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1.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 39-42, mar. 2020.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102378

RESUMEN

Un equipo investigador liderado por el primer autor de este artículo propuso traducir al español, adaptar transculturalmente y validar un cuestionario para evaluar la competencia de quienes ejercen mentoría en investigación. Dado que no se trataba de una investigación clínica, en un principio, el equipo investigador le restó importancia a la deliberación ética, asumiendo que este tipo de investigación podría estar exceptuada de ser evaluada por un Comité Independiente de Ética. Sin embargo, luego de revisar la bibliografía especializada y de varias sesiones de discusión con expertos en ética de la investigación, la opinión del equipo fue cambiando. Este artículo pretende compartir esta experiencia deliberativa con todo equipo involucrado en investigaciones en educación. (AU)


A research team led by the first author of this article proposed to translate into Spanish, adapt cross-culturally and validate a questionnaire to assess the competence of those who do research mentoring. Since it was not a clinical investigation, initially, the research team downplayed ethical deliberation, assuming that this type of research could be exempted from being evaluated by an Independent Ethics Committee. However, after reviewing the specialized literature and several discussion sessions with experts in research ethics, the opinion of the team changed. This article aims to share this deliberative experience with any team involved in education research. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Mentores/educación , Ética en Investigación/educación , Educación/ética , Valores Sociales , Traducciones , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Barreras de Comunicación , Confidencialidad/ética , Factores Culturales , Formularios de Consentimiento , Proyectos , Comunicación y Divulgación Científica , Informe de Investigación , Consentimiento Informado/ética
2.
Dev World Bioeth ; 20(1): 50-60, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958330

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The globalization of clinical research in the last two decades has led to a significant increase in the volume of clinical research in developing countries. As of 2016, Uganda was the third largest destination for clinical trials in Africa. This requires adequate capacity and systems to facilitate ethical practice. METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving review of laws, guidelines, policies and records from 1896 to date. RESULTS: Modern medicine evolved from 1896 and by the time of Uganda's independence in 1962, a 1500 bed national referral hospital was in place and a fully-fledged medical school was established at the Makerere University. As the practice of medicine evolved in the country, so did medical research that addressed priority health issues. The growth in modern medicine was not matched with development of research infrastructure and regulatory systems. The first documented regulation of research activities was in 1970 while the first research ethics committee established in 1986 was to facilitate review of research related to the HIV/AIDs pandemic. In 1990 an Act of Parliament was passed to facilitate development and implementation of policies, hence the development of the national guidelines in 1997, training, establishment and accreditation of research ethics committees, conferences and research site monitoring. CONCLUSION: Over the past 120 years, the implementation and structural aspects of research ethics in Uganda have evolved through 70 years of no regulation, followed by 30 years of rudimentary regulation while the last 20 years have shown significant growth in the regulatory system associated with supportive laws, institutionalization of regulatory and training processes.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/ética , Investigación Biomédica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Investigación Biomédica/tendencias , Ética en Investigación/historia , Países en Desarrollo , Comités de Ética en Investigación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Ética en Investigación/educación , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Uganda
3.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225837, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774867

RESUMEN

As research teams are increasingly comprised of members from multiple disciplines, ranging from the physical sciences, life sciences, social and behavioral sciences to the arts and humanities, it is important to revisit how research is conducted at several levels. Coupled with the national concern over rigor and reproducibility in research, it is therefore crucial to ensure that all members of such multidisciplinary teams view the need for ethics in the conduct of research in similar ways. Towards this end, Wayne State University developed a course in the Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) which was mandatory for all its 1500 doctoral students across all disciplines in its 75 PhD programs. We found that student perceptions of the validity, applicability and usefulness of the course varied by discipline. This was in spite of iterative changes made to the course by faculty in those disciplines to make the content palatable to all. The findings show that more work needs to be done to fully incorporate the needs of social sciences and humanities disciplines in a comprehensive university course. This is especially important as these students become members of large multidisciplinary research teams in order to uphold the highest levels of rigor, reproducibility and ethics.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum/normas , Ética en Investigación/educación , Humanidades/educación , Disciplinas de las Ciencias Naturales/educación , Ciencias Sociales/educación , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Universidades
4.
Clin Chem ; 65(12): 1497-1507, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434657

