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1.
Camb Q Healthc Ethics ; 30(2): 390-402, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764294

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) crisis provoked an organizational ethics dilemma: how to develop ethical pandemic policy while upholding our organizational mission to deliver relationship- and patient-centered care. Tasked with producing a recommendation about whether healthcare workers and essential personnel should receive priority access to limited medical resources during the pandemic, the bioethics department and survey and interview methodologists at our institution implemented a deliberative approach that included the perspectives of healthcare professionals and patient stakeholders in the policy development process. Involving the community more, not less, during a crisis required balancing the need to act quickly to garner stakeholder perspectives, uncertainty about the extent and duration of the pandemic, and disagreement among ethicists about the most ethically supportable way to allocate scarce resources. This article explains the process undertaken to garner stakeholder input as it relates to organizational ethics, recounts the stakeholder perspectives shared and how they informed the triage policy developed, and offers suggestions for how other organizations may integrate stakeholder involvement in ethical decision-making as well as directions for future research and public health work.


Asunto(s)
Ética Institucional , Personal de Salud , Participación del Paciente , Formulación de Políticas , Asignación de Recursos/ética , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud/ética , Humanos , Política Organizacional , Triaje/ética
2.
J Clin Ethics ; 32(1): 35-37, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656455

RESUMEN

The excellent article by Daniel J. Benedetti, Mithya Lewis-Newby, Joan S. Roberts, and Douglas S. Diekema draws strength by dealing both with micro ethical (personal) and macro ethical (institutional policies and structures) considerations. One should further note that often, the macro factors are even stronger than the article implies, although individuals can affect the macro context. A particularly important macro factor for all matters concerning healthcare, indeed all human services, is the tension between the profit motive and ethical decisions.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles/terapia , Ética Institucional , Ética Profesional , Pandemias/ética , Personal de Salud/ética , Humanos , Obligaciones Morales
3.
J Clin Ethics ; 32(1): 77-82, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656460

RESUMEN

The level of impairment shown by the 1.3 million residents of nursing homes in the United States varies significantly, and this raises considerable challenges for how to address the sexual and romantic interests and needs of these diverse individuals. Unfortunately, bright-line rules and a one-size-fits-all approach are often taken when addressing these challenges. This article proposes a novel taxonomy for classifying the potential sexual and romantic relationships of cognitively impaired nursing home residents that includes relationships between unmarried residents, relationships between residents and their own spouses, and adulterous relationships. We explore the ethical and logistical challenges distinctive to each category of relationship.


Asunto(s)
Eticistas , Ética Institucional , Hogares para Ancianos/organización & administración , Relaciones Interpersonales , Casas de Salud/organización & administración , Conducta Sexual/ética , Esposos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
5.
J Clin Ethics ; 31(3): 259-267, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960808

RESUMEN

Organizational ethics programs often are created to address tensions in organizational values that have been identified through repeated clinical ethics consultation requests. Clinical ethicists possess some core competencies that are suitable for the leadership of high-quality organizational ethics programs, but they may need to develop new skills to build these programs, such as familiarity with healthcare delivery science, healthcare financing, and quality improvement methodology. To this end, we suggest that clinical ethicists build organizational ethics programs incrementally and via quality improvement projects undertaken in collaboration with senior clinical leaders. Organizational ethics programs often differ from clinical ethics programs in their membership and processes, and likely will require ethicists to forge new partnerships with a wide array of organizational leaders. With attention to the ways that organizational ethics programs differ from clinical ethics programs, and investment in quality improvement methodology and formal institutional needs assessments, clinical ethics leaders can position an organizational ethics program to advocate effectively for visible and compelling alignment of leadership decision making with the values of the organization.


Asunto(s)
Consultoría Ética , Ética Institucional , Eticistas , Ética Clínica , Humanos , Liderazgo
6.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 330-339, mayo 2020. graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-192070

