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1.
GMS J Med Educ ; 37(7): Doc79, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33364358

RESUMEN

Objective: Against the background of the current pandemic crisis, this case report presents the experiences made from interprofessional teamwork with group members from different medical qualification levels. Our objectives were to identify areas of shared knowledge regarding efficient collaboration; to improve effective teamwork based on mutual respect; to develop innovative teaching methods tailored to the needs of COVID-19 interprofessional response teams. Methods: Field notes from numerous team discussions and improvised internal training sessions were compiled into a checklist. Each author edited and revised the checklist and a consensus has been reached after an in-person discussion. Feedback from an academic expert in emergency services has been incorporated into the final version of the checklist. Results: Three main topics were identified: the need for quality-assured professional training, the clarification of role expectations including assigned responsibilities, opportunities to contribute and participate in the team building process, and the development of area-related ethical competence in the sense of shared moral public health literacy. Hence, we developed the following ad - hoc teaching methods: use of online teaching videos, practical exercises on intubation models and the collective development of an annotated, detailed checklist for all relevant work processes of the mobile corona unit based on everyday debriefings. Summary: The need for interprofessional team building in the context of the current health crisis provides a beneficial learning environment for all participants. We propose to conceptually refine this approach into a cross-professional, innovative method of teaching.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Ética Médica/educación , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Garantía de la Calidad de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Conducta Cooperativa , Procesos de Grupo , Humanos , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Estudios de Casos Organizacionales , Rol del Médico
2.
Acad Med ; 95(10): 1488-1491, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006868

RESUMEN

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Association of American Medical Colleges has called for a temporary suspension of clinical teaching activities for medical students. Planning for the continued involvement of learners in patient care during this pandemic should include teaching learners professional formation. The authors provide an ethical framework to guide such teaching, based on the ethical principle of beneficence and the professional virtues of courage and self-sacrifice from professional ethics in medicine. The authors show that these concepts support the conclusion that learners are ethically obligated to accept reasonable, but not unreasonable, risk. Based on this ethical framework, the authors provide an account of the process of teaching professional formation that medical educators and academic leaders should implement. Medical educators and academic leaders should embrace the opportunity that the COVID-19 pandemic presents for teaching professional formation. Learners should acquire the conceptual vocabulary of professional formation. Learners should recognize that risk of infection from patients is unavoidable. Learners should become aware of established ethical standards for professional responsibility during epidemics from the history of medicine. Learners should master understandable fear. Medical educators and academic leaders should ensure that didactic teaching of professional formation continues when it becomes justified to end learners' participation in the processes of patient care; topics should include the professionally responsible management of scarce medical resources. The COVID-19 pandemic will not be the last major infectious disease that puts learners at risk. Professional ethics in medicine provides powerful conceptual tools that can be used as an ethical framework to guide medical educators to teach learners, who will bear leadership responsibilities in responses to future pandemics, professional formation.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/ética , Ética Médica/educación , Pandemias/ética , Profesionalismo/educación , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Humanos , Neumonía Viral , Profesionalismo/ética , Facultades de Medicina , Sociedades Médicas
4.
Clin Ter ; 171(5): e444-e448, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901790

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Teaching ethics in university courses may benefit from different didactic approaches; nonetheless, it still seems unclear whether ethics teaching can be best offered in stand-alone courses or integrated into other courses, or perhaps both. OBJECTIVE: We describe the experience derived from a structured teaching activity in the field of medical ethics, conducted during a lesson for the students of a rehabilitation university second-cycle degree course. METHODS: The participating students were healthcare professionals with different graduate training in rehabilitation. The aim of the lesson was to discuss the essentials of the relationship between patients and rehabilitation healthcare providers, from an inter-professional viewpoint, focused on the principles of trust, mutual respect, power and personal closeness, which are essential components of the therapeutic relationship between patients and physical therapists. RESULT: Shared moral norms guiding the professional conduct of healthcare professionals are a fundamental characteristic of these professions, promoting the public trust in these professions, tearing down barriers to inter-professional collaboration and communication. CONCLUSION: The results are remarkable, and there has been very positive feedback from the students concerning the production of the oath and its contents, as well as about the proposed teaching method, resulting in great interest in clinical ethics.


