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1.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(1): 177-186, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795368

RESUMEN

There is an urgent need for data to inform coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic response efforts. At the same time, the pandemic has created challenges for data collection, one of which is interviewer training in the context of social distancing. In sub-Saharan Africa, in-person interviewer training and face-to-face data collection remain the norm, requiring researchers to think creatively about transitioning to remote settings to allow for safer data collection that respects government guidelines. Performance Monitoring for Action (PMA, formerly PMA2020) has collected both cross-sectional and longitudinal data on key reproductive health measures in Africa and Asia since 2013. Relying on partnerships with in-country research institutes and cadres of female interviewers recruited from sampled communities, the project was well-positioned to transition to collecting data on COVID-19 from the onset of the pandemic. This article presents PMA's development of a remote training system for COVID-19 surveys in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, and Nigeria, including challenges faced and lessons learned. We demonstrate that remote interviewer training can be a viable approach when data are critically needed and in-person learning is not possible. We also argue against systematic replacement of in-person trainings with remote learning, instead recommending consideration of local context and a project's individual circumstances when contemplating a transition to remote interviewer training.


Asunto(s)
Recolección de Datos , Educación a Distancia , Educación Profesional/métodos , Pandemias , Investigadores/educación , Investigación/educación , Adolescente , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , República Democrática del Congo , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Kenia , Nigeria , Salud Reproductiva , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
2.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 70(1): 32-41, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853336

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE:  The aim of this study was to evaluate attitudes towards the available preventive measures, risk behaviour and health problems in Czech travellers to tropical and subtropical regions. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  The prospective study included patients of all ages with a history of recent travel to risky countries who presented to the post-travel clinic of the Hospital Na Bulovce in Prague within two months after return, from February 2009 to June 2018. The data were collec-ted through a questionnaire survey and from electronic medical records. RESULTS:  Nine hundred and thirty-four patients (473 M and 461 F, age median of 32 years, IQR 27-39) participated in the study. The most frequent destinations were South-East Asia (332; 35.5%), South Asia (176, 18.8%), and Sub-Saharan Africa (172; 18.4%). The most common reasons for tra-vel were tourism (772; 82.7%) and business (111; 11.9%). An underlying chronic disease was reported by 317 patients (33.9%). Pre-travel health consultation was sought by 415 travellers (44.4%); however, only 312 (33.4%) of the respondents were properly vaccinated. Preventive malaria chemoprophylaxis was indicated in a total of 151 travellers (16.2%) but was only received by 44/151 patients (29.1%). Risky eating or drinking behaviour was admitted by 832 (89.1%) respondents and low standard accommodation by 525 (56.2 %) travellers. The most commonly reported clinical syndromes were acute and chronic diarrhoea (266; 28.5%), febrile illness (240; 25.7%) and skin lesions (166; 17.8%). A total of 199 patients presented with tropical infection (21.3%) and 63 with a vaccine-preventable infection or malaria (6.7%).  Conclusions: The study shows that the adherence of Czech travellers to preventive measures is relatively low, and along with risky behaviours, has a significant impact on travel-related morbidity. However, vaccine-preventable infections only accounted for a small fraction of travel-related illness, which is in accordance with other epidemiological studies and points out the need for a more comprehensive interdisciplinary approach to pre-travel health consultations.


Asunto(s)
Pacientes Ambulatorios , Viaje , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara , República Checa/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Estudios Prospectivos , Asunción de Riesgos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803352

RESUMEN

Eighty percent of people with stroke live in low- to middle-income nations, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where stroke has increased by more than 100% in the last decades. More than one-third of all epilepsy-related deaths occur in SSA. HIV infection is a risk factor for neurological disorders, including stroke and epilepsy. The vast majority of the 38 million people living with HIV/AIDS are in SSA, and the burden of neurological disorders in SSA parallels that of HIV/AIDS. Local healthcare systems are weak. Many standalone HIV health centres have become a platform with combined treatment for both HIV and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), as advised by the United Nations. The COVID-19 pandemic is overwhelming the fragile health systems in SSA, and it is feared it will provoke an upsurge of excess deaths due to the disruption of care for chronic diseases such as HIV, TB, hypertension, diabetes, and cerebrovascular disorders. Disease Relief through Excellent and Advanced Means (DREAM) is a health programme active since 2002 to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS and related disorders in 10 SSA countries. DREAM is scaling up management of NCDs, including neurologic disorders such as stroke and epilepsy. We described challenges and solutions to address disruption and excess deaths from these diseases during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia , Infecciones por VIH , Accidente Cerebrovascular , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología
4.
Lancet HIV ; 8(4): e225-e236, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794183

