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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 360, 2021 06 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226496

RESUMEN

Weight gain and metabolic complications are major adverse effects of many psychotropic drugs. We aimed to understand how socio-economic status (SES), defined as the Swiss socio-economic position (SSEP), is associated with cardiometabolic parameters after initiation of psychotropic medications known to induce weight gain. Cardiometabolic parameters were collected in two Swiss cohorts following the prescription of psychotropic medications. The SSEP integrated neighborhood-based income, education, occupation, and housing condition. The results were then validated in an independent replication sample (UKBiobank), using educational attainment (EA) as a proxy for SES. Adult patients with a low SSEP had a higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome over one year versus patients with a high SSEP (Hazard ratio (95% CI) = 3.1 (1.5-6.5), n = 366). During the first 6 months of follow-up, a significant negative association between SSEP and body mass index (BMI), weight change, and waist circumference change was observed (25 ≤ age < 65, n = 526), which was particularly important in adults receiving medications with the highest risk of weight gain, with a BMI difference of 0.86 kg/m2 between patients with low versus high SSEP (95% CI: 0.03-1.70, n = 99). Eventually, a causal effect of EA on BMI was revealed using Mendelian randomization in the UKBiobank, which was notably strong in high-risk medication users (beta: -0.47 SD EA per 1 SD BMI; 95% CI: -0.46 to -0.27, n = 11,314). An additional aspect of personalized medicine was highlighted, suggesting the patients' SES represents a significant risk factor. Particular attention should be paid to patients with low SES when initiating high cardiometabolic risk psychotropic medications.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Aumento de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Psicotrópicos/efectos adversos , Clase Social
2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 382, 2021 07 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238926

RESUMEN

Compelling evidence supports alterations in gut microbial diversity, bacterial composition, and/or relative abundance of several bacterial taxa in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, findings for ADHD are inconsistent among studies, and specific gut microbiome signatures for the disorder remain unknown. Given that previous studies have mainly focused on the pediatric form of the disorder and involved small sample sizes, we conducted the largest study to date to compare the gastrointestinal microbiome composition in 100 medication-naïve adults with ADHD and 100 sex-matched healthy controls. We found evidence that ADHD subjects have differences in the relative abundance of several microbial taxa. At the family level, our data support a lower relative abundance of Gracilibacteraceae and higher levels of Selenomonadaceae and Veillonellaceae in adults with ADHD. In addition, the ADHD group showed higher levels of Dialister and Megamonas and lower abundance of Anaerotaenia and Gracilibacter at the genus level. All four selected genera explained 15% of the variance of ADHD, and this microbial signature achieved an overall sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 71% for distinguishing between ADHD patients and healthy controls. We also tested whether the selected genera correlate with age, body mass index (BMI), or scores of the ADHD rating scale but found no evidence of correlation between genera relative abundance and any of the selected traits. These results are in line with recent studies supporting gut microbiome alterations in neurodevelopment disorders, but further studies are needed to elucidate the role of the gut microbiota on the ADHD across the lifespan and its contribution to the persistence of the disorder from childhood to adulthood.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo , Adolescente , Adulto , Atención , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Humanos , Adulto Joven
4.
Maturitas ; 150: 22-29, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274072