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Laboratory medicine, like other areas of medicine, is obliged to adhere to high ethical standards. There are particular ethical issues that are unique to laboratory medicine and other areas in which ethical issues uniquely impact laboratory practice. Despite this, there is variability in ethics education within the profession. This review provides a foundation for the study of ethics within laboratory medicine. CONTENT: The Belmont Report identifies 3 core principles in biomedical ethics: respect for persons (including autonomy), beneficence (and its corollary nonmalfeasance), and justice. These core principles must be adhered to in laboratory medicine. Informed consent is vital to maintain patient autonomy. However, balancing patient autonomy with the desire for beneficence can sometimes be difficult when patients refuse testing or treatment. The use of leftover or banked samples is fundamental to the ability to do research, create reference intervals, and develop new tests, but it creates problems with consent. Advances in genetic testing have created unique ethical issues regarding privacy, incidental findings, and informed consent. As in other professions, the emergence of highly contagious and deadly infectious diseases poses a difficult ethical dilemma of helping patients while protecting healthcare workers. CONCLUSIONS: Although many clinical laboratorians do not see or treat patients, they must be held accountable to the highest ethical and professional behavior. Recognition and understanding of ethical issues are essential to ethical practice of laboratory medicine.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/ética , Ética Médica/educación , Ética en Investigación/educación , Beneficencia , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/ética , Humanos , Consentimiento Informado/ética , Respeto , Justicia Social/ética
5.
Camb Q Healthc Ethics ; 28(3): 542-550, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298200

RESUMEN

In this article, we present an educational intervention that embeds ethics education within research laboratories. This structure is designed to assist students in addressing ethical challenges in a more informed way, and to improve the overall ethical culture of research environments. The project seeks (a) to identify factors that students and researchers consider relevant to ethical conduct in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and (b) to promote the cultivation of an ethical culture in experimental laboratories by integrating research stakeholders in a bottom-up approach to developing context-specific, ethics-based guidelines. An important assumption behind this approach is that direct involvement in the process of developing laboratory specific ethical guidelines will positively influence researchers' understanding of ethical research and practice issues, their handling of these issues, and the promotion of an ethical culture in the respective laboratory. The active involvement may increase the sense of ownership and integration of further discussion on these important topics. Based on the project experiences, the project team seeks to develop a module involving the bottom-up building of codes-of-ethics-based guidelines that can be used by a broad range of institutions and that will be distributed widely.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Postgrado , Empoderamiento , Ética en Investigación/educación , Estudiantes , Guías como Asunto
6.
Am J Community Psychol ; 64(1-2): 9-20, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355974

RESUMEN

Individuals responsible for carrying out research within their diverse communities experience a critical need for research ethics training materials that align with community values. To improve the capacity to meet local human subject protections, we created the research Ethics Training for Health in Indigenous Communities (rETHICS), a training curriculum aligned within American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) context, culture, and community-level ethical values and principles. Beginning with the Belmont Report and the Common Rule that defines research with human subjects (46 CFR 45), the authors convened three different expert panels (N = 37) to identify Indigenous research values and principles common across tribal communities. The resulting culturally grounded curriculum was then tested with 48 AI/AN individuals, 39 who also had recorded debriefing interviews. Using a thematic analysis, we coded the qualitative feedback from the expert panel discussions and the participant debriefings to assess content validity. Participants identified five foundational constructs needed to ensure cultural-grounding of the AI/AN-specific research training curriculum. These included ensuring that the module was: (a) framed within an AI/AN historical context; (b) reflected Indigenous moral values; (c) specifically linked AI/AN cultural considerations to ethical procedures; (d) contributed to a growing Indigenous ethics; and (e) provided Indigenous-based ethics tools for decision making. Using community-based consultation and feedback from participants led to a culturally grounded training curriculum that teaches research ethical principles and procedures for conducting research with AI/ANs. The curriculum is available for free and the community-based process used can be adapted for other cultural groups.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Participativa Basada en la Comunidad/ética , Ética en Investigación/educación , Indios Norteamericanos , Competencia Cultural/educación , Competencia Cultural/ética , Curriculum , Toma de Decisiones , Testimonio de Experto , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Evaluación de Necesidades/ética
7.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 35(6-7): 558-561, 2019.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274087