RESUMEN

HIV testing is a crucial first step to accessing HIV prevention and treatment services and to achieving the UNAIDS target of 95% of people living with HIV being aware of their status by 2030. Combined implementation of facility-based and community-based approaches has helped to achieve high levels of HIV testing coverage in many countries including those in sub-Saharan Africa. Approaches such as index testing and self-testing help to reach individuals at higher risk of acquiring HIV, men, and those less likely to use health facilities or community-based services. However, as the proportion of people living with HIV who are aware of their HIV status has risen, the challenge of reaching those who remain undiagnosed or those who are at high risk of acquiring HIV has grown. Demand generation and novel testing approaches will be necessary to reach undiagnosed people living with HIV and to promote frequent retesting among key and priority populations.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Tamizaje Masivo , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Instituciones de Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802322

RESUMEN

Optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains the bedrock of effective therapy and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This systematic review examines the effect of interventions in improving ART adherence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which bears the largest global burden of HIV infection. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, and based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria, PUBMED, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases were searched for published studies on ART adherence interventions from 2010 to 2019. Thirty-one eligible studies published between 2010 to 2019 were identified, the categories of interventions were structural, behavioral, biological, cognitive, and combination. Study characteristics varied across design, intervention type, intervention setting, country, and outcome measurements. Many of the studies were behavioral interventions conducted in hospitals with more studies being randomized controlled trial (RCT) interventions. Despite the study variations, twenty-four studies recorded improvements. Notwithstanding, more quality studies such as RCTs should be conducted, especially among key affected populations (KAPs) to control transmission of resistant strains of the virus. Reliable objective measures of adherence should replace the conventional subjective self-report. Furthermore, long-term interventions with longer duration should be considered when evaluating the effectiveness of interventions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Terapia Conductista , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806629

RESUMEN

The HIV/AIDS incidence rates have decreased in African countries although the rates are still high in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our study aimed to examine the long-term trend of the overall HIV/AIDS incidence rates in four countries of the central region of Africa, using data from the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) 2019 study. The Age-Period-Cohort statistical model analysis was used to measure the trends of HIV/AIDS incidence rates in each of the four countries. HIV/AIDS incidence rates decreased slowly in Cameroon (CAM), Chad, and Central African Republic (CAR), but considerably in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) from 1990-2019. HIV/AIDS incidence rates in the four countries were at their peaks in the age group of 25-29 years. According to the age relative risks, individuals aged between 15 and 49 years old are at high risk of HIV/AIDS incidence in the four countries. The period and cohort relative risks have decreased in all four countries. Although CAM recorded an increase of 59.6% in the period relative risks (RRs) between 1990 and 1999, HIV/AIDS incidence has decreased dramatically in all four countries, especially after 2000. The decrease of the period RRs (relative risk) by nearly 20.6-folds and the decrease of the cohort RRs from 147.65 to almost 0.0034 in the DRC made it the country with the most significant decrease of the period and cohort RRs compared to the rest. HIV/AIDS incidence rates are decreasing in each of the four countries. Our study findings could provide solid ground for policymakers to promptly decrease HIV/AIDS incidence by strengthening the prevention policies to eliminate the public health threat of HIV/AIDS by 2030 as one of the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Camerún , Carga Global de Enfermedades , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25399, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847636

