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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25181, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787598

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: This retrospective study aimed to explore the effect of orthodontic treatment (ODT) on anterior tooth displacement (ATD) caused by periodontal disease (PD).A total of 72 patients were selected and were divided into a control group (n = 36) and an experimental group (n = 36). Patients in both groups received conventional periodontal treatment. In addition, patients in the experimental group also received ODT. Outcomes include probing depth, percentage of bleeding sites, clinical attachment loss, clinical crown length, tooth root length, and periodontal tissue of the affected tooth (alveolar bone height, periodontal pocket depth, bleeding index).After treatment, the patients in the experimental group achieved more improvements in probing depth (P < .01), percentage of bleeding sites (P < .01), clinical attachment loss (P < .01), clinical crown length (P = .04), and periodontal tissue of the affected tooth (periodontal pocket depth (P < .01), and bleeding index (P < .01)), than those of patients in the control group.This study suggests that ODT is beneficial for ATD caused by PD. Future studies are still needed to verify the findings of this study.


Asunto(s)
Ortodoncia Correctiva/métodos , Enfermedades Periodontales/complicaciones , Migración del Diente/terapia , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Índice Periodontal , Estudios Retrospectivos , Migración del Diente/etiología , Resultado del Tratamiento
2.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 26(1): e2119248, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759964

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare three teaching methods' time and personnel requirements, and their effects on plaque and gingival indices. METHODS: This study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial on fixed orthodontic appliance candidates (n = 90), assigned into a control group (n = 30) and two different study groups (n = 30 each). The control group received standard printed educational material and was assisted with verbal information. The study groups either received video-assisted or hands-on training about fixed orthodontic appliance and oral hygiene. The time requirements for all three educational interventions was recorded during the initial visit. The adequacy of oral hygiene was documented through plaque and gingival indices during the initial visit and eighth week of the treatment. The continuous variables were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA. Tukey HSD and Student t-tests were used for post-hoc comparisons (α?#8197;= 0.05). Also, a chi-square test was used for the analysis of categorical variables. RESULTS: Standard education failed to maintain the plaque and gingival indices at the eighth week of the treatment. Although both video-assisted and hands-on training took a considerable amount of time, they served well in preserving both of the indices at the eighth week. The longer the educational intervention was, the better the preservation of the plaque and gingival indices. CONCLUSION: Educational intervention, either with video-assisted or hands-on programs, provided better results in oral hygiene depending on the time and personnel constraints of the orthodontist.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Higiene Bucal , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Índice de Placa Dental , Humanos , Aparatos Ortodóncicos , Índice Periodontal , Método Simple Ciego
3.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 39(1): 58-63, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723938

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the association between periodontal indexes and biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and preterm birth (PTB) in pregnancy, as well as to assess the clinical value of these indexes as predictors of PTB. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted. A total of 300 systematically healthy pregnant women were selected within 36 weeks of gestation and grouped according to the enrolled weeks. Periodontal indexes, including probing depth (PD), bleeding index (BI), gingival index (GI), and five biomarkers in GCF, including interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured at the enrolled date. The detailed birth outcome was recorded. RESULTS: Only women at 24-28 weeks of gestation per PTB case (four full-term births) were selected as controls subjects, PTB displayed significantly greater GI, BI, and 8-OHdG (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that BI and 8-OHdG were the dependent risk factors of PTB (OR=5.90, P=0.034; OR=1.18, P=0.045, respectively). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of BI and 8-OHdG were 0.80 and 0.69, and that of the combined detection was 0.82, which was larger than the individual detection, although the differences were not significant (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increased BI and 8-OHdG at 24-28 weeks of gestation are risk factors for PTB. Their combined detection may have some value in the prediction of PTB, but further studies with a larger sample size are needed to explore it and thus provide experiment evidence for establishing an early warning system for PTB in pregnant women with periodontal disease.