RESUMEN

Since 2016, the national framework for doctoral studies in France states that doctoral schools from the French universities should ensure that every doctoral student receives a training in research ethics and integrity. The doctoral schools can organize the training at their convenience. We have conducted a study among all French doctoral schools about the modalities of this training in 2018. Our inquiry shows that the doctoral schools are well engaged in this effort of training on the whole territory, and are on the verge of reinforcing it. Overall, our inquiry shows a general awareness by the doctoral schools of the importance of these topics for tomorrow research.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación de Postgrado/métodos , Ética Profesional/educación , Ética en Investigación/educación , Curriculum/normas , Educación de Postgrado/historia , Educación de Postgrado/normas , Ética Profesional/historia , Ética en Investigación/historia , Francia , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Estudiantes/psicología
10.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 18(2): mr2, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120396

RESUMEN

Advancement of the scientific enterprise relies on individuals conducting research in an ethical and responsible manner. Educating emergent scholars in the principles of ethics/responsible conduct of research (E/RCR) is therefore critical to ensuring such advancement. The recent impetus to include authentic research opportunities as part of the undergraduate curriculum, via course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs), has been shown to increase cognitive and noncognitive student outcomes. Because of these important benefits, CUREs are becoming more common and often constitute the first research experience for many students. However, despite the importance of E/RCR in the research process, we know of few efforts to incorporate E/RCR education into CUREs. The Ethics Network for Course-based Opportunities in Undergraduate Research (ENCOUR) was created to address this concern and promote the integration of E/RCR within CUREs in the biological sciences and related disciplines. During the inaugural ENCOUR meeting, a four-pronged approach was used to develop guidelines for the effective integration of E/RCR in CUREs. This approach included: 1) defining appropriate student learning objectives; 2) identifying relevant curriculum; 3) identifying relevant assessments; and 4) defining key aspects of professional development for CURE facilitators. Meeting outcomes, including the aforementioned E/RCR guidelines, are described herein.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Ética en Investigación/educación , Estudiantes , Universidades , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Aprendizaje
12.
Account Res ; 26(3): 157-175, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982340

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study is to highlight the experiences of individuals who participate in the Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) training program held at various universities in Malaysia. In response to a mailing request sent to 40 individuals who had undertaken a RCR training program, 15 participants agreed to be interviewed. The results of the study showed that the three main reasons for participating in the training were as follows: anticipation for knowledge gained; personal experience with research misconduct; and establishing a new network of researchers. In terms of the positive effects gained from undertaking the training, the participants highlighted an increased awareness of the issues and problems related to research misconduct; the need to promote integrity in research conduct; a change in the way they conduct their research; and a change in the way they confront and address misconduct. The findings of this study should be valuable for policy makers and those involved in the management of research programs and ethics, as it demonstrated the importance of RCR training in equipping researchers with the necessary knowledge to conduct research responsibly, and to avoid research misconduct.


Asunto(s)
Ética en Investigación/educación , Investigadores/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Malasia , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Universidades
13.
J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics ; 14(3): 209-218, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943835

RESUMEN

We designed and tested the efficacy of a 1-hr training session to mitigate endorsement of questionable research practices (QRPs), research practices that raise ethical concerns and are detrimental to reproducible science, in psychology graduate students. We assessed attitudes toward QRPs 1 week prior to the training, 1 week following the training, and at 2-month follow-up. Participants reported QRPs as less ethically defensible 1 week following the intervention compared with 1 week prior, with attitudes at 2-month follow-up falling in between these time points. Results were maintained even when controlling for socially desirable responding. Participants who rated the training more favorably demonstrated greater attitude change toward detrimental research practices. These results provide evidence that an intervention to educate graduate students about QRPs and their negative impact on science can mitigate consideration of such practices as ethically defensible, although such benefits may not hold over time without additional training sessions.


Asunto(s)
Ética en Investigación/educación , Capacitación en Servicio , Proyectos de Investigación , Investigadores/educación , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicología , Adulto Joven
14.
Perspect Med Educ ; 8(2): 74-82, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915714

