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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19167, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080095

RESUMEN

To verify the validity of functional health literacy scale and analyze what influences functional health literacy.Using convenience sampling method based on cross-sectional data to select 589 left-behind senior high-school students in an ethnic minority area, using the functional health literacy scale.The scale results were relatively strong, and the absolute fitness index, value-added fitness index, and simple fitness index reached the fitness standards. The overall functional health literacy score was (0.65 ±â€Š0.12), which falls within the upper middle class. Gender(t = 2.40, P < .05), ethnicity (t = 4.28, P < .001), place of residence (t =  = 4.51, P < .001), mother's education level (F = 3.608, P < .05), self-assessment of grades for 1 year (F = 25.781, P < .001), and whether the participant liked the health education content (F = 9.416, P < .001) had impacts on overall functional health literacy.The study results show that relatively satisfactory reliability and validity and can be applied further analysis for improving students functional health literacy levels.


Asunto(s)
Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Alfabetización en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Éxito Académico , Adolescente , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , República de Corea/etnología , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Sexuales
2.
J Sports Sci ; 38(5): 582-589, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005082

RESUMEN

This study aims to quantify the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement, and determine how different aerobic fitness tests and individual demographic characteristics may modify this association. It includes 41 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies focusing on children and adolescents, from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database and Web of Science. Pooled effect sizes (ES) were estimated for the association between aerobic fitness and specific domains of academic achievement. Subgroup analyses and meta-regressions were based on aerobic fitness tests and demographic characteristics. The ES for the association between aerobic fitness with language/reading-skills, mathematics-related skills and composite scores, were 0.23 (95% CI: 0.12; 0.34); 0.27 (95% CI: 0.19; 0.36) and 0.28 (95% CI: 0.12; 0.45), respectively. Subgroup analyses by aerobic fitness test modified these associations; additionally, analyses by sex or age showed differences between boys and girls as well as between children and adolescents. Finally, meta-regressions revealed a slight effect of body mass index on these associations. Cardiorespiratory fitness is positively associated with academic achievement. Associations were dependent on demographic and aerobic fitness test characteristics, being stronger in boys than in girls, and in children than in adolescents.Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42017069677.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Aptitud Física , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Índice de Masa Corporal , Capacidad Cardiovascular , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Matemática , Lectura , Factores Sexuales
3.
Orv Hetil ; 161(4): 139-150, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955584

RESUMEN

Introduction: Comprehensive predictors of first-year students' academic performance, including pre-university experience, can be found at both individual and infrastructural levels that can be measured and used to increase academic performance and contribute to student mental health. Aim: To study the characteristics of students who are beginning their studies in medical, dental, pharmacy and health care organization. Method: Analysis of a database obtained through questionnaire data among first-year Semmelweis University students (n = 550). Significant explanatory variables influencing student performance were determined by logistic regression. Results: Different faculties and prestige channels have different success factors and student needs, the fulfillment of which also serves the maintenance of student mental health. Two groups were defined: (i) factors independent of age (perseverance value, religious belief, WHO value of well-being, importance of sport, trust), (ii) faculty-specific factors (Faculties of Medicine and Dentistry: parental influence on learning; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences: the importance of relationships is high; Faculty of Health Sciences: parental qualifications are decisive). Conclusion: At the start of a student's life, measurements can uncover factors that, if learned, can facilitate later successful studies, preventing early school leaving. During the course of studies, these features can be monitored continuously, so that the necessary interventions can be made to ensure student success. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(4): 139-150.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Aprendizaje , Estudiantes del Área de la Salud/psicología , Investigación Empírica , Humanos , Estudiantes del Área de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
J Dent Educ ; 84(1): 81-87, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977085