RESUMEN

En la actualidad, la corrupción constituye uno de los principales problemas psicológicos, sociales, económicos y políticos a nivel mundial. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar las variables psicológicas asociadas a la corrupción a través de una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones entre 2008 y 2018. Tras realizar una búsqueda en las bases de datos Psycinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, Scielo y Dialnet, se encontraron 44 artículos que cumplían con los criterios de selección propuestos. Los grandes núcleos encontrados fueron la ética organizacional, creencias y valores culturales, moral y normas percibidas, y personalidad y variables relacionadas. En general, los resultados apuntan a que variables organizacionales como la percepción de la conducta de sus dirigentes o las estrategias de justificación están relacionadas con la corrupción. Valores culturales meritocráticos y materialistas también han sido ligados a la conducta corrupta, como ocurre en el caso de la percepción de un entorno corrupto y de las normas sociales. En cuanto a la personalidad, rasgos como el narcisismo y la psicopatía se encuentran íntimamente ligados a este fenómeno. Por otra parte, variables como la percepción del poder o el sexo de los participantes han recibido un sustento empírico ambiguo


Nowadays, corruption is one of the most important psychological, social, economic and political issues worldwide. The present paper aims to analyse psychological variables related to corruption through a systematic review of publications from 2008 to 2018. After carrying out a bibliographic search in scientific databases such as Psycinfo, Web of Science and Dialnet, 41 papers were found to match selection criteria. Core topics haven been organizational ethics, cultural beliefs and values, perceived norms and moral, and personality and related variables. Overall, results have shown that organizational variables such as leaders' behaviour and justification strategies are linked to corruption. Meritocratic and materialist values have also been linked to corrupt behaviour, just like perceiving a corrupt environment and social norms. In regard to personality, features such as narcissism and psychopathy are deeply connected with this phenomenon. On the other side, perception of power and gender have a mixed empirical support


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Corrupción/psicología , Valores Sociales , Normas Sociales , Ética Institucional , Religión , Bases de Datos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Moral
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237713, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813685

RESUMEN

Germinal studies have described the prevalence of sex-based harassment in high schools and its associations with adverse outcomes in adolescents. Studies have focused on students, with little attention given to the actions of high schools themselves. Though journalists responded to the #MeToo movement by reporting on schools' betrayal of students who report misconduct, this topic remains understudied by researchers. Gender harassment is characterized by sexist remarks, sexually crude or offensive behavior, gender policing, work-family policing, and infantilization. Institutional betrayal is characterized by the failure of an institution, such as a school, to protect individuals dependent on the institution. We investigated high school gender harassment and institutional betrayal reported retrospectively by 535 current undergraduates. Our primary aim was to investigate whether institutional betrayal moderates the relationship between high school gender harassment and current trauma symptoms. In our pre-registered hypotheses (https://osf.io/3ds8k), we predicted that (1) high school gender harassment would be associated with more current trauma symptoms and (2) institutional betrayal would moderate this relationship such that high levels of institutional betrayal would be associated with a stronger association between high school gender harassment and current trauma symptoms. Consistent with our first hypothesis, high school gender harassment significantly predicted college trauma-related symptoms. An equation that included participant gender, race, age, high school gender harassment, institutional betrayal, and the interaction of gender harassment and institutional betrayal also significantly predicted trauma-related symptoms. Contrary to our second hypothesis, the interaction term was non-significant. However, institutional betrayal predicted unique variance in current trauma symptoms above and beyond the other variables. These findings indicate that both high school gender harassment and high school institutional betrayal are independently associated with trauma symptoms, suggesting that intervention should target both phenomena.


Asunto(s)
Ética Institucional , Mala Conducta Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiología , Instituciones Académicas/ética , Acoso Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Trauma Psicológico/psicología , Psicología del Adolescente , Estudios Retrospectivos , Instituciones Académicas/organización & administración , Sexismo/psicología , Sexismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Acoso Sexual/prevención & control , Acoso Sexual/psicología , Denuncia de Irregularidades/psicología
8.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(8): 2161-2163, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519138

RESUMEN

Many GI training programs have needed to adjust to the serious disruption to the training and education of fellows worldwide due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A silent problem that has arisen within programs is the issue of burnout among their trainees. Burnout is common among gastroenterologists, especially in fellows (Keswani et al. in Gastroenterology 147(1):11-14, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2014.05.023 , Am J Gastroenterol 106(10):1734-1740, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2011.148 ), with negative consequences to patient care and the safety of the trainees if not effectively dealt with. In this article, the author describes several additional factors potentially contributing to the intensifying burnout of the fellows in their home institution during this pandemic. Moreover, he describes specific practical interventions that the hospital and program have taken in order to address these factors.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Psicológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Educación , Gastroenterología/educación , Internado y Residencia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Agotamiento Psicológico/etiología , Agotamiento Psicológico/prevención & control , Educación/ética , Educación/organización & administración , Educación/tendencias , Ética Institucional , Becas/métodos , Gastroenterólogos/psicología , Humanos , Internado y Residencia/métodos , Internado y Residencia/organización & administración , Internado y Residencia/tendencias , Pandemias
9.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(8): 1313-1316, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505633