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Engaging in scientific misconduct and questionable research practices (QRPs) is a noted problem across fields, including health professions education (HPE). To mitigate these practices, other disciplines have enacted strategies based on researcher characteristics and practice factors. Thus, to inform HPE, this study seeks to determine which researcher characteristics and practice factors, if any, might explain the frequency of irresponsible research practices. METHOD: In 2017, a cross-sectional survey of HPE researchers was conducted. The survey included 66 items adapted from three published surveys: two published QRP surveys and a publication pressure scale. The outcome variable was a self-reported misconduct score, which is a weighted mean score for each respondent on all misconduct and QRP items. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, reliability and correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression modelling. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In total, 590 researchers completed the survey. Results from the final regression model indicated that researcher age had a negative association with the misconduct score (b = -0.01, ß = -0.22, t = -2.91, p <0.05), suggesting that older researchers tended to report less misconduct. On the other hand, those with more publications had higher misconduct scores (b = 0.001, ß = 0.17, t = 3.27, p < 0.05) and, compared with researchers in the region of North America, researchers in Asia tended to have higher misconduct scores (b = 0.21, ß = 0.12, t = 2.84, p < 0.01). In addition, compared with those who defined their work role as clinician, those who defined their role as researcher tended to have higher misconduct scores (b = 0.12, ß = 0.13, t = 2.15, p < 0.05). Finally, publication pressure emerged as the strongest individual predictor of misconduct (b = 0.20, ß = 0.34, t = 7.82, p < 0.01); the greater the publication pressure, the greater the reported misconduct. Overall, the explanatory variables accounted for 21% of the variance in the misconduct score, with publication pressure accounting for 10% of the variance in the outcome, above and beyond the other explanatory variables. Although correlational, these findings suggest several researcher characteristics and practice factors that could be targeted to address scientific misconduct and QRPs in HPE.


Asunto(s)
Ética en Investigación/educación , Empleos en Salud/educación , Investigadores/psicología , Mala Conducta Científica/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Empleos en Salud/ética , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , América del Norte/epidemiología , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Publicaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Mala Conducta Científica/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 25(4): 1261-1269, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30725394

RESUMEN

An activity called Purple Dragons and Yellow Toadstools, originally reported in 1987 as a training activity for jurors, was adapted as a priming exercise for a unit on teaching research ethics with undergraduate students. In this activity, learners develop skills for building negotiated consensus. The procedure involves individuals' ranking 10-15 moral transgressions and/or legal violations followed by a small group discussion in order to arrive at an agreed-upon ranking by the team. The framework has proved to be quite flexible, adaptable to different subject areas and with different populations of students.


Asunto(s)
Consenso , Ética en Investigación/educación , Negociación , Estudiantes , Humanos , Michigan , Universidades
16.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 25(6): 1771-1788, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23595501

RESUMEN

One of the core problems with engineering ethics education is perceptual. Although ethics is meant to be a central component of today's engineering curriculum, it is often perceived as a marginal requirement that must be fulfilled. In addition, there is a mismatch between faculty and student perceptions of ethics. While faculty aim to communicate the nuances and complexity of engineering ethics, students perceive ethics as laws, rules, and codes that must be memorized. This paper provides some historical context to better understand these perceptual differences, and suggests that curriculum constraints are important contributing factors. Drawing on the growing scholarship of student engagement approaches to pedagogy, the paper explores how students can be empowered to effect change in the broader engineering curriculum through engineering ethics. The paper describes a student engagement approach to pedagogy that includes students as active participants in curriculum design-a role that enables them to critically reflect about why ethics is a requirement. Including students in the process of curriculum design leads students to reframe ethics as an integrative tool with the capacity to bring together different engineering departments and build bridges to non-engineering fields. This paper argues that students can and should play an active and important role in relocating ethics from the periphery to the core of the engineering curriculum.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación Profesional , Ingeniería/educación , Ética en Investigación/educación , Estudiantes , Actitud , Ingeniería/ética , Humanos , Enseñanza
17.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 25(6): 1735-1762, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27549801

RESUMEN

The movements to teach the responsible conduct of research (RCR) and engineering ethics at technological universities are often unacknowledged aspects of the ethics across the curriculum (EAC) movement and could benefit from explicit alliances with it. Remarkably, however, not nearly as much scholarly attention has been devoted to EAC as to RCR or to engineering ethics, and RCR and engineering ethics educational efforts are not always presented as facets of EAC. The emergence of EAC efforts at two different institutions-the Illinois Institute of Technology and Utah Valley University (UVU)-provide counter examples. The remarkably successful UVU initiative gave birth to EAC as a scholarly movement and to the associated Society for Ethics Across the Curriculum. EAC initiatives at the Colorado School of Mines, however, point up continuing institutional resistances to EAC. Finally, comparative reflection on successes and failures can draw some lessons for the future. One suggestion is that increasing demands for accountability and pedagogical research into what works in teaching and learning offers special opportunities.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación Profesional , Ingeniería/educación , Ética en Investigación/educación , Universidades/ética , Colorado , Ingeniería/ética , Humanos , Illinois , Aprendizaje , Enseñanza , Utah
18.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 25(2): 463-476, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127672