RESUMEN

The number of international students coming to the U.S. for post-secondary education has been steadily increasing. Prior research has found that international students encounter many barriers to academic success, but this topic has not been previously studied for the discipline of dental hygiene. The aims of this study were to investigate the barriers and challenges to academic success faced by international students in U.S. dental hygiene programs and to explore the students' thoughts on the value they bring to those programs. The overlapping qualitative methods of semi-structured focus groups and one-on-one interviews with 12 students in three U.S. dental hygiene programs were used for this phenomenological study. In the results, six themes emerged: language proficiency, communication challenges with faculty and patients, ability to adapt to a new educational system, adjusting to cultural differences, feelings of belonging, and the value of diversity. The most significant barrier for the participants was comprehension of the English language. Didactically, these students reported that they needed additional time to study and to process examination questions. This study found that these international students studying dental hygiene in the U.S. had academic challenges similar to international students studying in other disciplines. Dental hygiene educators may need to evaluate their didactic and test-taking strategies to ensure the academic success of international students.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Higienistas Dentales , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Estudiantes
5.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(1): 107-111, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902878

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to examine how students prepare for the pharmaceutical technical English course "Yakugaku-Eigo Nyumon" by qualitative analysis. A sub-text, supplemental material was used to assist students with class preparation. Qualitative questionnaires on understanding and approaches for class preparation as well as review of class were analyzed in comparison with different academic performance levels on the final exam. The results of qualitative analysis of class preparation based on coding revealed that high-academic-performing students understood and adopted deep-processing approaches for the preparation of "English words" and "understanding of content" more often than low-academic-performing students. High-performing students attempted to not literally translate English sentences into Japanese while checking the English words with thinking and ingenuity, and to understand English sentences by drawing figures and thinking of relationships using previously learned knowledge. These approaches were not adopted by low-performing students. Furthermore, sub-text was one of the means for understanding by high-performing students, whereas it was essential for low-performing students to understand the content. Coding results on the review of class also showed that low-performing students were dependent mainly on sub-text for understanding. These results suggest that deep-processing approaches to both English and content of materials are necessary for deep understanding in "Yakugaku-Eigo Nyumon".


Asunto(s)
Comprensión , Curriculum , Educación en Farmacia , Conocimiento , Lenguaje , Aprendizaje , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Éxito Académico , Pruebas de Aptitud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 294-304, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335600

RESUMEN

Drawing on my experience as a queer, genderqueer, Puerto Rican counselor educator, this article considers how LGBTQAI+ studies and academia can expand to better include people with multiple marginalized identities. This article highlights some of the contradictions that educators face when engaging in the liberatory praxis that connects and creates a sense of belonging during these tumultuous times. This reflection suggests a decolonizing approach to intersectionality and highlights the importance of transcending binary discourse to engage in deconstructing the multiple layers of colonization in our internal and external spaces that is necessary for liberatory praxis. Finally, a few recommendations for how LGBTQAI+ studies and academia can support scholars with multiple marginalized identities are identified.


Asunto(s)
Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Distancia Social , Éxito Académico , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Homosexualidad/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/educación , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Apoyo Social , Enseñanza , Escritura
7.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(1): 20-25, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860480

RESUMEN

AIM: This article discusses the challenges of international PhD nursing students and recommends strategies to support them. BACKGROUND: Approximately 10 percent of the students enrolled in research-focused nursing doctoral programs in the United States are non-US residents, challenging schools of nursing to examine ways to support these students. METHOD: We searched five electronic databases using international student* AND doctoral OR graduate as search terms; we integrated the authors' experiences. RESULTS: Faculty and peer support can promote a smooth transition into the United States. Participating on research teams or school committees promotes academic socialization. Dissertation work has multiple unique challenges, including international relevance of topics, translation, funding, and location of the research. CONCLUSION: Faculty advisers and universities can facilitate student adjustment. Once international students become familiar with the academic requirements and culture, they have the capacity to contribute rich, diverse perspectives that greatly enhance the quality of PhD education.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Educación de Postgrado en Enfermería , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Estados Unidos
8.
Psychol Aging ; 34(8): 1055-1076, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804112