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised ethical questions for the cardiovascular leader and practitioner. Attention has been redirected from a system that focuses on individual patient benefit toward one that focuses on protecting society as a whole. Challenging resource allocation questions highlight the need for a clearly articulated ethics framework that integrates principled decision making into how different cardiovascular care services are prioritized. A practical application of the principles of harm minimisation, fairness, proportionality, respect, reciprocity, flexibility, and procedural justice is provided, and a model for prioritisation of the restoration of cardiovascular services is outlined. The prioritisation model may be used to determine how and when cardiovascular services should be continued or restored. There should be a focus on an iterative and responsive approach to broader health care system needs, such as other disease groups and local outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Servicio de Cardiología en Hospital , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Ética Institucional , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Pandemias , Manejo de Atención al Paciente , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Canadá/epidemiología , Servicio de Cardiología en Hospital/organización & administración , Servicio de Cardiología en Hospital/tendencias , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Modelos Organizacionales , Innovación Organizacional , Pandemias/prevención & control , Manejo de Atención al Paciente/ética , Manejo de Atención al Paciente/métodos , Manejo de Atención al Paciente/normas , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control
10.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; jun. 19, 2020. 10 p.
No convencional en Inglés, Español | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1100378

RESUMEN

La pandemia de COVID-19 nos enfrenta a la urgencia moral de llevar a cabo investigaciones rigurosas tan pronto como sea posible para producir evidencia sobre la seguridad y eficacia de las intervenciones para tratar o prevenir la COVID-19 (1). Sin embargo, al igual que en emergencias anteriores, caracterizadas por una alta mortalidad y la ausencia de tratamientos seguros y eficaces, las intervenciones que no han sido probadas previamente para COVID-19 se están proporcionando fuera de protocolos de investigación con seres humanos. En circunstancias ordinarias, las intervenciones se prueban primero en investigaciones que tienen como objetivo principal producir conocimiento. Existen procedimientos para garantizar que los participantes de las investigaciones estén debidamente protegidos y se reúnan datos de calidad. Una vez que se han completado los estudios necesarios y se ha comprobado que las intervenciones son seguras y eficaces, mediante procesos rigurosos dirigidos por una Autoridad Reguladora Nacional (ARN), se autorizan y pueden proporcionarse a los pacientes para tratar o prevenir enfermedades.


The COVID-19 pandemic presents us with the moral urgency to conduct rigorous research as soon as possible to produce evidence about the safety and efficacy of interventions to treat or prevent COVID-19. However, as in previous emergencies, marked by high mortality and the absence of safe and efficacious treatments, interventions that have not been previously proven for COVID-19 are being offered outside of protocols of research with human subjects. Since the safety and efficacy of these interventions have not been proven yet, their risk-benefit profile is unknown. Yet in the exceptional circumstances of the pandemic, they are being offered as an attempt to advance access to interventions that may benefit patients. As recommended by the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization, unproven interventions should be offered within research protocols, and specifically within randomized controlled trials capable of assessing safety and efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Organización Panamericana de la Salud , Ética Institucional , Atención al Paciente/normas
11.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 8, 2020. 1 p.
No convencional en Inglés, Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096783

RESUMEN

La pandemia de COVID-19 conlleva la obligación de los gobiernos de destinar la mayor cantidad de recursos posibles para atender las necesidades de salud. Sin embargo, es posible que enfrentemos situaciones en las que los recursos disponibles (como ventiladores o camas de cuidados intensivos) no sean suficientes para atender todas las necesidades de la población. Ese escenario es moralmente trágico puesto que sabemos que debemos dar el tratamiento necesario a todas las personas afectadas. Ante ese escenario, debemos proceder de manera ética: Dado que no podemos hacer todo lo que debemos hacer, ¿cuál es la manera más ética de proceder? Actuar con responsabilidad obliga a las autoridades sanitarias a establecer criterios para las decisiones de priorización que pudieran ser necesarias en este escenario.