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: While it has been reported that women with uterine fibroids or endometriosis are commonly overweight and hypertensive, the association between non-malignant gynecological diseases and the risk of hypertension has been little studied prospectively. The aim of this study was to investigate in a large French cohort of women whether a history of hysterectomy, uterine fibroids, or endometriosis was prospectively related to an increased risk of incident hypertension. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed 50,286 women from the E3N cohort who were free of hypertension at baseline, with a median follow-up of 16.4 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gynecological diseases were based on self-report. Cox proportional hazards models with age as the timescale were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Covariates included smoking status, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and hormonal factors. RESULTS: A total of 12,073 women (24%) developed hypertension during follow-up. Women with a history of hysterectomy had an increased risk of incident hypertension, which persisted after adjustment for potential confounding factors (adjusted HR=1.18, 95% CI 1.12-1.24). Risk was similar in women with hysterectomy with or without oophorectomy. Risk of hypertension was higher in women with a history of endometriosis (HRendometriosis 1.19, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) or uterine fibroids (HRfibroids 1.18, 95%CI 1.13-1.22), irrespective of hysterectomy. Associations were similar after further adjustment for BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Hysterectomy and non-malignant gynecological diseases were associated with an increased risk of hypertension in this large prospective study. Women with these conditions may benefit from blood pressure monitoring. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03285230.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Enfermedades de los Genitales Femeninos/cirugía , Hipertensión/etiología , Histerectomía/efectos adversos , Ovariectomía/efectos adversos , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/patología , Incidencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
5.
Maturitas ; 150: 42-48, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274075

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between carbohydrate quality intake and menopausal symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study of 393 postmenopausal women attending municipality health houses and health centers in the south of Tehran, Iran, from September 2016 to January 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The dietary intake and menopausal symptoms of the participants were assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire and a menopause rating scale (MRS) carbohydrate quality index (CQI) was calculated using three indices: dietary fiber, glycemic index, and the ratio of solid carbohydrates to total carbohydrates. Linear and logistic regressions were used to assess the relationship between CQI and menopausal symptoms. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, education, time passed since menopause, body mass index, physical activity and energy intake, an inverse association was found between CQI and total MRS score (TMRSS) (ß -0.61; p <0.001), somatic score (SS) (ß -0.27; p <0.001) and psychological score (PS) (ß -0.37; p <0.001) in multivariable linear regression. In addition, logistic regression analysis revealed that compared with the lowest quartile of CQI, participants in the highest quartile of CQI had a lower TMRSS (odds ratio (OR) 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19-0.68). Moreover, CQI was inversely related to SS (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.17-0.68) and PS (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.16-0.61). However, there was no significant association between CQI and urogenital score (US). CONCLUSIONS: Higher-quality carbohydrate intake was found to be associated with lower somatic and psychological symptoms of menopause. These findings suggest that CQI may be an important basis for developing an effective dietary modification for reducing menopausal symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable , Dieta , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Menopausia , Posmenopausia , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Ingestión de Energía , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Sofocos/epidemiología , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Memoria/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198988

RESUMEN

Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5), an antagonist of the noncanonical WNT pathway, has a controversial role in liver disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of SFRP5 and the noncanonical WNT pathway in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Plasma SFRP5 levels were determined by ELISA in women with normal weight (NW; n = 20) and morbid obesity (MO; n = 69). Women with MO were subclassified according to hepatic histology into normal liver (NL; n = 28), NAFLD (n = 41) (simple steatosis (SS; n = 24), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH; n = 17)). We used RT-qPCR to evaluate the hepatic mRNA expression of SFRP5, WNT5A, and JNK in women with MO. SFRP5 levels were lower in NW than in MO patients who underwent a very low-calorie diet before surgery. Hepatic SFRP5 mRNA expression was higher in SS than in NL or NASH; additionally, patients with hepatic inflammation or ballooning presented lower SFRP5 abundance. WNT5A and JNK expression was enhanced in NAFLD compared with NL. In conclusion, circulating SFRP5 levels depend on the diet, and hepatic SFRP5 seems to have a protective role in the first steps of NAFLD; however, SFRP5 could be deregulated in an advanced stage while WNT5A and JNK are activated, promoting liver damage.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Adaptadoras Transductoras de Señales/metabolismo , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/metabolismo , Obesidad Mórbida/complicaciones , Obesidad Mórbida/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras Transductoras de Señales/sangre , Adipoquinas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Índice de Masa Corporal , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , MAP Quinasa Quinasa 4/metabolismo , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/sangre , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/etiología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/patología , ARN Mensajero/genética , Proteína Wnt-5a/metabolismo
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199270

