 9, 5.39%), and acute necrotizing encephalopathy (n = 6, 3.59%). At discharge, 92.81% of patients had a good prognosis according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (scores ≥ 4). However, 7.19% had a poor prognosis. Eight patients died during the follow-up period with a cumulative 30-day mortality rate of 4.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-8.1). Multivariate analysis revealed that albumin (odds ratio 0.711, 95% CI 0.556-0.910) and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) levels (odds ratio 1.033, 95% CI 1.004-1.063) were independent risk factors of poor prognosis due to neurological manifestations. The area under the curve for the prediction of poor prognosis with albumin and CK-MB was 0.915 (95%CI 0.799-1.000), indicating that these factors can accurately predict a poor prognosis.          Conclusion: In this study, 32.8% of hospitalized children suffering from COVID-19 due to the Omicron variant infection experienced neurological manifestations. Baseline albumin and CK-MB levels could accurately predict poor prognosis in this patient population. What is Known: • Neurological injury has been reported in SARS-CoV-2 infection; compared with other strains, the Omicron strain is more likely to cause neurological manifestations in adults. • Neurologic injury in adults such as cerebral hemorrhage and epilepsy has been reported in patients with Omicron variant infection. What is New: • One-third hospitalized children with Omicron infection experience neurological manifestations, including central nervous system manifestations and peripheral nervous system manifestations. • Albumin and CK-MB combined can accurately predict poor prognosis (AUC 0.915), and the 30-day mortality rate of children with Omicron variant infection and neurological manifestations was 4.8%.

4.
Cureus ; 16(1): e53142, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38420059

RESUMEN

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by diverse manifestations, notably in dermatological and neurological domains. This review aims to synthesize the current understanding of these manifestations and their impact on long-term prognosis. Adhering to PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a comprehensive search across multiple databases, focusing on studies exploring SLE's dermatological and neurological aspects. Selected studies were analyzed to understand their epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and impact on prognosis. Six pivotal studies were reviewed, highlighting the severity of neuropsychiatric SLE, the progression of skin diseases, and their systemic implications. Notably, studies underscored the role of high disease activity and specific antibodies in the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms and the progression of cutaneous manifestations. The review emphasizes the need for an interdisciplinary approach to managing SLE, considering the interplay between its dermatological and neurological manifestations. It suggests that tailored treatment strategies, early detection, and comprehensive care are crucial for improving patient outcomes. This synthesis provides a foundation for future research to develop integrated care protocols and advance patient care in SLE.

5.
Cureus ; 16(1): e51586, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38313931

RESUMEN

Neurological problems are more frequently linked to dengue, a mosquito-transmitted virus common in tropical areas. This review study thoroughly examines the effects of dengue on adult males' neurological systems. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS) can develop in severe cases of dengue fever caused by the dengue virus (DENV). Unsettlingly, it is thought that a sizable portion of DENV infections impact the central nervous system (CNS), which calls into question the former theory that the DENV is not neurotropic. This review dissects the many neurological manifestations of dengue, spanning from encephalopathy, encephalitis, and other CNS implications to peripheral neuromuscular issues, through the systematic analysis of publications gathered from PubMed. The essay emphasizes the immunological reactions brought on by DENV infections and offers a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology. Given that they exhibit similar first symptoms, Zika and chikungunya are two more illnesses that must be distinguished from dengue. The mainstay of current diagnostic methods is serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests, although supportive care is still used. This review highlights the importance of tracking neurological symptoms in dengue patients and encourages more studies in this area.

6.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 86(1): 392-400, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38222724

RESUMEN

Objective: Snakebites, a major health concern in developing countries, affect rural farming communities. Venom, primarily neurotoxin, injected during a snake bite disrupts the nervous system, causing symptoms like muscle weakness, paralysis, altered sensation, and coordination issues. This review focuses on evaluating neurological and neuro-ophthalmological manifestations associated with snakebites. Methods: A database search was conducted in EMBASE and PubMed for studies published from 2000 to 2023. The investigation centered on examining neurological and neuro-ophthalmological symptoms and signs, treatment approaches, treatment outcomes, and long-term complications of snake bites. Results: Neurological and neuro-ophthalmological symptoms were common in both neurotoxic and hemotoxic snake bites, especially in neurotoxic cases. Ptosis was a prevalent manifestation across various snake bites, along with respiratory paralysis, limb weakness, dysphasia, and visual disturbances in some instances. However, most patients improved without residual neurological symptoms after treatment. Conclusions: Understanding patterns of neurological manifestations contributes valuable insights for the comprehensive management of snakebite.