Asunto(s)
Líquido del Surco Gingival , Nacimiento Prematuro , Biomarcadores , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Índice Periodontal , Embarazo
4.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(4): 435-442, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573896

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this reseach was to compare the effects of different periodic periodontal scaling protocols on the periodontal health of adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances by assessing the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in gingival crevicular fluid and periodontal clinical indexes in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Forty-eight adolescents were divided into 3 groups according to the interval of periodontal scaling (group A: once a month; group B: once every 3 months; group C: once every 6 months). The AST and ALP levels in the gingival crevicular fluid were measured before orthodontic treatment (T0) and at 1 (T1), 3 (T2), 6 (T3), and 9 (T4) months during orthodontic treatment. Periodontal clinical indexes (plaque index [PI], gingival index [GI], and probing depth) were also assessed. RESULTS: At T2, significantly lower AST and ALP levels were observed in group A than in groups B and C (P <0.05). At T3 and T4, lower AST and ALP levels were detected in groups A and B than in group C (P <0.05), and there was no significant difference between the A and B groups at T4 (P >0.05). At T2, the PI and GI were increased in groups B and C compared with group A, and at T3 and T4, significantly lower PI and GI values were observed in groups A and B than in group C (P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal scaling promotes the oral hygiene of adolescents undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment, and periodontal scaling protocols administered monthly and once every 3 months are better for controlling periodontal health than treatments administered once every 6 months.


Asunto(s)
Higiene Bucal , Aparatos Ortodóncicos Fijos , Adolescente , Índice de Placa Dental , Líquido del Surco Gingival , Humanos , Aparatos Ortodóncicos/efectos adversos , Índice Periodontal , Estudios Prospectivos
5.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 129-135, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600090

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and periodontal health during treatment by examining gingival inflammation indices and saliva properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty consecutive orthodontic patients, aged 11-18 years old, who were eligible for fixed orthodontic appliances, were included in the study. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), salivary pH and flow rate were recorded at three timepoints: immediately before placement of orthodontic fixed appliances (T0), and 1 (T1) and 3 months (T2) after bonding. RESULTS: The hypothesis that PI would remain constant across timepoints was rejected. PI increased over time (0 to 1 scale, T1-T0: mean diff. = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.18, p = 0.01; T2-T0: mean diff. = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.08, 0.24, p < 0.001). On the other hand, GI changed statistically significantly over time (p = 0.05). Patients' age was not a predictor for PI change (p = 0.93), but it was for GI (p = 0.01). As anticipated, average PI was found to be higher for the mandibular dentition by 0.10 (95% CI = 0.04, 0.16) and the labial surfaces of teeth of both jaws by 0.51 (95% CI = 0.45, 0.57). CONCLUSIONS: Within the framework of the current study, orthodontic treatment appeared to affect the periodontal health of patients, but the changes were clinically negligible and not consistently statistically significant.


Asunto(s)
Gingivitis , Aparatos Ortodóncicos , Adolescente , Niño , Índice de Placa Dental , Humanos , Aparatos Ortodóncicos/efectos adversos , Índice Periodontal , Estudios Prospectivos , Saliva
6.
Int J Oral Sci ; 13(1): 5, 2021 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550328

RESUMEN

Considering the adverse effects of nonimpacted third molars (N-M3s) on the periodontal health of adjacent second molars (M2s), the removal of N-M3s may be beneficial to the periodontal health of their neighbors. This study aimed to investigate the clinical, immunological, and microbiological changes of the periodontal condition around M2s following removal of neighboring N-M3s across a 6-month period. Subjects with at least one quadrant containing an intact first molar (M1), M2, and N-M3 were screened and those who met the inclusion criteria and decided to receive N-M3 extraction were recruited in the following investigation. M2 periodontal condition was interrogated before M3 extraction (baseline) and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Improvements in clinical periodontal indexes of M2s in response to their adjacent N-M3 removal, along with changes in inflammatory biomarkers among gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and the composition of subgingival plaque collected from the distal sites of the M2s of the targeted quadrant were parallelly analyzed. Complete data of 26 tooth extraction patients across the follow-up period were successfully obtained and subsequently applied for statistical analysis. Compared to the baseline, the periodontal condition of M2s was significantly changed 6 months after N-M3 removal; specifically, the probing depth of M2s significantly reduced (P < 0.001), the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 concentration involved in GCF significantly decreased (P = 0.025), and the abundance of the pathogenic genera unidentified Prevotellaceae and Streptococcus significantly decreased (P < 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively). We concluded that N-M3 removal was associated with superior clinical indexes, decreased GCF inflammatory biomarkers, and reduced pathogenic microbiome distribution within the subgingival plaque. Although the retention or removal of N-M3s continues to be controversial, our findings provide additional evidence that medical decisions should be made as early as possible or at least before the neighboring teeth are irretrievably damaged.