RESUMEN

Mercury is widely distributed in the environment, and a plausible association between mercury exposure and hepatic damage has been reported. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which comprises a spectrum of liver diseases, has recently been recognized in non-obese subjects. However, there have been no studies on the relationship between internal mercury levels and NAFLD in non-obese individuals. Therefore, we investigated the association between blood mercury levels and NAFLD in non-obese subjects. Cross-sectional data (n = 5919) were obtained from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2012-2014). NAFLD was defined using the hepatic steatosis index (HSI). Blood mercury levels were log-transformed and divided into quartiles based on a weighted sample distribution. The association between blood mercury levels and NAFLD was analyzed using a multivariate logistic analysis after body mass index stratification. The geometric mean of blood mercury in the overweight group was significantly higher than that of the non-obese group (p < 0.001). The weighted frequencies of patients with NAFLD based on the HSI were 3.0-7.2% for the non-obese subjects and 52.3-63.2% for the overweight subjects. In the multivariate analysis, blood mercury levels were positively associated with NAFLD for both the overweight and non-obese groups (all p for trend < 0.001). Increased blood mercury levels are closely associated with NAFLD. In particular, mercury could be a risk factor for NAFLD in the non-obese population.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Salud Ambiental , Humanos , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/inducido químicamente , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/epidemiología , República de Corea/epidemiología
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199929

RESUMEN

BMI-1 is a key component of stem cells, which are essential for normal organ development and cell phenotype maintenance. BMI-1 expression is deregulated in cancer, resulting in the alteration of chromatin and gene transcription repression. The cellular signaling pathway that governs BMI-1 action in the ovarian carcinogenesis sequences is incompletely deciphered. In this study, we set out to analyze the immunohistochemical (IHC) BMI-1 expression in two different groups: endometriosis-related ovarian carcinoma (EOC) and non-endometriotic ovarian carcinoma (NEOC), aiming to identify the differences in its tissue profile. METHODS: BMI-1 IHC expression has been individually quantified in epithelial and in stromal components by using adapted scores systems. Statistical analysis was performed to analyze the relationship between BMI-1 epithelial and stromal profile in each group and between groups and its correlation with classical clinicopathological characteristics. RESULTS: BMI-1 expression in epithelial tumor cells was mostly low or negative in the EOC group, and predominantly positive in the NEOC group. Moreover, the stromal BMI-1 expression was variable in the EOC group, whereas in the NEOC group, stromal BMI-1 expression was mainly strong. We noted statistically significant differences between the epithelial and stromal BMI-1 profiles in each group and between the two ovarian carcinoma (OC) groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides solid evidence for a different BMI-1 expression in EOC and NEOC, corresponding to the differences in their etiopathogeny. The reported differences in the BMI-1 expression of EOC and NEOC need to be further validated in a larger and homogenous cohort of study.


Asunto(s)
Endometriosis/fisiopatología , Endometrio/fisiopatología , Células Epiteliales/patología , Neoplasias Ováricas/patología , Complejo Represivo Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Células del Estroma/patología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias Ováricas/clasificación , Neoplasias Ováricas/metabolismo , Células del Estroma/metabolismo
9.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 122(8): 567-571, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282622