Asunto(s)
Ética Médica/educación , Profesionalismo/educación , Rehabilitación/educación , Estudiantes , Adulto , Investigación Empírica , Ética Clínica , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Principios Morales , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Rehabilitación/ética , Universidades
5.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 28(2): 319-331, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137098

RESUMEN

Resumo Impulsionadas pelas Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais do curso de graduação em medicina, publicadas em 2001, as universidades reestruturaram seus currículos a fim de articular a prática médica ao Sistema Único de Saúde, dando maior atenção às humanidades. A Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal da Bahia reformulou seu currículo em 2007, implantando o eixo ético-humanístico, ofertado do primeiro ao oitavo semestre. Este estudo analisa a percepção acerca desse eixo com base em questionário respondido por 418 estudantes. A maioria dos participantes afirmou conhecer os objetivos do eixo ético-humanístico, mas acredita que seus colegas de curso não o consideram importante para a formação. A maior parte diz privilegiar disciplinas dos módulos biológico e clínico, mas considera necessário que disciplinas do eixo ético-humanístico estejam presentes em todos os semestres.


Abstract Universities have been restructuring their curricula to direct medical practice onto the Brazilian Unified Health System, driven by the publication of the National Curricular Guidelines for the Undergraduate Medical Course in 2001, by introducing humanities as an important instrument to the students' education. The Faculty of Medicine of Bahia, Brazil, reformulated its curriculum in 2007 and implemented the ethical-humanistic axis, provided from the first to the eighth semester of the course, aiming at adapting the education of physicians to the profile proposed by the guidelines. Our study analyzes the students' perception of this axis in the curriculum. Questionnaires were applied to obtain 418 respondents. The students know the objectives of the ethical-humanistic axis; however, they think their colleagues do not consider the axis important for their education. Although most of students favor subjects from the biological and clinical modules, they also consider the disciplines of the ethical-humanistic axis should be present in all semesters.


Resumen Impulsadas por la publicación de las Directrices Curriculares Nacionales para el Curso de Grado en Medicina, publicadas en 2001, las universidades reestructuraron sus planes de estudio para articular la práctica médica al Sistema Único de Salud, para lo que concedieron mayor atención a las humanidades. La Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Federal de Bahía reformuló su plan de estudios en 2007 e implementó el eje ético-humanístico, ofrecido desde el primero hasta el octavo semestre. Este estudio analiza la percepción de este eje, sobre la base de un cuestionario al que respondieron 418 estudiantes. La mayoría de los participantes afirmó que conocía los objetivos del eje ético-humanista, aunque piensan que sus compañeros de curso no lo consideran importante para su formación. La mayor parte afirma que prioriza las disciplinas de los módulos biológico y clínico, aunque considera necesario que las disciplinas del eje ético-humanista estén presentes en todos los semestres.


Asunto(s)
Percepción/ética , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Ética Médica/educación
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(5): 684-688, mayo 2020.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139353

RESUMEN

Physicians values are largely supported by a socio-cultural moral basis, also known as "classical utilitarianism". Technological advances and social questions to physicians show their paucity of an ethical conceptualization in medicine. A new way of approaching ethical conflicts in medicine should be constructed. Training should promote ethical reflection about these conflicts and about the actions of physicians. Ontogenetic and phylogenetic research on human nature, and the advances in moral psychology, could allow us to understand the construction of our judgment of values. An introspective emotional and rational effort to understand "how we are" and from there, to "how we act" lacks among physicians. This issue is even more complex in a political-social model which does not stimulate this type of analysis. The university space is a privileged opportunity to educate. The student must be envisioned as a human being whose professional acts should consider the needs of our society, aiming at a new ethical conceptualization in medicine.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Médicos/psicología , Ética Médica/educación , Juicio/ética , Principios Morales
7.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 9(3): 248-252, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347745