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with detrimental changes in cardiovascular and metabolic parameters, including blood pressure, dyslipidemia, markers of systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance. In the elderly living with the human immunodeficiency virus (EPLHIV), and being treated with antiretroviral medications, the obesity complications escalate and expose the elderly to the risk of noncommunicable diseases. Given that over 3 million EPLHIV in sub-Sahara Africa, we assessed the prevalence of obesity and its associated factors among EPLHIV in a low-resource setting.This was a cross sectional study of EPLHIV aged 50 years and older, being treated with antiretroviral medications from 2004 to 2018. HIV treatment data collected from multiple treatment sites were analyzed. Baseline characteristics of the participants were described, and multivariable relative risk model was applied to assess the associations between obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) and the prespecified potential risk factors.Of the 134,652 in HIV cohort, 19,566 (14.5%) were EPLHIV: 12,967 (66.3%) were normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25), 4548 (23.2%) were overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30), while 2,051 (10.5%) were obese (BMI ≥30). The average age the normal weight (57.1; standard deviation 6.6) and the obese (56.5; standard deviation 5.5) was similar. We observed that being an employed (relative risk [RR] 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48-2.00; P < .001), educated (RR 1.93; 95% CI 1.54-2.41; P < .001), and presence of hypertension (RR 1.78; 95% CI 1.44-2.20; P < .001), increased the risk of obesity. Also, being male (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.33-0.44; P < .001), stages III/IV of the World Health Organization clinical stages of HIV (RR 0.58; 95% CI 0.50-0.68; P < .001), tenofovir-based regimen (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.73-0.96, P < .001), and low CD4 count (RR 0.56; 95% CI 0.44-0.71; P < .001) were inversely associated with obesity.This study demonstrates that multiple factors are driving obesity prevalence in EPLHIV. The study provides vital information for policy-makers and HIV program implementers in implementing targeted-interventions to address obesity in EPLHIV. Its findings would assist in the implementation of a one-stop-shop model for the management of HIV and other comorbid medical conditions in EPLHIV.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Pobreza , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Anciano , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Índice de Masa Corporal , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 565625, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679730

RESUMEN

Sub-Saharan Africa has generally experienced few cases and deaths of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In addition to other potential explanations for the few cases and deaths of COVID-19 such as the population socio-demographics, early lockdown measures and the possibility of under reporting, we hypothesize in this mini review that individuals with a recent history of malaria infection may be protected against infection or severe form of COVID-19. Given that both the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) merozoites bind to the cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) immunoglobulin, we hypothesize that the immunological memory against P. falciparum merozoites primes SARS-CoV-2 infected cells for early phagocytosis, hence protecting individuals with a recent P. falciparum infection against COVID-19 infection or severity. This mini review therefore discusses the potential biological link between P. falciparum infection and COVID-19 infection or severity and further highlights the importance of CD147 immunoglobulin as an entry point for both SARS-CoV-2 and P. falciparum into host cells.


Asunto(s)
Basigina/inmunología , Memoria Inmunológica , Malaria Falciparum , Plasmodium falciparum/inmunología , /inmunología , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , /inmunología , Humanos , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Malaria Falciparum/inmunología , Merozoítos/inmunología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
9.
West Afr J Med ; 38(3): 246-254, 2021 03 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765376