RESUMEN

The AIM of our work is to point out the relationship between insulin resistance and metabolic compensation of diabetes mellitus, as well as to explore the possibilities of improving these parameters by non-drug measures. The rising incidence of insulin resistance associated with many comorbidities, especially due to the increase in obesity and unhealthy lifestyles, is a serious medical problem today. It is therefore necessary to be able to recognize and evaluate the presence of insulin resistance, prevent its occurrence, and ensure its elimination in high-risk individuals. In our study, we evaluated 106 patients with diabetes mellitus based on glycated hemoglobin parameters, ratio of triacylglycerols to high-density lipoproteins, and body mass index before and after adjustment of dietary and regime measures. Statistical analysis of our data showed a positive correlation between the assessed parameters of insulin resistance and metabolic compensation of diabetes with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.3156, and a decrease in glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance after adjustment of dietary and regimen measures in 73.58 % of patients. Based on the above results, it is shown that non-drug measures are able to significantly improve the parameters of metabolic compensation of diabetes mellitus as well as those of insulin resistance (Tab. 4, Fig. 1, Ref. 18) Keywords: insulin resistance, TAG/HDL ratio, diabetes mellitus.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistencia a la Insulina , Glucemia , Índice de Masa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Hemoglobina A Glucada , Humanos , Insulina , Estilo de Vida , Obesidad/epidemiología
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199340

RESUMEN

This study aimed to analyze body composition and strength symmetry in a sample of 165 middle-aged and elderly Italian volunteers, which included 97 active (67 men and 30 women; 61.17 ± 7.56 years) individuals regularly engaged in Tai Chi Chuan, tennis, or running, and a control group of 59 age-matched sedentary (27 men and 32 women) individuals. Anthropometric and bioelectrical measurements and hand grip strength of both sides were collected. Segmental body composition was analyzed through specific bioelectrical impedance vector analysis. The body composition of the right and left limbs was similar among active individuals (arms: T2 = 6.3, n.s.; legs: T2 = 5.0, n.s.), with a similar pattern in the three different disciplines. By contrast, the control group showed bilateral asymmetry (arms: T2 = 6.8, p < 0.001; legs: T2 = 8.8, p < 0.001), mainly because of the higher values of specific reactance (t = 2.4; p = 0.018) and phase angle (t = 2.0; p = 0.054) in the dominant arm, and the higher specific vector length (t = -3.0; p = 0.027) in the left leg. All of the groups showed a higher hand grip strength in the dominant arm (active: t = 7.0, p < 0.001; control: t = 2.9; p < 0.01). In conclusion, the active individuals showed stronger body composition symmetry than the controls, thus indicating a previously undetected positive effect of sport in middle-aged and older adults.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal , Fuerza de la Mano , Anciano , Antropometría , Índice de Masa Corporal , Impedancia Eléctrica , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
11.
Orv Hetil ; 162(28): 1129-1136, 2021 07 11.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252045