RESUMEN

The present study examines how historical changes in the U.S. socioeconomic environment in the 20th century may have affected core assumptions of the "American Dream." Specifically, the authors examined whether such changes modulated the extent to which adolescents' intelligence (IQ), their grade point average (GPA), and their parents' socioeconomic status (SES) could predict key life outcomes in adulthood about 20 years later. The data stemmed from two representative U.S. birth cohorts of 15- and 16-year-olds who were born in the early 1960s (N = 3,040) and 1980s (N = 3,524) and who participated in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY). Cohort differences were analyzed with respect to differences in average relations by means of multiple and logistic regression and for specific points in each outcome distribution by means of quantile regressions. In both cohorts, IQ, GPA, and parental SES predicted important educational, occupational, and health-related life-outcomes about 20 years later. Across historical time, the predictive utility of adolescent IQ and parental SES remained stable for the most part. Yet, the combined effects of social-ecological and socioeconomic changes may have increased the predictive utility (that is, the regression weights) of adolescent GPA for educational, occupational, and health outcomes over time for individuals who were born in the 1980s. Theoretical implications concerning adult development, aging, and late life inequality are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia/fisiología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Clase Social , Éxito Académico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estados Unidos
9.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 22(3): 109-120, 2019 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811754

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recovery high schools (RHS) provide a supportive educational and therapeutic environment for students subsequent to treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Most students served by RHSs have concurrent mental health disorders and are at risk for school failure or dropout and substance use relapse. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The central question addressed is whether RHSs are economically efficient alternatives to other high school settings for students in recovery. The aim is to estimate the incremental cost-benefit of RHSs. METHODS: A quasi-experimental non-equivalent pretest-posttest comparison group design was used. We compared substance use and educational outcomes for adolescents who had received specialty SUD treatment; 143 who enrolled in an RHS were compared to 117 who enrolled in a non-RHS school. Groups were balanced by use of a propensity score to drop students who were not similar to those in the other group. The propensity score was also used as a covariate in multiple regression to estimate cost and outcome parameters and standard errors. To take account of uncertainties in impacts and shadow prices, we used Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the distribution of incremental benefits of RHS relative to non-RHS schooling. RESULTS: Two beneficial impacts of statistical and substantive importance were identified: increased probability of high school graduation and increased sobriety. RHS students had significantly (p<.05) less substance use during the study period -- at 12-month follow-up, 55% of RHS and 26% of comparison students reported 3 month abstinence from alcohol and drugs. Urinalysis confirmed abstinence from THC (cannabis) for 68% of RHS versus 37% of comparison students. RHS students' high school graduation rates were 21 to 25 percentage points higher than comparison students. Adopting a societal perspective, incremental benefits of RHSs were estimated by monetizing the increased probability of high school graduation and comparing it to incremental costs. Mean net benefits ranged from USD16.1 thousand to USD51.9 thousand per participant; benefit-to-cost ratios ranged from 3.0 to 7.2. DISCUSSION: Monetizing the benefits and the incremental costs of RHS relative to conventional schooling show substantial positive net benefits from RHS participation. Two factors lend credibility to the results. First, the RHS improvement in substance use indicates a mechanism through which the increased probability of high school graduation can plausibly occur. Second, the estimated increases in the probability of high school graduation were large and statistically significant. As the productivity gains from high school graduation are also large, the dominant benefit category is very plausible. Limitations include the non-randomized design; selection bias into the study conditions not fully controlled by the propensity scores; generalizability only to young people with treated behavioral health disorders; lack of estimates for direct monetization of reduced substance use among adolescents; possible attenuation of the value of education among individuals with behavioral health issues; and uncertainty in calculation of school costs. IMPLICATIONS FOR BEHAVIORAL HEALTH POLICIES: This research provides evidence that the recovery high school model provides cost beneficial support for high school students after primary SUD treatment. The students who enroll in RHSs typically have co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders, adding complexity to their continuing care. Funding policies recognizing the multiple systems of care (behavioral health, education, child and family services, juvenile justice) responsible for these young people are called for.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Servicios de Salud Escolar/economía , Servicios de Salud Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Niño , Enfermedad Crónica , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Prospectivos , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/rehabilitación
10.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 29(124): 124-128, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871309