7.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(1)2024 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38275611

RESUMEN

Cranio-lenticulo-sutural dysplasia (CLSD, OMIM #607812) is a rare genetic condition characterized by late-closing fontanels, skeletal defects, dysmorphisms, and congenital cataracts that are caused by bi-allelic or monoallelic variants in the SEC23A gene. Autosomal recessive inheritance (AR-CLSD) has been extensively documented in several cases with homozygous or compound heterozygous variants in SEC23A, whereas autosomal dominant inheritance (AD-CLSD) involving heterozygous inherited variants has been reported just in three patients. The SEC23A gene encodes for one of the main components of a protein coat complex known as coat-protein-complex II (COPII), responsible for the generation of the envelope of the vesicles exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) toward the Golgi complex (GC). AR-CLSD and AD-CLSD exhibit common features, although each form also presents distinctive and peculiar characteristics. Herein, we describe a rare case of a 10-year-old boy with a history of an anterior fontanel that closed only at the age of 9. The patient presents with short proportionate stature, low weight, and neurological impairment, including intellectual disability, global developmental delay, abnormal coordination, dystonia, and motor tics, along with dysmorphisms such as a wide anterior fontanel, hypertelorism, frontal bossing, broad nose, high-arched palate, and micrognathia. Trio clinical exome was performed, and a de novo heterozygous missense variant in SEC23A (p.Arg716Cys) was identified. This is the first reported case of CLSD caused by a de novo heterozygous missense variant in SEC23A presenting specific neurological manifestations never described before. For the first time, we have conducted a comprehensive phenotype-genotype correlation using data from our patient and the eight most well-documented cases in the literature. Our work has allowed us to identify the main specific and characteristic signs of both forms of CLSD (AR-CLSD, AD CLSD), offering valuable insights that can guide physicians in the diagnostic process. Notably, detailed descriptions of neurological features such as intellectual disability, global developmental delay, and motor impairment have not been documented before. Furthermore, our literature overview is crucial in the current landscape of CLSD due to the absence of guidelines for the clinical diagnosis and proper follow-up of these patients, especially during childhood.


Asunto(s)
Discapacidad Intelectual , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular , Masculino , Humanos , Niño , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Discapacidad Intelectual/genética , Discapacidad Intelectual/metabolismo , Mutación Missense , Retículo Endoplásmico/metabolismo , Aparato de Golgi/metabolismo
8.
Rev Med Virol ; 34(1): e2503, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38282397

RESUMEN

The diverse and severe nature of neurological manifestations associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) has garnered increasing attention. Exploring the potential to decrease neurological complications in Covid-19 patients involves targeting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway as a therapeutic strategy. The mTOR pathway, widely recognised for its central role in essential cellular processes like synthesising proteins, facilitating autophagy, and modulating immune responses, has implications in various neurological disorders. Drawing parallels between these disorders and the observed neurological complications in Covid-19, we present a comprehensive review on the current understanding of mTOR signalling in the context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and neuroinflammation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR , Humanos , COVID-19/complicaciones , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/etiología , Transducción de Señal , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo
9.
Neuroepidemiology ; 58(2): 120-133, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38272015