Asunto(s)
Tercer Molar , Enfermedades Periodontales , Humanos , Diente Molar/cirugía , Tercer Molar/cirugía , Índice Periodontal , Extracción Dental
7.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(2): 269-276, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605919

RESUMEN

Background: Diabetes and periodontitis are two chronic inflammatory diseases sharing specific etiopathogenetic mechanisms, and both cause severe inflammation and destruction. Aims: The present study aimed to determine the receptor expressions of peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, retinoid X receptor (RXR)-α, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expressions in healthy gingiva and diseased gingival samples with or without diabetes. Methods: Forty-five participants as (1) healthy controls (C), (2) periodontitis group (P), and (3) diabetes and periodontitis group (DP) were enrolled. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment levels (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded in all participants. Two gingival biopsies from each participant were obtained, and one underwent histological tissue processing while the other underwent qRT-PCR analysis of nuclear receptors. Inflammatory and fibroblast cell counts, PPAR-γ, RXR-α, VDR, and NF-κB were evaluated. Results: Fibroblast cells were lowest in the DP group and highest in the healthy group. PPAR-γ, VDR, RXR, and NF-κB expressions were higher in the healthy controls in the qRT-PCR analysis and similar in the other groups. Immunohistochemistry analysis also showed similar results. Conclusion: qRT-PCR results concluded that healthy gingival samples had higher PPAR-γ, RXR, VDR, and NF-κB expressions, and immunohistochemistry findings supported the results. In addition, healthy gingiva contained higher fibroblast cells and lower inflammatory cells.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Periodontitis , Diente , Encía , Humanos , Índice Periodontal
8.
Int Dent J ; 71(1): 63-66, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616054

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To screen a sample of Moldavian schoolchildren to establish their periodontal condition using the Pathfinder study design of the World Health Organization (WHO). METHODS: Two cohorts - 12- and 15-year schoolchildren - were screened in 12 schools around the country: four schools in the capital city; four more schools in two other larger cities (two schools in each city); and four village schools (one school in each village). In addition to demographic data, the periodontal parameters dental plaque, calculus and bleeding on probing (BOP) were collected. Periodontal pocket depth (PPD) was also measured but only in the cohort of 15-year-old schoolchildren. Measurements were recorded for the six Ramfjord index teeth. RESULTS: In total, 720 children were surveyed: 365 (50.7%) were 12 years of age and 355 (49.3%) were 15 years of age; 351 (48.8%) were girls and 369 (51.2%) were boys; 490 (68%) lived in an urban area and 230 (32%) lived in a rural area. Only 4.5% of 15-year-old children presented with a pocket depth of ≥3.5 mm. Children who lived in rural areas had higher plaque scores than children who lived in urban areas (64.8% vs. 54.1%, P = 0.007). In addition, children who lived in urban areas had significantly less calculus (P = 0.047) and shallower PPDs (P = 0.019). Deeper PPD was associated with higher PI and calculus scores. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-to-deep periodontal pockets were not uncommon in children in the 15-year-old cohort. Periodontal status was worse in children from rural areas than in children from urban areas. It is therefore suggested that an educational programme, together with preventive and interceptive protocols, should be adopted in early adolescence and especially in rural regions.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Periodontales , Población Rural , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Cálculos Dentales/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Moldavia , Enfermedades Periodontales/epidemiología , Índice Periodontal
9.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(3): 189-201.e1, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632408

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The impact of hyperglycemia on dental implant therapy remains unclear. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the authors compared the rates of implant failure and peri-implant bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and peri-implant bone loss (PIBL) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nondiabetic patients. The authors performed subgroup analyses based on glycemic level to evaluate whether patients with higher glycemic levels were more prone to peri-implant inflammation. TYPE OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors searched 4 databases for original clinical studies. Studies in which the researchers provided information on the rate of implant failure or peri-implant parameters were included. RESULTS: Nine clinical studies were identified on the basis of the inclusion criteria. No significant differences were found in rates of implant failure (P = .46) and PD (P = .1) between diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Significant differences in BOP (P < .00001) and PIBL (P = .02), favoring nondiabetic patients, were observed. Results of subgroup analyses indicated that the increase in glycemic level did not significantly influence BOP, PD, and PIBL values among diabetic patients. CONCLUSIONS AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus seem to be able to achieve a rate of implant survival similar to that of healthy patients. Regarding peri-implant parameters, BOP and PIBL were higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, indicating that hyperglycemia is an important risk factor for peri-implant inflammation. No association was found between peri-implant parameters and glycemic level among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, providing oral hygiene was strictly maintained.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar , Implantes Dentales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperglucemia , Periimplantitis , Índice de Placa Dental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Humanos , Hiperglucemia/etiología , Índice Periodontal
10.
Quintessence Int ; 0(0): 300-306, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491382