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: One gynecological disorder which is often a mystery to premenopausal women who are affected is endometriosis, a benign condition characterized by ectopic endometrium growing outside the uterus but behaving as if it is still within the uterus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hospital records of 226 women who consulted for fertility management at Nordica Fertility Center were surveyed retrospectively. These women were stratified by age into <35 years and >35 years and by BMI into <18.5 (underweight), 18.5-24.9 (normal), 25.0-29.9 (overweight) and >30 (obese). There were 113 who had laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis and 113 without endometriosis but just infertility. STATA 13 statistical software was used for analysis of data. RESULTS: The mean (±sd) age of the women in the study was 34.3 (4.9) with no significant difference among those with (33.9 (4.3)) and without (34.6 (5.4)) endometriosis. There was a significant difference (t=-3.36, P-value=0.0005) in the mean BMI (Kg/m2) of women with endometriosis (25.8±4.9) compared to that of women without endometriosis (27.9±4.5). The probability of endometriosis among normal weight women was higher at age <35 years (OR=2.76, 95% Confidence Interval 1.33,5.73) than at age >35 years (OR=1.59, 95% Confidence Interval 0.62, 4.10). The mean (±SD) parity among those with endometriosis (0.13±0.34) was significantly lower (t-test=2.31; P-value=0.01) than that among women without endometriosis (0.28 ± 0.60). Primary infertility was more prevalent (62.0%) than secondary infertility (38.0%) among those with endometriosis while secondary infertility was more prevalent (55.8%) than primary infertility (44.3%) among those without endometriosis. The mean age (years) at menarche of women without endometriosis (13.3±1.6) was significantly higher (t-test=1.88, P-value=0.03) than that among those with endometriosis (12.9±1). Those with endometriosis were most likely to have dysmenorrhea alone, menorrhagia alone and both dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia concurrently than those without the disease. CONCLUSION: Anthropometric and abnormal menstrual profile of patients presenting with pelvic pain, co-morbidity of dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia, infertility and low parity can guide clinicians and gynecologist to make early and proper diagnosis of endometriosis for better treatment outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Endometriosis , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara , Afroamericanos , Dismenorrea , Endometriosis/complicaciones , Endometriosis/diagnóstico , Endometriosis/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos
10.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 106(5): 832-838, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751145

RESUMEN

The global environmental occurrence of phthalates is inevitable due to their substantial annual production and consumption rate of approximately 5 million tonnes. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal occurrence of selected phthalate esters congeners in sediment, water, and biota in two freshwater bodies (River Owena and River Ogbese) in Nigeria, and to calculate their ecological risks they pose to aquatic organisms. Dibutyl-phthalate (DBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and dimethyl-phthalate had an all-year presence in various environmental matrices. DBP was the most prevalent phthalate congener in all environmental matrices with a considerable potential to bioaccumulate in fish tissues. The estimated risk quotient calculated revealed that DBP and DEHP showed a high risk to algae, invertebrates, and fish populations in both freshwater bodies. It is recommended that more comprehensive monitoring campaigns in freshwater bodies be implemented, especially in areas with high anthropogenic activities, to prevent deterioration of aquatic life.


Asunto(s)
Dietilhexil Ftalato , Ácidos Ftálicos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , África del Sur del Sahara , África del Norte , Animales , Biota , Dibutil Ftalato , Ésteres , Nigeria , Medición de Riesgo , Ríos , Estaciones del Año , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
11.
N Engl J Med ; 384(11): 1003-1014, 2021 03 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730454

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Whether a broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) can be used to prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition is unclear. METHODS: We enrolled at-risk cisgender men and transgender persons in the Americas and Europe in the HVTN 704/HPTN 085 trial and at-risk women in sub-Saharan Africa in the HVTN 703/HPTN 081 trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive, every 8 weeks, infusions of a bnAb (VRC01) at a dose of either 10 or 30 mg per kilogram (low-dose group and high-dose group, respectively) or placebo, for 10 infusions in total. HIV-1 testing was performed every 4 weeks. The VRC01 80% inhibitory concentration (IC80) of acquired isolates was measured with the TZM-bl assay. RESULTS: Adverse events were similar in number and severity among the treatment groups within each trial. Among the 2699 participants in HVTN 704/HPTN 085, HIV-1 infection occurred in 32 in the low-dose group, 28 in the high-dose group, and 38 in the placebo group. Among the 1924 participants in HVTN 703/HPTN 081, infection occurred in 28 in the low-dose group, 19 in the high-dose group, and 29 in the placebo group. The incidence of HIV-1 infection per 100 person-years in HVTN 704/HPTN 085 was 2.35 in the pooled VRC01 groups and 2.98 in the placebo group (estimated prevention efficacy, 26.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -11.7 to 51.8; P = 0.15), and the incidence per 100 person-years in HVTN 703/HPTN 081 was 2.49 in the pooled VRC01 groups and 3.10 in the placebo group (estimated prevention efficacy, 8.8%; 95% CI, -45.1 to 42.6; P = 0.70). In prespecified analyses pooling data across the trials, the incidence of infection with VRC01-sensitive isolates (IC80 <1 µg per milliliter) per 100 person-years was 0.20 among VRC01 recipients and 0.86 among placebo recipients (estimated prevention efficacy, 75.4%; 95% CI, 45.5 to 88.9). The prevention efficacy against sensitive isolates was similar for each VRC01 dose and trial; VRC01 did not prevent acquisition of other HIV-1 isolates. CONCLUSIONS: VRC01 did not prevent overall HIV-1 acquisition more effectively than placebo, but analyses of VRC01-sensitive HIV-1 isolates provided proof-of-concept that bnAb prophylaxis can be effective. (Supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; HVTN 704/HPTN 085 and HVTN 703/HPTN 081 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02716675 and NCT02568215.).