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the prevalence of thirteen neurological manifestations in people affected by COVID-19 during the acute phase and at 3, 6, 9 and 12-month follow-up time points. METHODS: The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022325505). MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, and the Cochrane Library were used as information sources. Eligible studies included original articles of cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and case series with ≥5 subjects that reported the prevalence and type of neurological manifestations, with a minimum follow-up of 3 months after the acute phase of COVID-19 disease. Two independent reviewers screened studies from January 1, 2020, to June 16, 2022. The following manifestations were assessed: neuromuscular disorders, encephalopathy/altered mental status/delirium, movement disorders, dysautonomia, cerebrovascular disorders, cognitive impairment/dementia, sleep disorders, seizures, syncope/transient loss of consciousness, fatigue, gait disturbances, anosmia/hyposmia, and headache. The pooled prevalence and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated at the six pre-specified times. RESULTS: 126 of 6,565 screened studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria, accounting for 1,542,300 subjects with COVID-19 disease. Of these, four studies only reported data on neurological conditions other than the 13 selected. The neurological disorders with the highest pooled prevalence estimates (per 100 subjects) during the acute phase of COVID-19 were anosmia/hyposmia, fatigue, headache, encephalopathy, cognitive impairment, and cerebrovascular disease. At 3-month follow-up, the pooled prevalence of fatigue, cognitive impairment, and sleep disorders was still 20% and higher. At six- and 9-month follow-up, there was a tendency for fatigue, cognitive impairment, sleep disorders, anosmia/hyposmia, and headache to further increase in prevalence. At 12-month follow-up, prevalence estimates decreased but remained high for some disorders, such as fatigue and anosmia/hyposmia. Other neurological disorders had a more fluctuating occurrence. DISCUSSION: Neurological manifestations were prevalent during the acute phase of COVID-19 and over the 1-year follow-up period, with the highest overall prevalence estimates for fatigue, cognitive impairment, sleep disorders, anosmia/hyposmia, and headache. There was a downward trend over time, suggesting that neurological manifestations in the early post-COVID-19 phase may be long-lasting but not permanent. However, especially for the 12-month follow-up time point, more robust data are needed to confirm this trend.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos Cerebrovasculares , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Anosmia , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/epidemiología , Cefalea , Fatiga/epidemiología
11.
Brain ; 147(3): 830-838, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38079534

RESUMEN

Dengue virus is a flavivirus transmitted by the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Dengue infection by all four serotypes (DEN 1 to 4) is endemic globally in regions with tropical and subtropical climates, with an estimated 100-400 million infections annually. Among those hospitalized, the mortality is about 1%. Neurological involvement has been reported to be about 5%. The spectrum of neurological manifestations spans both the peripheral and central nervous systems. These manifestations could possibly be categorized into those directly related to dengue infection, i.e. acute and chronic encephalitis, indirect complications leading to dengue encephalopathy, and post-infectious syndrome due to immune-mediated reactions, and manifestations with uncertain mechanisms, such as acute transverse myelitis, acute cerebellitis and myositis. The rising trend in global dengue incidence calls for attention to a more explicit definition of each neurological manifestation for more accurate epidemiological data. The actual global burden of dengue infection with neurological manifestation is essential for future planning and execution of strategies, especially in the development of effective antivirals and vaccines against the dengue virus. In this article, we discuss the recent findings of different spectrums of neurological manifestations in dengue infection and provide an update on antiviral and vaccine development and their challenges.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Encefalopatías , Dengue , Virosis , Animales , Humanos , Dengue/complicaciones , Dengue/epidemiología
12.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(4): e2021, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520240

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Purposes: To assess the efficacy of botulinum toxin A injection in the treatment of strabismus in patients with neurological impairment and evaluate the factors associated with treatment success. Methods: The study included 50 patients with strabismus and neurological impairment. In all children, botulinum toxin injection was performed into the appropriate extraocular muscle. The relationship between demographic features, clinical characteristics, and treatment success were analyzed. Results: In the study group, 34 patients had esotropia, and 16 patients had exotropia. As neurological problems, 36 patients had cerebral palsy, and 14 had hydrocephalus. The average follow-up period was 15.3 ± 7.3 months. The mean number of injections was 1.4 ± 0.6. The mean angle of deviation was 42.5 ± 13.2 PD before the treatment, which decreased to 12.8 ± 11.9 PD after the treatment. Successful motor alignment (orthotropia within 10 PD) was achieved in 60% of the patients. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that esotropic misalignment and shorter duration of strabismus was significantly associated with treatment success in the study group. Patients with esotropia and lower angles of misalignment were more likely to be treated with a single injection. Conclusion: The use of botulinum toxin A for the treatment of strabismus in children with neurological impairment is a good alternative to conventional surgical therapy with a lower risk of overcorrection. The treatment outcome is better in esodeviations and shorter duration of strabismus, implying an advantage of early treatment.