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate implant and patient characteristics 4 to 8 years after implant installation in a study involving immediate fixed restoration of dental implants. Method and materials: The study was a follow-up of treated generalized chronic periodontitis patients who received immediate restorations on dental implants as part of a previous study. The patients were examined clinically and radiographically at implant placement, 6 months, 1 year, and 4 to 8 years later. Supportive periodontal therapy (SPT), teeth and implant probing pocket depth (TPPD and IPPD), bleeding on probing (BOP [teeth, TBOP; implant, IBOP]), and bone level (BL) measurements around implants were documented. Cases were divided into three groups according to annual SPT rate: 0.00 to 0.99/year (SPT0), 1.00 to 1.99/year (SPT1), 2.00 or more/year (SPT2). Results: Twelve patients, with 26 implants and 242 teeth, were included. The mean ±â€¯standard deviation follow-up period was 6.08 ±â€¯1.25 years (range 4.04 to 7.94 years). All implants in the follow-up group were osseointegrated and survived during the follow-up period. The mean number of SPT appointments was 6.17 ±â€¯5.65. A weak negative correlation was found between SPT rate and ΔTPPD (-0.24, P = .0005), whereas a strong negative correlation was found between SPT rate and ΔIPPD (-0.76, P = .0005). Negative correlations were found between SPT rate and ∆TBOP (-0.20, P = .003), and between SPT rate and ∆IBOP (-0.5, P = .009). A moderate correlation was found between SPT rate and ΔBL (0.46, P = .02). Conclusion: SPT has a significant positive effect on PPD, BOP, and on implant BLs in long-term follow-up and should be an essential part of implant therapy.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar , Periodontitis Crónica , Implantes Dentales , Pérdida de Diente , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Índice Periodontal
11.
J Periodontal Res ; 56(2): 388-396, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458831

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: How smoking affects periodontal inflammation and healing still needs to be revealed with all its mechanisms. In this study, the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of: (a) interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and interleukin-17E(IL-17E) with their ratios and (b) oxidative stress by means of total oxidative stress (TOS), total anti-oxidant capacity (TAOC), and their ratios as the oxidative stress index (OSI) were evaluated and compared for smoking and non-smoking periodontitis patients after a periodontitis management process including both the non-surgical and surgical treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen smoker and 15 non-smoker generalized periodontitis patients as 2 distinct groups participated in the study. Conventional clinical and radiographical examinations were utilized for the periodontitis diagnosis. The clinical data and GCF samples were collected at baseline, 4 week after non-surgical periodontal treatment (NSPT), and 4 weeks after surgical periodontal treatment (SPT). IL-17A, IL-17E, TOS, and TAOC were determined by ELISA and Rel Assay. RESULTS: Clinical parameters in both smokers and non-smokers improved following periodontal treatment (P < .001) and their clinical data were similar for all the examination times (baseline, NSPT, and SPT) (P > .05). Following the treatment phases, the IL-17A concentration decreased and the IL-17E concentration increased in both the smokers and non-smokers (P < .01). The total amount of IL-17A decreased while the total amount of IL-17E increased in smokers throughout NSPT and SPT (P < .01). Such an alteration was seen only at SPT compared to NSPT and baseline in non-smokers (P < .01). The concentration and total amount of IL-17A were higher at baseline, and the concentration and total amount of IL-17E were lower at all examination time points in non-smokers as compared to smokers (P < .01). The 17A/E ratio decreased in both groups following the treatment phases and was higher in smokers at all the examination times (P < .01). TOS were higher and TAOC were lower in smokers versus non-smokers at all the time points, but the differences were significant only for TOS levels (P < .01). Throughout the treatment phases, the concentration and total amount of TOS decreased in smokers(P < .01) and only the total amount of TOS decreased in non-smokers (P < .01). The concentration and total amounts of TAOC increased throughout the treatments in both smokers and non-smokers without significant changes (P > .05). The baseline OSI was higher in smokers, and it decreased only in smokers following the treatment phases (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking and periodontal inflammation were found to alter IL-17A, IL-17E, and oxidant/anti-oxidant statuses in periodontitis patients. The intra-group assessments in smokers demonstrated more apparent alterations in the oxidant/anti-oxidant statuses and IL-17A and IL-17E levels after periodontitis management.