RESUMEN

In order to increase understanding of the ethical implications of biomedical, behavioral and clinical research, the Fogarty International Center, part of the United States National Institutes of Health, established an International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development Award (R25) to support programs in low- and middle-income countries. To develop research ethics expertise in Jordan, the University of California San Diego fellowship program in collaboration with Jordan University of Science and Technology provides courses that enable participants to develop skills in varied research ethics topics, including research with human subjects. The program provides a master's level curriculum, including practicum experiences. In this article we describe a practicum project to modify an existing introduction to human subjects research for a US audience to be linguistically and culturally appropriate to Arabic-speaking-Islamic communities. We also highlight key differences that guided the conversion of an English version to one that is in Arabic. And finally, as Institutional Review Boards follow the ethical principles of the Belmont Report in evaluating and approving biomedical and behavioral human subjects research proposals, we provide observations on the conformity of the three ethical principles of the Belmont Report with Islam.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/ética , Curriculum , Educación Profesional/métodos , Ética en Investigación/educación , Experimentación Humana/ética , Islamismo , Investigadores/ética , Árabes , Investigación Biomédica/educación , California , Cultura , Países en Desarrollo , Comités de Ética en Investigación , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Jordania , Lenguaje , Solución de Problemas , Religión y Medicina , Proyectos de Investigación , Investigadores/educación , Sujetos de Investigación , Universidades
19.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 25(4): 1111-1124, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29717467

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study is to encourage and highlight discussion on how to improve the teaching of research ethics in institutions of higher education in Malaysia. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 21 academics in a research-intensive university in Malaysia, interviewees agreed on the importance of emphasizing the subject of research ethics among students, as well as academics or researchers. This study reveals that participants felt that there is an urgent need to improve the current awareness and knowledge of issues related to misconduct in research among students and academics. The results of this study indicate a need for better teaching on the subject of research ethics in order to prevent misconduct in research. Finally, it concludes with suggestions that there should be a clear definition of research misconduct, to include consequences when engaging in misconduct; a separate research ethics syllabus for pure and social sciences should be conducted; research ethics should be implemented as a core subject, and there should be an early intervention and continuous learning of research ethics, with an emphasis on ethics training.


Asunto(s)
Ética en Investigación/educación , Investigadores/educación , Investigadores/ética , Mala Conducta Científica/clasificación , Mala Conducta Científica/ética , Universidades/ética , Curriculum , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Malasia , Masculino
20.
Acad Med ; 94(1): 76-84, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113363

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To maintain scientific integrity and engender public confidence, research must be conducted responsibly. Whereas deliberate scientific misconduct such as data fabrication is clearly unethical, other behaviors-often referred to as questionable research practices (QRPs)-exploit the ethical shades of gray that color acceptable practice. This study aimed to measure the frequency of self-reported misconduct and QRPs in a diverse, international sample of health professions education (HPE) researchers. METHOD: In 2017, the authors conducted an anonymous, cross-sectional survey study. The web-based survey contained 43 items that asked respondents to rate how often they had engaged in a variety of irresponsible research behaviors. The items were adapted from previously published surveys. RESULTS: In total, 590 HPE researchers took the survey. The mean age was 46 years (SD = 11.6), and the majority of participants were from the United States (26.4%), Europe (23.2%), and Canada (15.3%). The three most frequently reported irresponsible research behaviors were adding authors who did not qualify for authorship (60.6%), citing articles that were not read (49.5%), and selectively citing papers to please editors or reviewers (49.4%). Additionally, respondents reported misrepresenting a participant's words (6.7%), plagiarizing (5.5%), inappropriately modifying results (5.3%), deleting data without disclosure (3.4%), and fabricating data (2.4%). Overall, 533 (90.3%) respondents reported at least one irresponsible behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Notwithstanding the methodological limitations of survey research, these findings indicate that a substantial proportion of HPE researchers report a range of misconduct and QRPs. Consequently, reforms may be needed to improve the conduct of HPE research.


Asunto(s)
Autoria/normas , Investigación Biomédica/normas , Educación Médica/normas , Ética en Investigación/educación , Edición/normas , Mala Conducta Científica/ética , Mala Conducta Científica/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Investigación Biomédica/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Educación Médica/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Edición/estadística & datos numéricos
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