RESUMEN

The current outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has and continues to put huge pressure on intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. Many patients with COVID-19 require some form of respiratory support and often have prolonged ICU stays, which results in a critical shortage of ICU beds. It is therefore not always physically possible to treat all the patients who require intensive care, raising major ethical dilemmas related to which patients should benefit from the limited resources and which should not. Here we consider some of the approaches to the acute shortages seen during this and other epidemics, including some guidelines for triaging ICU admissions and treatments.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Recursos en Salud/organización & administración , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/organización & administración , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Triaje/ética , Lechos/provisión & distribución , Enfermedad Catastrófica/epidemiología , Enfermedad Catastrófica/enfermería , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas/ética , Comunicación , Ética Médica/educación , Recursos en Salud/provisión & distribución , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/provisión & distribución , Pandemias , Asignación de Recursos/ética , Asignación de Recursos/métodos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Triaje/organización & administración
8.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(3): 411-414, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115562

RESUMEN

Over the past few decades, pharmacists' work has changed from product-centered tasks to patient-centered care. In response to such social changes and needs, the pharmacy education course was also extended from 4 to 6 years, and the importance of the humanities in the curriculum (e.g., medical psychology, medical ethics, and communication) is now recognized. The Model Core Curriculum for Pharmacy Education, 2013 version, described 10 professional competencies for pharmacists (professionalism, patient-oriented attitude, communication skills, interprofessional team care, basic sciences, medication therapy management, community health and medical care, research, lifelong learning, and education and training) and stated that the humanities are a foundation of pharmaceutical education. However, a report by the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan (2014) expressed concern that clinical practice was not connected with knowledge of the humanities. It is educationally meaningful when pharmacists who studied the humanities can then offer the best medical care to patients. In order to utilize knowledge of the humanities in the clinical setting, educators need to provide opportunities for active learning. Furthermore, the humanities are useful to help pharmacists acquire meta-cognition.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia , Humanidades/educación , Educación en Farmacia/tendencias , Ética Médica/educación , Humanos , Conocimiento , Metacognición , Psicología Médica/educación
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(1): 123-128, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954036

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To find out the most appropriate learning theory for the ethics education of medical undergraduates. METHODS: Two electronic databases were searched PubMed and Web of Science. We searched for published articles written in English without a time limit using the keywords: ethics education, medical undergraduates and learning theory. In the four-phased retrieval process, six full texts out of 133 citations were included in this review. Data were analyzed done by conventional content analysis. RESULTS: This systemic review revealed that reflection is the most effective pathway to develop ethical attributes and values of the physician. Social constructivist and experiential theory seem appropriate to form the basis for developing effective ethics curriculum. CONCLUSIONS: This review heightens the importance of learning theories for ethics education. It gives prompt evidence that reflection is the most suitable model for ethical education. Therefore, the educational theories and teaching activities that endorse reflective learning should be used for ethics education.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Ética Médica/educación , Humanos , Estudiantes de Medicina
14.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 37(1): 79-81, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597441

RESUMEN

In a recent American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine article entitled "Ethics Education During Palliative Medicine Fellowship," Dr Elizabeth Vig and Dr Susan Merel detail the ethics curriculum of the University of Washington School of Medicine's Palliative Medicine Fellowship, including their efforts in the past several years to increase and bolster the fellowship's ethics curriculum. This letter builds upon this topic and discusses some other strategies and methods for ethics education and training that fellowship programs may consider adopting to bolster their ethics curriculum.


Asunto(s)
Ética Médica/educación , Becas/organización & administración , Medicina Paliativa/educación , Comunicación , Becas/normas , Humanos , Simulación de Paciente , Estados Unidos
15.
Med Teach ; 42(1): 92-100, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558083

RESUMEN

Foundation doctors (FDs) encounter a wide range of ethical and legal issues during their first two years of work. Despite ethics being a key part of most modern undergraduate curricula, FDs can struggle with the issues they see. This study is based on results from an on-line survey answered by 479 UK FDs regarding their medical law and ethics learning needs, and their undergraduate training in this area. Over two-thirds stated they would wish to receive MEL training as an FD on self-discharge against medical advice (∼71%), sedating patients (∼70%), decision making in emergency medicine (∼67%), and withholding and withdrawing treatment (∼66%). Over half of all respondents want MEL training during their Foundation Programme on DNACPR orders (∼63%), dealing with patients with suicidal intent (∼59%), Mental Health Act (∼55%), Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (∼54%), and end of life care (∼53%). We therefore propose a minimum curriculum for ethics and law training for FDs based on these topics, as well as cases brought by the FDs themselves.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Toma de Decisiones , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Ética Médica/educación , Médicos/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Jurisprudencia , Masculino , Evaluación de Necesidades , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Cuidado Terminal , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
16.
Rev Med Chil ; 148(5): 684-688, 2020 May.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399762