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales/uso terapéutico , Anticuerpos ampliamente neutralizantes/uso terapéutico , Anticuerpos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , VIH-1 , Adolescente , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Américas/epidemiología , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/efectos adversos , Anticuerpos ampliamente neutralizantes/efectos adversos , Método Doble Ciego , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Anticuerpos Anti-VIH/efectos adversos , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , VIH-1/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Prueba de Estudio Conceptual , Adulto Joven
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671594

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: In recent times, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) had been rated by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the most malaria-endemic region in the world. Evidence synthesis of the factors associated with malaria among children aged under-five in SSA is urgently needed. This would help to inform decisions that policymakers and executors in the region need to make for the effective distribution of scarce palliative resources to curb the spread of the illness. This scoping review is aimed at identifying studies that have used multivariate classical regression analysis to determine the predictors associated with malaria among children under five years old in SSA. METHODS/DESIGN: The search terms followed population, intervention, comparator, outcome, timing, setting (PICOTS), and were used in searching through the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, and Measure DHS. The databases were searched for published articles from January 1990 to December 2020. RESULTS: Among the 1154 studies identified, only thirteen (13) studies met the study's inclusion criteria. Narrative syntheses were performed on the selected papers to synchronize the various predictors identified. Factors ranging from child-related (age, birth order and use of a bed net), parental/household-related (maternal age and education status, household wealth index) and community-related variables (community wealth status, free bed net distribution) were some of the identified significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS: It is timely to have a synthesis of predictors that influence the malaria status of children under-five in SSA. The outcome of the review will increase the knowledge of the epidemiology of morbidity that will form the basis for designing efficient and cost-effective distribution of palliatives and control of malaria in SSA.


Asunto(s)
Malaria , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Malaria/epidemiología
13.
Global Health ; 17(1): 24, 2021 03 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658050

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic is a biosecurity threat, and many resource-rich countries are stockpiling and/or making plans to secure supplies of vaccine, therapeutics, and diagnostics for their citizens. We review the products that are being investigated for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19; discuss the challenges that countries in sub-Saharan Africa may face with access to COVID-19 vaccine, therapeutics, and diagnostics due to the limited capacity to manufacture them in Africa; and make recommendations on actions to mitigate these challenges and ensure health security in sub-Saharan Africa during this unprecedented pandemic and future public-health crises. MAIN BODY: Sub-Saharan Africa will not be self-reliant for COVID-19 vaccines when they are developed. It can, however, take advantage of existing initiatives aimed at supporting COVID-19 vaccine access to resource-limited settings such as partnership with AstraZeneca, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness and Innovation, the Global Alliance for Vaccine and Immunisation, the Serum Institute of India, and the World Health Organization's COVID-19 Technology Access Pool. Accessing effective COVID-19 therapeutics will also be a major challenge for countries in sub-Saharan Africa, as production of therapeutics is frequently geared towards profitable Western markets and is ill-adapted to sub-Saharan Africa realities. The region can benefit from pooled procurement of COVID-19 therapy by the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention in partnership with the African Union. If the use of convalescent plasma for the treatment of patients who are severely ill is found to be effective, access to the product will be minimally challenging since the region has a pool of recovered patients and human resources that can man supportive laboratories. The region also needs to drive the local development of rapid-test kits and other diagnostics for COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Access to vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics for COVID-19 will be a challenge for sub-Saharan Africans. This challenge should be confronted by collaborating with vaccine developers; pooled procurement of COVID-19 therapeutics; and local development of testing and diagnostic materials. The COVID-19 pandemic should be a wake-up call for sub-Saharan Africa to build vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics manufacturing capacity as one of the resources needed to address public-health crises.