The COVID-19 pandemic faces governments with the obligation of allocating the greatest possible amount of resources to meet health care needs. However, we may encounter situations in which available resources (such as ventilators or ICU beds) are not sufficient to meet all the needs of the population. This is a morally tragic scenario because we know we should provide treatment to all who need it. In this scenario, we must proceed ethically: since we cannot do everything that we should do, what is the most ethical path of action? Responsible action calls for health authorities to establish criteria for the priority-setting decisions that may be necessary in this scenario.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Sistemas de Salud/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ética Institucional , Pandemias/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus
13.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226920, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990925

RESUMEN

This paper aims to explore whether entrepreneurial ethics can improve entrepreneurial performance in new ventures. The dynamic impact of entrepreneurial ethics on entrepreneurial performance (survival and sustainable growth) is investigated from an institutional perspective, and the moderating role of firm visibility between them is explored. From different regions of China, 296 valid questionnaires are obtained and analyzed. We find that entrepreneurial ethics is adverse to the survival of new ventures but conducive to their sustainable growth of new ventures. We also find that high firm visibility can help entrepreneurial ethics be more effective in improving entrepreneurial performance. This study provides a new insight to explain the theoretical controversy of entrepreneurial ethics and provides guidance for the establishment of the internal ethical structures of new ventures. Suggestions for government and industry regulators on the management of entrepreneurial ethics are also provided.


Asunto(s)
Contrato de Riesgo/ética , Ética Institucional , China , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(1): 251-259, jan. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055774

RESUMEN

Resumo O artigo tem como objetivo reforçar a importância da ética organizacional para as organizações de saúde. Como primeiro passo, distingue-se a ética organizacional de outras áreas da ética aplicada as quais são mobilizadas por questões éticas relacionadas à saúde. Em seguida, são apresentados os objetos de estudo e de intervenção que a caracterizam. Finalmente, o artigo enfoca alguns elementos centrais de uma abordagem ética organizacional particularmente rica e relevante.


Abstract The article aims to reinforce the importance of organizational ethics for health organizations. As a first step, organizational ethics is differentiated from other areas of applied ethics, which are mobilized by health-related ethical issues. Then, the objects of study and intervention that characterize it are presented. Finally, the article focuses on some core elements of a particularly rich and relevant organizational ethical approach.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/ética , Ética Institucional , Brasil
15.
London; Nuffield Council on Bioethics; ene. 2020. 16 p.
No convencional en Español | Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1116477

RESUMEN

Este documento describe los principales temas, hallazgos y recomendaciones del informe del Consejo Nuffield sobre Bioética Investigaciones en emergencias sanitarias globales: cuestiones éticas (publicado en enero de 2020). El informe sigue una investigación en profundidad de dos años realizada por un grupo de trabajo internacional, que se benefició de la evidencia y la experiencia compartida por muchos colaboradores de todo el mundo (ver el mapa a continuación para conocer las ubicaciones de los colaboradores). Las contribuciones se realizaron a través de las respuestas a una convocatoria abierta para evidencia, la participación en mesas redondas y reuniones individuales, la crítica de los primeros borradores del informe y la participación en talleres y eventos internacionales.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Discusiones Bioéticas , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Ética Institucional , Vigilancia Sanitaria de Servicios de Salud , Sistemas de Salud/organización & administración
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(1): 251-259, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859873

RESUMEN

The article aims to reinforce the importance of organizational ethics for health organizations. As a first step, organizational ethics is differentiated from other areas of applied ethics, which are mobilized by health-related ethical issues. Then, the objects of study and intervention that characterize it are presented. Finally, the article focuses on some core elements of a particularly rich and relevant organizational ethical approach.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/ética , Ética Institucional , Brasil
17.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 115(5): 367-371, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076797

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Economic considerations play an ever-increasing role in the decisions and actions of physicians, at times compromising the doctor-patient relationship and the quality of treatment. A reflection on an appropriate form of economization in the medical system therefore seems to be necessary. OBJECTIVES: This article examines the conditions under which moral standards can be effective in daily clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Strategies against the scarcity of resources are evaluated using ethical criteria. Organizational ethics approaches are discussed as a possible solution. RESULTS: Economic considerations are desirable if they increase efficiency in the healthcare system. However, rationing for purely cost reasons or delivering services to increase profit are ethically questionable motives. In addition to individual care decisions, cost decisions need to be transparently weighed at the institutional and health policy levels. Through this higher-level approach, carers will be better able to focus on the core of medical treatment which is the patient's well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Codes of conduct such as the DGIM (German Society of Internal Medicine) Clinic Codex can be useful ethical guidelines for patient care if they are institutionally implemented and actually used in the institution.