RESUMO Objetivos: Avaliar a eficácia do uso de toxina bo-tulínica tipo A no tratamento do estrabismo em pacientes com comprometimento neurológico e avaliar os fatores associados ao sucesso do tratamento. Métodos: Cinquenta pacientes com estrabismo e comprometimento neurológico foram incluídos no estudo. Em todas as crianças, a toxina botulínica tipo A foi injetada no músculo extraocular apropriado. A relação entre características demográficas, características clínicas e o sucesso do tratamento foram analisadas. Resultados: No grupo de estudo, 34 pacientes tiveram esotropia e 16 pacientes tiveram exotropia, sendo trinta e seis pacientes com paralisia cerebral e 14 pacientes com hidrocefalia. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 15,3 ± 7,3 meses. O número médio de aplicações foi de 1,4 ± 0,6. O ângulo de desvio médio foi de 42,5 ± 13,2 DP antes do tratamento e diminuiu para 12,8 ± 11,9 DP após o tratamento. Alinhamento motor bem sucedido (ortotropia dentro de 10 DP) foi alcançado em 60% dos pacientes. A análise de regressão logística binária revelou que o desalinhamento esotrópico e uma menor duração do estrabismo foram significativamente associados ao sucesso do tratamento no grupo de estudo. Pacientes esotrópicos com ângulos de desalinhamento menores são mais propensos a serem tratados com uma única aplicação. Conclusão: O uso da toxina botulínica tipo A para o tratamento de estrabismo em crianças com comprometimento neurológico é uma boa alternativa para a terapia cirúrgica convencional com menor risco de hipercorreção. O resultado do tratamento é melhor em exodesvios e em pacientes com estrabismo de menor duração, implicando em vantagem para o tratamento precoce.

13.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550672

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is a rickettsial disease caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii. In Brazil, the disease is known as Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), being the most significant tick-borne disease in the country. Among the affected patients, only 5% of cases occur in children aged one to nine years. Typical symptoms of the disease are fever, rash, headache and digestive symptoms. Neurological manifestations such as seizures, aphasia and hemiparesis have been described in few patients. This study aimed to describe the case of an infant diagnosed with BSF who presented severe signs of neurological manifestation.

14.
S Afr J Psychiatr ; 29: 2112, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38059198

RESUMEN

Background: Although literature globally indicates varied neurological and/or neuropsychiatric manifestations (NNM) and complications associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), information about NNM in infected hospitalised patients on the African continent remains limited. Aim: To describe the presentation of NNM and compare patients with and without NNM considering demographic and clinical profiles, treatment, and outcomes. Setting: Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: Retrospective medical record review of the first 100 consecutively admitted COVID-19 patients (64 females, mean age 47.6 years) between March and June 2020. Results: Of the 98 patients included in the analysis, 56.1% had at least one NNM. The most common NNM were myalgia (32.7%), headache (21.4%), loss of smell and/or taste (15.3%), and delirium (10.2%). Patients with and without NNM did not differ with respect to demographic characteristics. Patients with NNM had significantly more constitutional symptoms (p = 0.017) and were more likely to have neurological and/or neuropsychiatric comorbid conditions (10.9% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.033) than those without NNM. Patients without documented NNM were more likely to have abnormalities on chest X-ray (p = 0.009) than those with NNM. Coronavirus disease 2019 related treatment and mortality did not differ between the groups. Conclusion: Neurological and/or neuropsychiatric manifestations were common in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. The results suggest that while COVID-19 patients with NNM may have less of a respiratory phenotype they nonetheless have equivalent mortality rates. Contribution: This study highlights the common NNM in patients with COVID-19 admitted to Tygerberg Hospital early in the pandemic and adds to the growing evidence of COVID-19 NNM.

15.
Cureus ; 15(11): e48980, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38111436

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The neurological effect of viral respiratory infections has been acknowledged in many studies. However, patients who recovered from this infection show neurological manifestations and are not being routinely transferred for electrodiagnostic evaluation. AIM: This study aimed to examine the neurological effect of viral respiratory infections on the nerve function using electrophysiology in patients fully recovered from viral respiratory infections. METHODS: To limit bias in the results, the authors decided to choose patients who recovered from one virus in all participants (coronavirus). Medical records were screened for patients who performed nerve conduction studies (NCSs) before the coronavirus pandemic. Thirty patients met our inclusion criteria, and only 10 showed up to perform NCS. Data of the NCS was compared before and after the coronavirus infection for motor and sensory NCS parameters. RESULTS: An increase in both the median and ulnar sensory nerve latencies and a decrease in the sensory nerve amplitude was observed. Also, there was a decrease in the motor conduction velocity (MCV) of the ulnar nerves and motor amplitude in the median nerve. In the lower limbs, there was a decrease in the sural nerve latency, increased MCV in the tibial nerves, and decreased MCV in the peroneal nerves. The proximal amplitudes of the tibial and peroneal nerves were increased, but the distal amplitude was increased only in the peroneal nerves and decreased in the tibial nerves. CONCLUSION: There is a significant impact of viral infections on the peripheral nerves. Large-scale prospective studies are required to investigate the pathogenesis of the neuropathy and myopathy after viral infections.