Asunto(s)
/provisión & distribución , Industria Farmacéutica/organización & administración , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , /tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009088, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661903

RESUMEN

The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect hundreds of millions of people, predominantly in rural, often difficult-to-access areas, poorly served by national health services. Here, we review the contributions of 4.8 million community-directed distributors (CDDs) of medicines over 2 decades in 146,000 communities in 27 sub-Saharan African countries to control or eliminate onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF). We examine their role in the control of other NTDs, malaria, HIV/AIDS interventions, immunisation campaigns, and support to overstretched health service personnel. We are of the opinion that CDDs as community selected, trained, and experienced "foot soldiers," some of whom were involved in the Ebola outbreak responses at the community level in Liberia, if retrained, can assist community leaders and support health workers (HWs) in the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis. The review highlights the improved treatment coverage where there are women CDDs, the benefits and lessons from the work of CDDs, their long-term engagement, and the challenges they face in healthcare delivery. It underscores the value of utilising the CDD model for strong community engagement and recommends the model, with some review, to hasten the achievement of the NTD 2030 goal and assist the health system cope with evolving epidemics and other challenges. We propose that, based on the unprecedented progress made in the control of NTDs directly linked to community engagement and contributions of CDDs "foot soldiers," they deserve regional and global recognition. We also suggest that the World Health Organization (WHO) and other international stakeholders promote policy and guidance for countries to adapt this model for the elimination of NTDs and to strengthen national health services. This will enhance the accomplishment of some Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030 in sub-Saharan Africa.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/organización & administración , Filariasis Linfática/terapia , Administración Masiva de Medicamentos , Enfermedades Desatendidas/terapia , Oncocercosis/terapia , África del Sur del Sahara , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Filariasis Linfática/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Ivermectina/administración & dosificación , Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , Oncocercosis/prevención & control
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 147-162, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656721

RESUMEN

The novel corona virus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak which started in Hubei province in China has now spread to every corner of the earth. While the pandemic started later in Africa, it is now found in all African countries to varying degrees. It is thought that the prevalence and severity of disease is influenced by a number of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) which are all becoming increasingly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In addition, SSA bears the major burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections. While data from Europe and the United States show that children are spared severe disease, it is uncertain if the same holds true in SSA where children suffer from sickle cell disease and malnutrition in addition to other infectious diseases. There is limited data from Africa on the effects of these conditions on COVID-19. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of some of these conditions in Africa and the possible pathogenesis for the interactions of these with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Niño , China , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Poblaciones Vulnerables
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD012882, 2021 02 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565123