Asunto(s)
Ética Institucional , Médicos , Ética Médica , Política de Salud , Humanos , Principios Morales , Relaciones Médico-Paciente
18.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 50(4): 19-23, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448404

RESUMEN

In response to the Covid-19 pandemic, health care systems worldwide canceled or delayed elective surgeries, outpatient procedures, and clinic appointments. Although such measures may have been necessary to preserve medical resources and to prevent potential exposures early in the pandemic, moving forward, the indirect effects of such an extensive medical shutdown must not outweigh the direct harms of Covid-19. In this essay, we argue for the reopening of evidence-based health care with assurance provided to patients about the safety and necessity of high-value vaccinations, screenings, therapeutics, and procedures. To ensure that virtually all non-Covid-related services do not come to a halt again, health care systems and physician practices must preemptively increase their capacity, secure adequate personal protective equipment to safeguard health care personnel, and develop a measured approach to reclosing such routine health care, should it become necessary in the future.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/ética , Ética Institucional , Clausura de las Instituciones de Salud , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos , Salud Laboral/ética , Pandemias , Equipo de Protección Personal
19.
Buenos Aires; Ministerio de Salud; 2020.
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116482

RESUMEN

Ante la pandemia de COVID-19 la primera obligación es responder a las necesidades de atención de salud de las personas y comunidades afectadas. Al mismo tiempo, resulta un deber realizar investigaciones que generen evidencia para mantener, promover y mejorar la atención de la salud, la toma de decisiones y la definición de políticas en salud para el tratamiento y mitigación de la pandemia. La conducción de investigación durante la emergencia sanitaria conlleva mayores desafíos que los habituales. Demanda generar conocimiento rápidamente para dar respuesta a la pandemia, asegurar la validez científica de las investigaciones, respetar los principios éticos en su realización y mantener la confianza de la comunidad. Esta tarea requiere de la colaboración y solidaridad de la comunidad científica, investigadores, patrocinadores, comités evaluadores, personal de salud, autoridades sanitarias y la sociedad, para encontrar el mejor modo de evitar retrasos en la realización de las investigaciones. En este contexto, los comités de ética en investigación (CEI) deberían formular procedimientos para una evaluación ética rigurosa de las investigaciones en seres humanos que, a su vez, aseguren la existencia de mecanismos rápidos y flexibles para dar una respuesta eficiente a los tiempos y necesidades de una emergencia sanitaria. Estas recomendaciones buscan orientar a los CEI en el desarrollo de procedimientos operativos para una evaluación acelerada de proyectos de investigación relacionados con el COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Personal de Salud/ética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Ética Institucional , Pandemias/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Experimentación Humana/ética , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/ética , Políticas Públicas de Salud , Atención a la Salud
20.
J Law Health ; 33(1): 79-106, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841618

RESUMEN

Alfie Evans was a terminally ill British child whose parents, clinging to hope, were desperately trying to save his life. Hospital authorities disagreed and petitioned the court to enjoin the parents from removing him and taking him elsewhere for treatment. The court stepped in and compelled the hospital to discontinue life support and claimed that further treatment was not in the child's best interest. This note discusses the heartbreaking stories of Alfie and two other children whose parents' medical decisions on their behalf were overridden by the court. It argues that courts should never decide that death is in a child's best interest and compel parents to withdraw life support from their children. Such a decision is outside the scope of the judiciary. Furthermore, it argues that even in those instances when the court may or must intervene, a new framework is necessary because the current framework used by the court to determine the best interest of the child ignores fundamental realities of child psychology. Too often, as a result of the court's mistaken framework, the court illegitimately trespasses into the parental domain. By adopting a new framework, the court will intervene only when actual abuse or neglect is suspected. In all other cases, judicial restraint will be practiced and the court will show greater deference to the parents' wishes.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Disentimientos y Disputas , Rol Judicial , Padres , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapias Complementarias/ética , Terapias Complementarias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Ética Institucional , Ética Médica , Femenino , Humanos , Identificación Psicológica , Lactante , Cuidados para Prolongación de la Vida/ética , Cuidados para Prolongación de la Vida/legislación & jurisprudencia , Masculino , Obligaciones Morales , Autonomía Personal , Autonomía Profesional
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