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To survey the prevalence of retrospectively recalled clinically significant symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and determine the association of ADHD symptoms in childhood with current academic achievement and psychopathological outcomes among college students in the state of Kerala, India. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 5784 students from 58 colleges selected by cluster random sampling. The Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV was used for recollection of childhood ADHD symptoms; a total score of ≥60 (indicating the 99 percentile) was taken as the cut-off for clinically significant ADHD symptoms in childhood. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test was used to assess lifetime use of alcohol and tobacco. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale was used to assess non-specific psychological distress. Lifetime suicidality and exposure to sexual abuse were assessed by asking relevant questions. Students who recalled having clinically significant ADHD symptoms in childhood were compared with those who did not. RESULTS: Of 5784 students, 639 (11.5%) did not complete the questionnaire. Of the remaining 5145 students, 1750 (34.8%) were men and 3395 (65.2%) were women, with a mean age of 19.4 years. 143 (2.8%) students reported clinically significant ADHD symptoms in childhood. Childhood ADHD symptoms were significantly more common in men and in those living in urban areas. In the bivariate analysis, those with clinically significant ADHD symptoms in childhood had significantly higher odds of poorer academic performance, alcohol use, tobacco use, psychological distress, suicidal thoughts, suicidal attempts, and contact and non-contact sexual abuse, after adjusting for sex and residence. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical evaluation and appropriate management may be warranted for adults who retrospectively recall clinically significant ADHD symptoms in childhood.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Ideación Suicida , Intento de Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1696, 2019 Dec 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852467

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Aim of this study is to describe the relationship between anthropometric traits and educational attainment among Estonian schoolchildren born between 1937 and 1962. We asked whether height, cranial volume and face width (a testosterone-dependent trait), measured in childhood predict later educational attainment independently of each other, family socioeconomic position (SEP) and sex. Associations between morphometric traits and education and their interactions with biosocial variables are of scholarly importance because higher education is nearly universally associated with low fertility in women, and often with high fertility in men. Hence, morphometric traits associated with educational attainment are targeted by natural selection and describing the exact nature of these associations is relevant for understanding the current patterns of evolution of human body size. METHODS: Data on morphometric measurements and family background of 11,032 Estonian schoolchildren measured between seven and 19 years of age were obtained from the study performed by Juhan Aul between 1956 and 1969. Ordinal logistic regression was used for testing the effects of morphometric traits, biosocial variables and their interaction on the cumulative probability of obtaining education beyond primary level. RESULTS: Of biosocial variables, family SEP was the most important determinant of educational attainment, followed by the sex, rural vs urban origin and the number of siblings. No significant interactions with morphometric traits were detected, i.e., within each category of SEP, rural vs urban origin and sex, taller children and those with larger heads and relatively narrower faces were more likely to proceed to secondary and/or tertiary education. The effect of height on education was independent of cranial volume, indicating that taller children did not obtain more educations because their brains were larger than those of shorter children; height per se was important. CONCLUSIONS: Our main finding - that adjusting for other morphometric traits and biosocial variables, morphometric traits still robustly predicted educational attainment, is relevant for understanding the current patterns of evolution of human body size. Our findings suggest that fecundity selection acting on educational attainment could be partly responsible for the concurrent selection for smaller stature and cranial volume in women and opposite trends in men.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Antropometría , Escolaridad , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Estatura , Niño , Estonia , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1447, 2019 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684937