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The leading causes of mortality globally in children younger than five years of age (under-fives), and particularly in the regions of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Southern Asia, in 2018 were infectious diseases, including pneumonia (15%), diarrhoea (8%), malaria (5%) and newborn sepsis (7%) (UNICEF 2019). Nutrition-related factors contributed to 45% of under-five deaths (UNICEF 2019). World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), in collaboration with other development partners, have developed an approach - now known as integrated community case management (iCCM) - to bring treatment services for children 'closer to home'. The iCCM approach provides integrated case management services for two or more illnesses - including diarrhoea, pneumonia, malaria, severe acute malnutrition or neonatal sepsis - among under-fives at community level (i.e. outside of healthcare facilities) by lay health workers where there is limited access to health facility-based case management services (WHO/UNICEF 2012). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of the integrated community case management (iCCM) strategy on coverage of appropriate treatment for childhood illness by an appropriate provider, quality of care, case load or severity of illness at health facilities, mortality, adverse events and coverage of careseeking for children younger than five years of age in low- and middle-income countries. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL on 7 November 2019, Virtual Health Library on 8 November 2019, and Popline on 5 December 2018, three other databases on 22 March 2019 and two trial registers on 8 November 2019. We performed reference checking, and citation searching, and contacted study authors to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, controlled before-after studies (CBAs), interrupted time series (ITS) studies and repeated measures studies comparing generic WHO/UNICEF iCCM (or local adaptation thereof) for at least two iCCM diseases with usual facility services (facility treatment services) with or without single disease community case management (CCM). We included studies reporting on coverage of appropriate treatment for childhood illness by an appropriate provider, quality of care, case load or severity of illness at health facilities, mortality, adverse events and coverage of careseeking for under-fives in low- and middle-income countries. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently screened abstracts, screened full texts and extracted data using a standardised data collection form adapted from the EPOC Good Practice Data Collection Form. We resolved any disagreements through discussion or, if required, we consulted a third review author not involved in the original screening. We contacted study authors for clarification or additional details when necessary. We reported risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and hazard ratios (HR) for time to event outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for clustering, where possible. We used estimates of effect from the primary analysis reported by the investigators, where possible. We analysed the effects of randomized trials and other study types separately. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven studies, of which three were cluster RCTs and four were CBAs. Six of the seven studies were in SSA and one study was in Southern Asia. The iCCM components and inputs were fairly consistent across the seven studies with notable variation for the training and deployment component (e.g. on payment of iCCM providers) and the system component (e.g. on improving information systems). When compared to usual facility services, we are uncertain of the effect of iCCM on coverage of appropriate treatment from an appropriate provider for any iCCM illness (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.19; 2 CBA studies, 5898 children; very low-certainty evidence). iCCM may have little to no effect on neonatal mortality (HR 1.01, 95% 0.73 to 1.28; 2 trials, 65,209 children; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain of the effect of iCCM on infant mortality (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.26; 2 trials, 60,480 children; very low-certainty evidence) and under-five mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.37; 1 trial, 4729 children; very low-certainty evidence). iCCM probably increases coverage of careseeking to an appropriate provider for any iCCM illness by 68% (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.27; 2 trials, 9853 children; moderate-certainty evidence). None of the studies reported quality of care, severity of illness or adverse events for this comparison. When compared to usual facility services plus CCM for malaria, we are uncertain of the effect of iCCM on coverage of appropriate treatment from an appropriate provider for any iCCM illness (very low-certainty evidence) and iCCM may have little or no effect on careseeking to an appropriate provider for any iCCM illness (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.17; 1 trial, 811 children; low-certainty evidence). None of the studies reported quality of care, case load or severity of illness at health facilities, mortality or adverse events for this comparison. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: iCCM probably increases coverage of careseeking to an appropriate provider for any iCCM illness. However, the evidence presented here underscores the importance of moving beyond training and deployment to valuing iCCM providers, strengthening health systems and engaging community systems.


Asunto(s)
Manejo de Caso/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud del Niño/organización & administración , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Países en Desarrollo , África del Sur del Sahara , Asia , Sesgo , Preescolar , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud/economía , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud/educación , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud/organización & administración , Estudios Controlados Antes y Después , Diarrea/terapia , Fiebre/terapia , Humanos , Lactante , Mortalidad Infantil , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Lactante/terapia , Recién Nacido , Malaria/terapia , Sepsis Neonatal/terapia , Neumonía/terapia , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Salarios y Beneficios , Naciones Unidas
17.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 447-453, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531710

RESUMEN

A surprising feature of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic to date is the low burdens reported in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries relative to other global regions. Potential explanations (for example, warmer environments1, younger populations2-4) have yet to be framed within a comprehensive analysis. We synthesized factors hypothesized to drive the pace and burden of this pandemic in SSA during the period from 25 February to 20 December 2020, encompassing demographic, comorbidity, climatic, healthcare capacity, intervention efforts and human mobility dimensions. Large diversity in the probable drivers indicates a need for caution in interpreting analyses that aggregate data across low- and middle-income settings. Our simulation shows that climatic variation between SSA population centers has little effect on early outbreak trajectories; however, heterogeneity in connectivity, although rarely considered, is likely an important contributor to variance in the pace of viral spread across SSA. Our synthesis points to the potential benefits of context-specific adaptation of surveillance systems during the ongoing pandemic. In particular, characterizing patterns of severity over age will be a priority in settings with high comorbidity burdens and poor access to care. Understanding the spatial extent of outbreaks warrants emphasis in settings where low connectivity could drive prolonged, asynchronous outbreaks resulting in extended stress to health systems.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , /genética , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /patología , Comorbilidad , Brotes de Enfermedades , Modificador del Efecto Epidemiológico , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Control de Infecciones , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad , Pandemias , Pronóstico , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
18.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 40: 101980, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535105