16.
J Neuroinflammation ; 20(1): 299, 2023 Dec 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38098019

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The neurological effects of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) raise concerns about potential long-term consequences, such as an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuroinflammation and other AD-associated pathologies are also suggested to increase the risk of serious SARS-CoV-2 infection. Anosmia is a common neurological symptom reported in COVID-19 and in early AD. The olfactory mucosa (OM) is important for the perception of smell and a proposed site of viral entry to the brain. However, little is known about SARS-CoV-2 infection at the OM of individuals with AD. METHODS: To address this gap, we established a 3D in vitro model of the OM from primary cells derived from cognitively healthy and AD individuals. We cultured the cells at the air-liquid interface (ALI) to study SARS-CoV-2 infection under controlled experimental conditions. Primary OM cells in ALI expressed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), and several other known SARS-CoV-2 receptor and were highly vulnerable to infection. Infection was determined by secreted viral RNA content and confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) in the infected cells by immunocytochemistry. Differential responses of healthy and AD individuals-derived OM cells to SARS-CoV-2 were determined by RNA sequencing. RESULTS: Results indicate that cells derived from cognitively healthy donors and individuals with AD do not differ in susceptibility to infection with the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, transcriptomic signatures in cells from individuals with AD are highly distinct. Specifically, the cells from AD patients that were infected with the virus showed increased levels of oxidative stress, desensitized inflammation and immune responses, and alterations to genes associated with olfaction. These results imply that individuals with AD may be at a greater risk of experiencing severe outcomes from the infection, potentially driven by pre-existing neuroinflammation. CONCLUSIONS: The study sheds light on the interplay between AD pathology and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Altered transcriptomic signatures in AD cells may contribute to unique symptoms and a more severe disease course, with a notable involvement of neuroinflammation. Furthermore, the research emphasizes the need for targeted interventions to enhance outcomes for AD patients with viral infection. The study is crucial to better comprehend the relationship between AD, COVID-19, and anosmia. It highlights the importance of ongoing research to develop more effective treatments for those at high risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Anosmia/metabolismo , Enfermedades Neuroinflamatorias , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Mucosa Olfatoria/metabolismo
17.
Pediatr. (Asunción) ; 50(3)dic. 2023.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534960

RESUMEN

Introducción: La infección por Chikungunya se presenta fiebre y afectación cutánea. Las manifestaciones neurológicas, incluyen encefalopatías principalmente encefalitis; afectación periférica como mielitis, o una combinación de éstas. Objetivo: Describir la frecuencia y las manifestaciones neurológicas asociadas a infección por virus Chikungunya en el periodo enero-marzo 2023 en una población pediátrica. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de corte transversal de serie de casos Ingresaron menores de 18 años con manifestaciones neurológicas y resultados positivos PCR RT a virus Chikungunya que acudieron a un Hospital Público en enero-marzo del 2023. Las variables: demográficas, tiempo de evolución, síntomas, diagnósticos neurológicos, estudio de líquido cefalorraquídeo, electroencefalograma, estudios imagenológicos, tratamiento, ingreso a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, disfunción orgánica, mortalidad. Los datos se analizaron en SPSS utilizando estadística descriptiva. El protocolo fue aprobado por el comité de ética. Resultados: Ingresaron 24 pacientes, con edad de 10.0 ±1 meses. El 58.7% de sexo masculino. Como síntoma neurológico, el 54.1% tuvo convulsión. Los diagnósticos neurológicos, el 83.3% fue Encefalitis. Los pacientes con diagnóstico de Encefalitis, 75% fueron menores de 3 meses, 50% con líquido cefalorraquídeo patológico, 45% se realizó Electroencefalografía, 50% recibió inmunoglobulinas. El 50% ingresaron a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Pediátricos. El 60% presentó disfunción orgánica. La mortalidad fue del 4.2%. Conclusión: El diagnóstico neurológico más frecuente fue la encefalitis, predominó en lactantes menores de 3 meses. Los síntomas neurológicos fueron: crisis convulsivas e irritabilidad. Más de la mitad presentaron disfunción orgánica, se registró la mortalidad de un paciente.