Asunto(s)
Líquido del Surco Gingival , Interleucina-17 , Humanos , Estrés Oxidativo , Índice Periodontal , Bolsa Periodontal , Fumar/efectos adversos
12.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(2): 115-126.e4, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358240

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The authors conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy of oscillating rotating (OR) versus side-to-side (SS) powered toothbrushes on plaque and gingival index reduction. METHODS: The authors searched 3 electronic databases and the gray literature for randomized clinical trials in which investigators compared OR with SS powered toothbrushes. Two authors independently screened the studies, performed data abstraction, and assessed the risk of bias. The authors used random-effects model meta-analyses to pool results across trials and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to rate the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: This systematic review included 24 trials in which researchers enrolled a total of 2,998 patients. There was moderate-certainty evidence that SS toothbrushes may result in little to no difference in plaque index reduction from baseline to 4 weeks compared with OR toothbrushes (standardized mean difference, 0.02; 95% confidence interval, -0.46 to 0.42). There was moderate-certainty evidence that SS toothbrushes may result in little to no difference in gingival index reduction from baseline to 4 weeks compared with OR toothbrushes (standardized mean difference, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, -0.47 to 0.22). There was moderate-quality evidence suggesting little to no difference in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence does not suggest the superiority of either OR or SS toothbrushes for plaque or gingival index reduction. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Clinicians and patients considering the use of either of these toothbrushes are unlikely to observe more benefits with one type versus the other.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Dispositivos para el Autocuidado Bucal , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Índice de Placa Dental , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos , Índice Periodontal , Cepillado Dental
13.
Angle Orthod ; 91(2): 220-226, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378447

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of metronidazole gel and mobile telephone short-message service (SMS) reminders on gingivitis in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The trial was double blinded (patient and investigator), and only the clinical trial unit pharmacist was unblinded. Data were collected from patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment for at least 6 months. A total of 66 patients were randomly assigned to either 0.8% metronidazole gel (n = 22), SMS reminder and placebo gel (n = 22), or placebo (control) group only (n = 22). Gingival index (GI), bleeding index (BI), and orthodontic plaque index (OPI) were evaluated on several teeth at baseline (T0) and after 4 weeks (T1). Paired-sample t-tests were used to compare mean differences of indexes at T0 and T1 in the groups, and independent-sample t-tests were used to determine the effects of interventions compared with the controls. RESULTS: Data from 64 patients were analyzed; there were 2 dropouts. There were statistically significant (P < .05) reductions in GI, BI, and OPI scores from T0 to T1 for each intervention. However, there were no significant differences between each intervention and the control group. There were no adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: The null hypothesis could not be rejected. There is no difference between interventions (application of 0.8% metronidazole gel and SMS reminder for reinforcing oral hygiene) in reducing gingival inflammation in orthodontic patients.


Asunto(s)
Gingivitis , Metronidazol , Índice de Placa Dental , Gingivitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Gingivitis/prevención & control , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Índice Periodontal
14.
Clin Oral Implants Res ; 32(3): 297-313, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340418