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Marseille, France, the COVID-19 incidence evolved unusually with several successive epidemic phases. The second outbreak started in July, was associated with North Africa, and involved travelers and an outbreak on passenger ships. This suggested the involvement of a new viral variant. METHODS: We sequenced the genomes from 916 SARS-CoV-2 strains from COVID-19 patients in our institute. The patients' demographic and clinical features were compared according to the infecting viral variant. RESULTS: From June 26th to August 14th, we identified a new viral variant (Marseille-1). Based on genome sequences (n = 89) or specific qPCR (n = 53), 142 patients infected with this variant were detected. It is characterized by a combination of 10 mutations located in the nsp2, nsp3, nsp12, S, ORF3a, ORF8 and N/ORF14 genes. We identified Senegal and Gambia, where the virus had been transferred from China and Europe in February-April as the sources of the Marseille-1 variant, which then most likely reached Marseille through Maghreb when French borders reopened. In France, this variant apparently remained almost limited to Marseille. In addition, it was significantly associated with a milder disease compared to clade 20A ancestor strains, in univariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 can genetically diversify rapidly, its variants can diffuse internationally and cause successive outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
/virología , /genética , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Anciano , Sustitución de Aminoácidos , China/epidemiología , /genética , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación , Filogenia , Viaje , Proteínas no Estructurales Virales/genética , Proteínas Virales/genética , /genética
19.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(Suppl 1)2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608264

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While much progress was made throughout the Millennium Development Goals era in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality, both remain unacceptably high, especially in areas affected by humanitarian crises. While valuable guidance on interventions to improve maternal and neonatal health in both non-crisis and crisis settings exists, guidance on how best to deliver these interventions in crisis settings, and especially in conflict settings, is still limited. This systematic review aimed to synthesise the available literature on the delivery on maternal and neonatal health interventions in conflict settings. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases using terms related to conflict, women and children, and maternal and neonatal health. We searched websites of 10 humanitarian organisations for relevant grey literature. Publications reporting on conflict-affected populations in low-income and middle-income countries and describing a maternal or neonatal health intervention delivered during or within 5 years after the end of a conflict were included. Information on population, intervention, and delivery characteristics were extracted and narratively synthesised. Quantitative data on intervention coverage and effectiveness were tabulated but no meta-analysis was undertaken. RESULTS: 115 publications met our eligibility criteria. Intervention delivery was most frequently reported in the sub-Saharan Africa region, and most publications focused on displaced populations based in camps. Reported maternal interventions targeted antenatal, obstetric and postnatal care; neonatal interventions focused mostly on essential newborn care. Most interventions were delivered in hospitals and clinics, by doctors and nurses, and were mostly delivered through non-governmental organisations or the existing healthcare system. Delivery barriers included insecurity, lack of resources and lack of skilled health staff. Multi-stakeholder collaboration, the introduction of new technology or systems innovations, and staff training were delivery facilitators. Reporting of intervention coverage or effectiveness data was limited. DISCUSSION: The relevant existing literature focuses mostly on maternal health especially around the antenatal period. There is still limited literature on postnatal care in conflict settings and even less on newborn care. In crisis settings, as much as in non-crisis settings, there is a need to focus on the first day of birth for both maternal and neonatal health. There is also a need to do more research on how best to involve community members in the delivery of maternal and neonatal health interventions. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019125221.


Asunto(s)
Conflictos Armados , Salud del Niño , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Salud Materna , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Salud del Lactante , Recién Nacido , Pandemias , Embarazo
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