RESUMEN

Összefoglaló. A cystás fibrosisban szenvedo betegek várható élettartama jelentosen megnott az utóbbi évtizedben, egyre több beteg képes saját gyermeket vállalni. Célunk a cystás fibrosisban szenvedo várandós nok perinatalis és anyai történéseinek felmérése saját eseteink és az irodalmi adatok alapján. 14, cystás fibrosisban szenvedo no 16 várandósságáról számolunk be. Rögzítettük a várandósok életkorát, testtömegét, testmagasságát, testtömegindexét, légzésfunkciós értékeit a graviditás kezdetén és végén. Az anyai átlagéletkor szüléskor 21,6 (18-25) év volt. Az anyák graviditásának kezdetén a testmagasság átlaga 162 (150-175) cm, a testtömeg átlaga 57,6 (42-72) kg, a testtömegindex átlaga 21,4 (19,1-23,2) kg/m2 volt. A graviditás végén a testtömeg átlaga 62 (39-76) kg, a testtömegindex átlaga 23,6 (21,3-24,1) kg/m2 volt. A graviditás alatti súlygyarapodás átlaga 8 (1,5-21,5) kg volt. A légzésfunkciós értékek a graviditás kezdetén 2 betegnél voltak beszukültek. A graviditás alatt még 2 beteg légzésfunkciós értékei csökkentek. A sikeres graviditások száma 13 volt. 1 anya kétszer szült. A koraszülések száma 1 volt. A várandósság átlagosan a 38. (34-40.) gestatiós hét után 7 esetben császármetszéssel, 6 esetben hüvelyi szüléssel fejezodött be. A vetélések száma 3 volt. Az Apgar-pontszám minden esetben normális volt. 13 gyermek közül 11-nél a verejtékteszt nem volt emelkedett. 2 gyermeknél magas verejtékértékek voltak, egyikük c.1521_1523delCTT-heterozigóta, a másiknál génmutációt nem tudtunk igazolni. A cystás fibrosisban szenvedo nok általában jól tolerálják a várandósságot az esetek többségében. A kórosan beszukült tüdofunkcióval, alacsony tápláltsági állapottal és cukorbetegséggel rendelkezo nok nagyobb valószínuséggel számíthatnak káros következményekre. Az újszülöttek prognózisa általában jó, de számítani kell a koraszülés és a kis súllyal születés gyakoribb elofordulására. Ideális esetben a várandósságot elozetes tanácsadás útján kell megtervezni, és speciális cystás fibrosis csoportnak kell a várandósok ellátását figyelemmel kísérni, ideértve a cystás fibrosis kezelésében jártas szülészeket is. Kisszámú saját adatunk retrospektív elemzése megerosíti az irodalmi adatok tanúságait. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(28): 1129-1136. Summary. The life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis has increased significantly in the last decade, with more and more patients being able to have their own children. The aim of our study was to assess the perinatal and maternal outcome of pregnant women with cystic fibrosis based on our own cases and literature data. We report 16 pregnancies in 14 women with cystic fibrosis. We recorded the age, body weight, height, body mass index, and respiratory function values of pregnant women at the beginning and end of pregnancy. The mean maternal age at childbirth was 21.6 (18-25) years. At the beginning of maternal pregnancy, the mean height was 162 (150-175) cm, the mean body weight was 57.6 (42-72) kg, and the mean body mass index was 21.4 (19.1-23.2) kg/m2. At the end of pregnancy, the mean body weight was 62 (39-76) kg and the mean body mass index was 23.6 (21.3-24.1) kg/m2. The weight gain under pregnancy was mean 8 (1.5-21.5) kg. The respiratory function values at the onset of pregnancy were narrowed in 2 patients. During pregnancy, the respiratory function values of 2 more patients decreased. The number of successful gestations was 13. A mother gave birth twice. The number of premature births was one. The pregnancy after the mean 38. (34-40.) gestational week was completed in 7 cases by cesarean section and in 6 cases by vaginal delivery. The number of miscarriages was 3. The Apgar score was normal in all cases. In 11 of 13 children, the sweat test was not elevated. 2 children had high sweat values, one of them is heterozygous with c.1521_1523delCTT, the other could not prove a gene mutation. Women with cystic fibrosis generally tolerate pregnancy well, in most cases. Women with poor lung function, low nutritional status, and diabetes are more likely to expect adverse consequences. The outcome of the newborns is good in general, but a common occurrence of premature birth and low birth weight is to be expected. Ideally, pregnancy should be planned through prior counseling and the care of pregnant women should be monitored by a specialized cystic fibrosis team, including obstetricians experienced in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. A retrospective analysis of our own small-number data confirms the evidence from the literature data. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(28): 1129-1136.


Asunto(s)
Fibrosis Quística , Índice de Masa Corporal , Cesárea , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200066