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of clinical and radiographic evaluations made at a single time point during follow-up in identifying (a) a history of peri-implant bone loss and (b) the presence of peri-implantitis. MATERIAL & METHODS: 427 patients provided with implant-supported reconstructions 9 years earlier were evaluated clinically by Probing Pocket Depth, Bleeding or Suppuration on Probing (PPD, BoP & SoP) and radiographically. Bone levels were assessed relative to the most coronal point of the intra-osseous part of the implant. A history of bone loss and diagnosis of peri-implantitis was confirmed through baseline documentation (direct evidence). Diagnostic accuracy of radiographic bone levels at 9 years and clinical findings (indirect evidence/secondary case definition) in identifying a history of bone loss and peri-implantitis were evaluated through correlation and multilevel regression analyses as well as receiver operating characteristic curves. Results were expressed as sensitivity/specificity and area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: Bone levels observed at 9 years were highly accurate in identifying pronounced bone loss (>2 mm; AUC = 0.96; 95% CI 0.95-0.98). In the absence of baseline documentation, a secondary case definition based on the presence of BoP/SoP & bone level ≥ 1 mm (indirect evidence) provided the overall best diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.80; 95% CI 0.77-0.82) in identifying peri-implantitis cases (direct evidence: BoP/SoP & bone loss > 0.5 mm). Moderate/severe peri-implantitis (BoP/SoP & bone loss > 2 mm) was most accurately identified by the combination of BoP/SoP & bone level ≥ 2 mm (AUC = 0.93; 95% CI 0.91-0.96). Sensitivity of the secondary case definition suggested by the 2017 World Workshop of Periodontology (WWP) (BoP/SoP ≥ 1 site & bone level ≥ 3 mm & PPD ≥ 6 mm) was low. CONCLUSIONS: The present results underline the importance of baseline documentation for the correct diagnosis of peri-implantitis, especially in its early/incipient forms. The secondary case definition of peri-implantitis suggested at the 2017 WWP demonstrated a high level of specificity but low sensitivity. Moderate/severe peri-implantitis was most accurately identified by the combination of BoP/SoP & bone level ≥ 2 mm.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Periimplantitis , Implantes Dentales/efectos adversos , Humanos , Periimplantitis/diagnóstico por imagen , Índice Periodontal , Periodoncia , Supuración
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23165, 2020 Dec 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327234

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although several researchers have analyzed the dental identity of patients experience with corrective methods using fixed and removable appliances, the consequences stay debatable. This meta-analysis intended to verify whether the periodontal status of removable appliances is similar to that of the conventional fixed appliances. METHODS: Relevant literature was retrieved from the database of Cochrane library, PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI until December 2019, without time or language restrictions. Comparative clinical studies assessing periodontal conditions between removable appliances and fixed appliances were included for analysis. The data was analyzed using the Stata 12.0 software. RESULTS: A total of 13 articles involving 598 subjects were selected for this meta-analysis. We found that the plaque index (PLI) identity of the removable appliances group was significantly lower compared to the fixed appliances group at 3 months (OR = -0.57, 95% CI: -0.98 to -0.16, P = .006) and 6 months (OR = -1.10, 95% CI: -1.60 to -0.61, P = .000). The gingival index (GI) of the removable appliances group was lower at 6 months (OR = -1.14, 95% CI: -1.95 to -0.34, P = .005), but the difference was not statistically significant at 3 months (OR = -0.20, 95% CI: -0.50 to 0.10, P = .185) when compared with that of the fixed appliances group. The sulcus probing depth (SPD) of the removable appliances group was lower compared to the fixed appliances group at 3 months (OR = -0.26, 95% CI: -0.52 to -0.01, P = .047) and 6 months (OR = -0.42, 95% CI: -0.83 to -0.01, P = .045). The shape of the funnel plot was symmetrical, indicating no obvious publication bias in the Begg test (P = .174); the Egger test also indicated no obvious publication bias (P = .1). CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that malocclusion patients treated with the removable appliances demonstrated a better periodontal status as compared with those treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. However, the analyses of more numbers of clinical trials are warranted to confirm this conclusion.


Asunto(s)
Maloclusión/terapia , Aparatos Ortodóncicos Fijos/efectos adversos , Aparatos Ortodóncicos Removibles/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Periodontales/etiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Maloclusión/clasificación , Maloclusión/diagnóstico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Diseño de Aparato Ortodóncico/tendencias , Aparatos Ortodóncicos/provisión & distribución , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Enfermedades Periodontales/epidemiología , Índice Periodontal , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
16.
Rev. ADM ; 77(6): 295-300, nov.-dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151009