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The health selection hypothesis suggests that poor health leads to low educational attainment during the life course. Adolescence is an important period as poor health might prevent students from making the best educational choices. We test if health in adolescence is associated with educational aspirations and whether these associations persist over and above sociodemographic background and academic achievement. METHODS: Using classroom surveys, a cohort of students (n = 5.614) from the Helsinki Metropolitan Region was followed from the 7th (12-13 years,) up to the 9th grade (15-16 years) when the choice between the academic and the vocational track is made in Finland. Health factors (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), self-rated health, daily health complaints, and long-term illness and medicine prescribed) and sociodemographic background were self-reported by the students. Students' educational aspirations (applying for academic versus vocational track, or both) and their academic achievement were obtained from the Joint Application Registry held by the Finnish National Agency for Education. We conducted multilevel multinomial logistic regression analyses, taking into account that students are clustered within schools. RESULTS: All studied health factors were associated with adolescents' educational aspirations. For the SDQ, daily health complaints, and self-rated health these associations persisted over and above sociodemographic background and academic achievement. Students with better health in adolescence were more likely to apply for the academic track, and those who were less healthy were more likely to apply for the vocational track. The health in the group of those students who had applied for both educational tracks was in between. Inconsistent results were observed for long-term illness. We also found robust associations between educational aspirations and worsening health from grade 7 to grade 9. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that selection by health factors to different educational trajectories takes place at early teenage much before adolescents choose their educational track, thus supporting the health selection hypothesis in the creation of socioeconomic health inequalities. Our findings also show the importance of adolescence in this process. More studies are needed to reveal which measures would be effective in helping students with poor health to achieve their full educational potential.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Estado de Salud , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Femenino , Finlandia , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 40(6): E16-E18, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609818

RESUMEN

The relationships between social identity, stereotype threat, and academic success were explored among prenursing students. Stereotype threat has been linked to academic success in students from underrepresented populations within the social sciences and educational literature but has not been explored in nursing. A descriptive correlational design was used with Picho and Brown's Social Identities and Attitudes Scale emailed to 159 prenursing students. Stereotype threat was significantly related to race/ethnicity with no significant relationship between stereotype threat and academic success. Further exploration of stereotype threat in nursing is warranted; there may be implications for retention and support of diverse students.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Identificación Social , Estereotipo , Estudiantes/psicología , Educación en Enfermería , Humanos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos
15.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 101(19): e102, 2019 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577687

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Resident burnout-the state of exhaustion, maladaptive detachment, and low sense of accomplishment-is a widely documented phenomenon that affects between 27% and 75% of residents in the United States. To our knowledge, no previous study has examined the relationship between resident burnout and performance on the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination (OITE). The current investigation sought to evaluate whether an association exists between indices of orthopaedic surgery resident burnout as assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and performance on the OITE. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of the orthopaedic surgery residents at a single large academic institution, the MBI was completed by all trainees in May 2016. The results of the 2016 OITE were documented for each resident, including the percentage of correctly answered questions and OITE percentile ranking. To control for individual test-taking skills, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step-1 and Step-2 scores also were documented for each resident. The relationship between the MBI subscale scores and OITE performance was evaluated. RESULTS: The analysis included 100% of the 62 orthopaedic surgery residents in training at our institution. Sixteen (25.8%) of the residents experienced at least moderate emotional exhaustion, while 32 (51.6%) of the residents experienced at least moderate depersonalization and 8 (12.9%) of the residents experienced a moderate sense of impaired personal accomplishment. Postgraduate year (PGY)-2 residents had the highest emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores compared with residents in other years of training. Each of the 3 MBI indices of burnout was associated with worse OITE performance when controlling for general test-taking ability. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of orthopaedic surgery residents at a large academic training program, burnout was present among residents in all PGYs of training; it was most prevalent during the second year of training. Increased levels of the 3 components of burnout were associated with worse performance on the OITE. While there is a lack of consensus in the existing literature, this study provides additional evidence that burnout is negatively associated with 1 aspect of overall resident performance. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Orthopaedic surgery residency training is challenging; residents are tasked to acquire a considerable amount of knowledge, develop complex surgical skills, and hone critical clinical thinking in a relatively short period of time. Identifying modifiable contributors to resident burnout and the development of strategies to promote resident wellness during training are important as we strive toward developing the next generation of capable, competent, and well-balanced orthopaedic surgeons.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Competencia Clínica/normas , Internado y Residencia/normas , Ortopedia/educación , Éxito Académico , Estudios Transversales , Evaluación Educacional , Humanos , Cirujanos Ortopédicos/educación , Cirujanos Ortopédicos/psicología , Cirujanos Ortopédicos/normas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
16.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(10): 1009, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602014
20.
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