Introduction: Chikungunya infection present clinically with fever and skin involvement. Neurological manifestations include encephalopathies, mainly encephalitis and meningoencephalitis; peripheral involvement such as myelitis, Guillain Barré Syndrome; or a combination of these such as encephaloneuromyelopathy. Objective: To describe the frequency and neurological manifestations associated with Chikungunya virus infection during the January-March 2023 time period in a pediatric population. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study of a case series. Minors under 18 years of age were admitted with neurological manifestations and positive RT-PCR results for Chikungunya virus who presented to a Public Hospital in January-March 2023. The variables were: demographics, reason for hospitalization, symptoms, neurological diagnoses, cerebrospinal fluid study, electroencephalogram, imaging studies, treatment, admission to the Intensive Care Unit, organic dysfunction and mortality. Data were analyzed in SPSS using descriptive statistics. The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee. Results: 24 patients were admitted, aged 10.0 ±16 months. 58.7% were male. As a neurological symptom, 54.1% had a seizure. Among the neurological diagnoses, 83.3% were encephalitis. Among the patients diagnosed with encephalitis, 75% were younger than 3 months, 50% had pathological cerebrospinal fluid, 45% underwent electroencephalography, and 50% received immunoglobulins. 50% were admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. 60% presented organic dysfunction. Mortality was 4.2%. Conclusions: The most frequent neurological diagnosis was encephalitis, it predominated in infants under 3 months. The neurological symptoms were: seizures and irritability. More than half presented organic dysfunction, one patient expired.

18.
Cureus ; 15(10): e47108, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38022020

RESUMEN

Connective tissue disorders (CTD) are a group of disorders affecting the connective tissues. Usually the musculoskeletal and the vascular system is impacted. Along with these systems, the nervous system is also involved in CTD, which leads to various neurological manifestations. The pathophysiology of neurological complications of CTD is caused by various factors and is complicated. Disturbed immune complexes, chronic inflammation, and autoimmunity in which the body attacks its cells are considered to be responsible for the neurological complications of CTD. Additionally, the vascular symptoms that lead to decreased blood flow to the brain are also responsible for the neurological manifestations of CTD in diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In SLE, vessel wall integrity is compromised, which may lead to decreased blood flow leading to neurological complications. CTD can manifest a variety of neurological complications. These neurological complications can be classified into symptoms affecting the peripheral nervous system, central nervous system, and the autonomic nervous system. Some of the common neurological complications of CTD are headaches, seizures, ataxia, neuropathies leading to cranial nerve palsies, myelopathies, tremors, encephalitis, and cerebral infarction. Cranial nerve palsies can disturb sensations, vision, hearing, and mastication. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are also commonly observed in CTD. Cognitive dysfunction can be caused due to neuropsychiatric problems. Some of the cognitive dysfunctions are lack of concentration, memory loss, confusion, and coma. In this review, we will address various neurological manifestations of CTD.

19.
Cureus ; 15(9): e44598, 2023 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37795069

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this research is to determine the prevalence and characteristics of neurological manifestations in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. 572 hospitalized patients at the COVID Department of Pulmonology of the Mostar University Clinical Hospital in the six-month period from October 31, 2020, to April 30, 2021, were included. We analyzed the incidence of neurological manifestations and the influence of comorbidities and metabolic syndrome on stroke incidence in COVID-19 patients. We analyzed hospital length of stay and mortality in patients with and without neurological manifestations. The research was conducted with respect to all the determinants of the Helsinki Declaration. RESULTS: 572 patients, 351 men (61.4%), and 221 women (38.6%) were included. A fatal outcome was present in a quarter of patients (25.3%). Neurological manifestations were found in 163 patients (28.5%). Myalgia was the most common (16.1%). The following were reported: headache (9.6%), loss of taste (7.34%), loss of smell (6.8%), and vertigo (2.5%). There was a significant difference regarding loss of smell between males and females (p=0.04). The cerebrovascular incident was present in 2.97% of patients and was more frequent in the group of patients with metabolic syndrome. Patients with neurological manifestations had a longer hospital stay, but it was not statistically significant (p=0.9319). The presence of neurological manifestations in general did not influence the mortality rate. CONCLUSION: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection can present with neurologic findings such as myalgia, headache, loss of smell or taste, vertigo, as well as cerebrovascular incidents. Patients with neurological manifestations had longer hospital stays, but the presence of neurological manifestations in general did not influence the mortality rate.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...