RESUMEN

Introducción: La enfermedad periodontal puede ser causa de lesiones sistémicas. Se conoce la prevalencia de enfermedad periodontal en mayores de 35 años y el aumento de los factores de riesgo en mujeres embarazadas, pero no se sabe si estos factores se potencializan en mujeres embarazadas menores de 35 años. En México son muy prevalentes tanto el embarazo en mujeres jóvenes como el parto pretérmino. Con el objetivo de conocer la prevalencia de la enfermedad periodontal y su asociación con el parto prematuro, se realizó este estudio en mujeres puérperas menores de 35 años en una población abierta. Material y métodos: Estudio de tipo observacional, descriptivo y transversal, analizando casos y controles. La población de estudio fueron pacientes puérperas entre 17 y 35 años que ingresaron a un hospital público durante parte del año 2019. Se utilizó el índice de necesidad de tratamiento periodontal en la comunidad (CPITN, por sus siglas en inglés) para la medición de enfermedad periodontal (EP), se consideró embarazo prematuro (PP) cuando el parto ocurrió con menos de 37 semanas de embarazo. Como covariables se consideraron edad, tabaquismo y paridad. Se buscó la asociación mediante regresión logística para el cálculo de la razón de momios. Resultados: Se analizaron 323 mujeres, 200 (62%) tuvieron niveles 3 y 4 CPITN; 10.8% (35) tuvieron parto prematuro, la razón de momios cruda para la asociación entre código CPITN 3 y 4 y parto prematuro fue de 3.3 (p < 0.01). Después de ajustar por otros predictores la asociación se mantuvo en 3.8 (p < 0.01). Conclusiones: Es la primera vez en nuestro medio que se encuentra esta asociación entre enfermedad periodontal y parto prematuro. La prevalencia de parto prematuro en este grupo fue más alta que la media nacional. Es necesaria la revisión odontológica durante las visitas prenatales. Debe continuarse la línea de investigación con un estudio prospectivo (AU)


Introduction: Periodontal disease can cause systemic injuries. Prevalence of periodontal disease in people older than 35 years old is known, as well as the risk factors for pregnant women; however, it is not known if these factors also apply for pregnant women younger than 35 years of age. In Mexico, pregnancy among young women and preterm birth are very prevalent. The present study was done with the objective of finding out the prevalence of periodontal disease and its relationship with preterm birth in puerperal women younger than 35 years old in a population without social security. Material and methods: The study is observational, descriptive and transversal, analysis type cases and controls was done. The population for the study consists on puerperal patients between the ages of 17 to 35 years, all of them were admitted into a public hospital in a period of 2019. The Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need (CPITN) was used to measure periodontal disease in the patients. Preterm birth was defined as a birth occur before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Age, smoking and parity were used as covariables. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and preterm birth through odds ratio values. Results: 323 women were analyzed, 200 (62%) had levels of 3 and 4 on the CPITN. 10.8% (35) had preterm birth, the raw odds ratio for the association between the codes 3 and 4 from the CPITN was of 3.3 (p < 0.01), after adjusting other predictors the association was 3.8 (remaining as a p < 0.01). Conclusions: It is the first time that such an association between periodontal disease and preterm birth has been found in the region. Prevalence of preterm birth in the group studied was higher than the national's average. An odontological revision during prenatal visits is needed. This line of research should be continued through a prospective study (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Adolescente , Adulto , Enfermedades Periodontales , Índice Periodontal , Mujeres Embarazadas , Nacimiento Prematuro , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Modelos Logísticos , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Servicio Odontológico Hospitalario , Estudio Observacional , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Trabajo de Parto Prematuro , México
17.
Angle Orthod ; 90(6): 837-843, 2020 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378517

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the use of xylitol-impregnated toothbrushes affects periodontal condition and microbial flora in orthodontic patients with poor oral hygiene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four patients with baseline mean Turesky plaque index scores ≥1.5 were randomly divided into two groups. Half received xylitol-containing toothbrushes and the other half, xylitol-free toothbrushes. The periodontal measurements and saliva samples were taken at baseline (T0), 1 month later (T1), and 3 months after brushing (T2) to evaluate periodontal health and microflora changes. Periodontal status was assessed with plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and bleeding on probing (BOP) scores. Data were statistically analyzed with Mann-Whitney U and Friedman tests. RESULTS: All periodontal parameters significantly decreased from T0 to T1 and from T0 to T2 in both groups. The PI and GI scores reduced significantly in the control group, while BOP scores reduced in both groups between T1 and T2. Intergroup comparisons showed significant differences for BOP, PI, and GI at T0, T1, and T2 times, respectively. For microbial parameters, there were no statistically significant differences within groups from T0 to T1. Total bacterial counts significantly decreased in the xylitol group between T1 and T2. Decreases in Streptococcus mutans and total bacteria were significant in both groups from T0 to T2. No significant differences were found between the groups in microbial flora at any time. CONCLUSIONS: A 3-month use of xylitol-containing toothbrushes showed almost the same changes and provided no positive effects on periodontal and microbial parameters compared to the control group.