RESUMEN

Physicians values are largely supported by a socio-cultural moral basis, also known as "classical utilitarianism". Technological advances and social questions to physicians show their paucity of an ethical conceptualization in medicine. A new way of approaching ethical conflicts in medicine should be constructed. Training should promote ethical reflection about these conflicts and about the actions of physicians. Ontogenetic and phylogenetic research on human nature, and the advances in moral psychology, could allow us to understand the construction of our judgment of values. An introspective emotional and rational effort to understand "how we are" and from there, to "how we act" lacks among physicians. This issue is even more complex in a political-social model which does not stimulate this type of analysis. The university space is a privileged opportunity to educate. The student must be envisioned as a human being whose professional acts should consider the needs of our society, aiming at a new ethical conceptualization in medicine.


Asunto(s)
Ética Médica , Juicio , Principios Morales , Médicos , Ética Médica/educación , Humanos , Juicio/ética , Médicos/psicología
17.
Recurso Educacional Abierto en Español | CVSP - Argentina | ID: oer-3883

RESUMEN

1º Jornada «Derecho a la Salud», organizada por el CVSP Nodo Argentina, la Sala de Derecho a la Salud del Colegio de Abogados de Córdoba y la Escuela de Salud Pública y Ambiente de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas–UNC. La misma se llevó a cabo el día 4 de diciembre del corriente año en el Salón Rojo de la Secretaría de Graduados en Ciencias de la Salud FCM-UNC. La jornada contó con la presencia de Profesionales de la Salud, Profesionales del Derecho, alumnos de postgrado de las Carreras de Ciencias Médicas, Derecho y Ciencias Sociales y público en general. conferencia por el Dr. Andrés de León. Presidente del Consejo Médico de la Provincia de Córdoba.


Asunto(s)
Ética Médica/educación , Códigos de Ética/legislación & jurisprudencia
18.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(8): 1067-1072, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859973

RESUMEN

The Chilean Law regulating the voluntary interruption of pregnancy, contemplates the possibility that health personnel may refrain from doing the procedure if they have stated that they are conscientious objectors (CO). There are numerous articles on the subject. However, the impact on medical training centers when a student or resident abstain from performing certain clinical procedures invoking CO, has seldom been analyzed. In this article, we explore the rights and duties of the CO students to perform an abortion or other clinical procedures for either religious or cultural reasons. Based on international experience, we recommend that all health care centers should have established and publicly known policies on this matter. Finally, we honor CO invoked by students, based on three general principles. First, the autonomy and moral integrity of the students should be respected. Second, an adequate ethical sensitivity is promoted. Third, it contributes to the necessary heterogeneity and diversity of students, promoting a desirable pluralism. However, certain interests and values, such as the well-being of patients, must be considered over and above accepting the CO requests.


Asunto(s)
Conciencia , Educación Médica/ética , Ética Médica/educación , Principios Morales , Estudiantes de Medicina , Aborto Legal/ética , Chile , Educación Médica/métodos , Humanos , Autonomía Personal
19.
Indian J Med Ethics ; 4(3): 175-177, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727606

RESUMEN

The Dr K Kasturirangan-chaired committee recently submitted a Draft National Educational Policy (NEP) to the Ministry of Human Resource Development in May, 2019. It has been thirty-three years since the last comprehensive education policy of 1986. Naturally, this Draft Policy has been long awaited  and involves many complex issues (as evidenced by the controversy already created around the "imposition of Hindi"). This editorial seeks to examine only slices of the NEP that deal with higher education, and to foreground some on-the-ground challenges to meaningful implementation, especially more easily overlooked topics such as medical ethics.


Asunto(s)
Ética Médica/educación , Políticas , Edición/economía , Edición/normas , India , Investigación/normas , Universidades/economía
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