RESUMEN

Cardiovascular disease is a significant public health concern worldwide, including in Malaysia. Various attempts have been made to resolve this issue. One of the most important methods of controlling cardiovascular risk factors is physical exercise. However, today's women, especially housewives, are often identified by a lack of physical activity. This is alarming to society, as cardiovascular disease can affect the quality of their life. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors among low-income housewives in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 63 housewives participated in this cross-sectional study. All participating housewives were asked to fill out a sociodemographic questionnaire and the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). To evaluate cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric measurements and blood samples were taken. Findings showed that an average of 70.5 ± 232.4 min/week was spent on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), which indicated a low level of physical activity. Data showed that 90.5% of the subjects had low physical activity, 6.3% were moderate, and 3.2% were considered as having a high level of physical activity. For body mass index (BMI), 58.7% of the respondents were obese, 28.6% were overweight (29.10 ± 5.67 kg m-2), and 81.0% of subjects had a waist circumference (WC) value above the normal range (92.74 ± 16.40 cm). A two-way ANOVA test revealed significant mean differences between systolic blood pressure (mm/Hg) and age groups (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, there was a significant association between MVPA and cardiovascular risk factors using negative binomial regression (p < 0.01). The findings of this study highlight the need for health promotional programs to raise awareness, educate, and engage low-income housewives in lifestyle-enhancing behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Sobrepeso , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Obesidad , Factores de Riesgo
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200352

RESUMEN

The incidence of osteoporosis is increasing as the population ages, as is the need to manage and prevent it. Adolescence is the period when the fastest development of bone mass takes place. Increasing adolescents' maximum bone mass and avoiding the risk factors for its loss are effective for preventing osteoporosis. This study investigated the factors influencing adolescents' bone mineral density (BMD). The participants were 126 middle- and high-school students from Gangwon-do; 47.6% (n = 60) were male, with an average age of 15 (range 12-18) years of age. It was found that age, carbonated beverages, snacks, and calcium supplements were variables that showed significant differences in adolescents' BMD. Additionally, through correlation analysis, it was found that height, weight, body mass index (BMI), body water, protein, minerals, body fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass were correlated with BMD. Multiple regression analysis identified age, calcium supplements, BMI, body fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass as BMD-associated factors. These results show that adolescents' BMD is higher with lower body fat mass, higher BMI and skeletal muscle mass, and a higher intake of calcium supplements.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal , Densidad Ósea , Adolescente , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Hábitos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino
14.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203025

RESUMEN

Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are data aggregation tools based on computer technology that assist clinicians to promote healthy weight management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We carried out a randomised controlled 3-month trial to implement lifestyle modifications in breast cancer (BC) patients by means of CDSS during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 55 BC women at stages I-IIIA were enrolled. They were randomly assigned either to Control group, receiving general lifestyle advice (n = 28) or the CDSS group (n = 27), to whom the CDSS provided personalised dietary plans based on the Mediterranean diet (MD) together with physical activity guidelines. Food data, anthropometry, blood markers and quality of life were evaluated. At 3 months, higher adherence to MD was recorded in the CDSS group, accompanied by lower body weight (kg) and body fat mass percentage compared to control (p < 0.001). In the CDSS arm, global health/quality of life was significantly improved at the trial endpoint (p < 0.05). Fasting blood glucose and lipid levels (i.e., cholesterol, LDL, triacylglycerols) of the CDSS arm remained unchanged (p > 0.05) but were elevated in the control arm at 3 months (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CDSS could be a promising tool to assist BC patients with lifestyle modifications during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , COVID-19 , Sistemas de Apoyo a Decisiones Clínicas , Dieta Mediterránea , Estilo de Vida , Obesidad/prevención & control , Pandemias , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Terapia Conductista , Glucemia/metabolismo , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/etiología , Cooperación del Paciente , Calidad de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglicéridos/sangre
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204114

RESUMEN

It is widely documented that negative body image is a significant public health concern due to its association with symptoms of disordered eating and worse psychological well-being. The purpose of the study was to develop a path model of intrapersonal dimensions (self-efficacy and internal locus of control) as antecedents of perceived stress toward females' body dissatisfaction and eating attitude disorders. A total of 300 females, including 100 aspiring fashion models, 100 athletes and 100 students (controls), between 15 and 24 years of age (M = 19.6, SD = 1.85) participated in the study. Measures included level of psychological stress, self-efficacy and locus of control dimensions, body dissatisfaction and eating attitude disorder indices. A path analysis confirmed our research hypothesis. Comparing the three subsamples, we found better fit indexes in the two subgroups with elevated investment on their body image with respect the control group. More specifically, the model in the group of aspiring fashion models showed the best fit index. These results indicated that aspiring fashion models have a strong desire to maintain their low body mass or to become thinner. For this reason, a suitable involvement of expert health workers in the nutritional and psychological field could be extremely essential in the fashion world to maintain a healthier well-being.