Asunto(s)
Diseño de Aparato Ortodóncico , Xilitol , Índice de Placa Dental , Humanos , Índice Periodontal , Cepillado Dental
18.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(11): 1507-1513, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221773

RESUMEN

Objective: This study aims to investigate the effects of different antiseptic mouthwash on microbiota around the mini-screw applied to patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: From patients who have been undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment and who have mini-screws in their mouth, a total of 38 patients were selected for the study consisting of 4 groups, each of which has 15 mini-screws. The patients were selected from the following groups: no use of mouthwash (Group 1), use of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate-containing mouthwash (Group 2), use of essential oils-containing mouthwash (Group 3), and use of 7.5% povidone-iodine-containing mouthwash (Group 4). Plaque indices and gingival indices of the patients were measured at the beginning (T0) and at their appointments 3 weeks later (T1). In addition, biological samples were collected from the sulcus around the mini-screw with the help of sterile paper point. Results: The total number of microorganisms around the mini-screw in Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 decreased significantly compared to Group 1. A significant decrease in Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Candida parapsilosis, total bacteria, plaque index, and gingival index count was observed in T1compared to T0. Conclusion: Antiseptic mouthwash in Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 can be used to reduce the number of microbial microbiota around the mini-screw and to improve oral hygiene.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Tornillos Óseos/microbiología , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Antisépticos Bucales/farmacología , Adolescente , Antiinfecciosos Locales/uso terapéutico , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Clorhexidina/farmacología , Clorhexidina/uso terapéutico , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Boca , Antisépticos Bucales/uso terapéutico , Índice Periodontal
19.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 280-288, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004727

RESUMEN

Background/Introduction: Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in their childhood or adolescence. Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate the Group Motivational Therapy (GMT) and Individualised Motivational therapy (IMT) for tobacco cessation in adolescents. Methodology: Oral screening was done in a village named Vehra Khadi near Anand. One hundred and eight adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years were included in the study. They were randomly divided into three groups namely Group 1 - Interventional group consisting of 36 adolescents who were given GMT; Group 2 - Interventional group consisting of 36 adolescents who were given IMT; and Group 3 -3 6 age - matched Negative control group. Hence, a total sample size of 108 was evaluated for tobacco consumption frequency, passive smoking, gingival index, and stain index and followed up for 9 months for the effect of both interventional group as well as positive control. Results: Frequency of tobacco consumption was reduced from baseline to 9 months' follow-up for both the interventional groups, which was statistically significant with <0.001 percent P value showing 84.38% change by intervention 1 and 98.30% in intervention 2. Conclusion: Group and individualized motivation serves as an effective means for tobacco cessation among adolescents. Improvement in gingival health and reduction of the tobacco consumption was observed with motivational intervention.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Uso de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Salud Bucal , Índice Periodontal
20.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 99(5): 25-31, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034173

RESUMEN

The number of men and women with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERB) is increasing each year; besides, the disease seeks rejuvenation. Because the oral cavity is the initial digestive system, gastrointestinal tract diseases (GT) and associated changes in the oral cavity are closely related. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Was to assess the dental status of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease depending on the use of proton pump inhibitors based on the comprehensive clinical and laboratory study. The study involved 100 people aged between 35-65 years, which were divided into 3 groups (30 people - I control group, 35 - II patients with GERD who did not take proton pump inhibitors and 35 - III patients with GERD who take proton pump inhibitors). To detect patients with a predisposition to GERB, all participants in the study answered the «GRDQ¼ questionnaire. The patient was referred to a gastroenterologist for consultation, if the final score was more than 8 points. To identify the dental status of the patients, the DMFT (Decayed/Missing/Filled Teeth) index and the periodontal PI index were determined, the pH of the saliva was measured, and also the PCR (polymerase chain reaction) method was used. According to the results of the study, the final score of the GRDQ questionnaire in group II was significantly higher than that of group I and group III. The study revealed a high level of caries intensity, deterioration of periodontal and hygienic status, high prevalence of periodontal pathogens: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Actinobaccilus actinomecetemcomitans in patients of group II, compared with patients of group III and the control group. As a result of the study of the pH of mixed saliva, an acid shift was observed in group II. Dental status in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease worsens.


Asunto(s)
Reflujo Gastroesofágico , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Reflujo Gastroesofágico/tratamiento farmacológico , Reflujo Gastroesofágico/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Índice Periodontal , Saliva
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