Asunto(s)
Imagen Corporal , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Atletas , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Control Interno-Externo , Autoimagen , Autoeficacia , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205921

RESUMEN

AIMS: To explore the association between maternal origin and birthplace, and caesarean section (CS) by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and length of residence. METHODS: We linked records from 118,459 primiparous women in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway between 2013 and 2017 with data from the National Population Register. We categorized pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) into underweight (<18.5), normal weight (18.5-24.9) and overweight/obese (≥25). Multinomial regression analysis estimated crude and adjusted relative risk ratios (RRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for emergency and elective CS. RESULTS: Compared to normal weight women from Norway, women from Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia/Pacific had a decreased risk of elective CS (aRRR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.87 and aRRR = 0.56, 0.41-0.77, respectively). Overweight/obese women from Europe/Central Asia had the highest risk of elective CS (aRRR = 1.42, 1.09-1.86). Both normal weight and overweight/obese Sub-Saharan African women had the highest risks of emergency CS (aRRR = 2.61, 2.28-2.99; 2.18, 1.81-2.63, respectively). Compared to women from high-income countries, the risk of elective CS was increasing with a longer length of residence among European/Central Asian women. Newly arrived migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest risk of emergency CS. CONCLUSION: Women from Sub-Saharan Africa had more than two times the risk of emergency CS compared to women originating from Norway, regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI.


Asunto(s)
Cesárea , África del Sur del Sahara , Índice de Masa Corporal , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiología , Embarazo , Sistema de Registros , Factores de Riesgo
17.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208391

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 lockdown may have negatively impacted the treatment of obesity. This study aimed to assess the effect of COVID-19 lockdown in patients with obesity treated with intensive residential cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-OB). METHODS: This retrospective case-control study analyzed 129 patients with severe obesity who experienced COVID-19 lockdown in the 6 months after discharge from intensive residential CBT-OB, comparing their outcomes on weight loss, binge-eating episodes, and general health status with those in a sample of patients matched by gender, age, and body mass index given the same treatment before the COVID-19 outbreak as control. Patients were assessed at baseline and by phone interview 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Both groups had lost more than 9% of their baseline bodyweight and reported a significant decrease in binge-eating episodes and similar general health status at 6-month follow-up. However, control patients achieved a significantly greater weight loss than those who experienced lockdown, although half of lockdown patients reported persisting with CBT-OB procedures after their discharge. CONCLUSION: Patients with obesity treated with CBT-OB and exposed to COVID-19 lockdown, despite achieving lower weight loss than non-exposed patients, had a healthy weight loss at 6-month follow-up and comparable reduction in binge-eating behaviors.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Obesidad/terapia , Pandemias , Alta del Paciente , Pérdida de Peso , Adulto , Anciano , Trastorno por Atracón , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/psicología , Tratamiento Domiciliario , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Aislamiento Social , Resultado del Tratamiento , Programas de Reducción de Peso
18.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208529

RESUMEN

On 11 March 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study focuses on a narrative review about the illness during the first year of the pandemic in relation to obesity. Databases were used to search studies published up to 8 December 2020. In total, 4430 articles and other scientific literature were found, and 24 articles were included in this one-year narrative review. The mean BMI value of severe COVID-19 patients ranged from 24.5 to 33.4 kg/m2, versus <18.5 to 24.3 kg/m2 for non-severe patients. Articles using the terms obesity or overweight without indicating the BMI value in these patients were common, but this is not useful, as the anthropometric parameters, when not defined by this index, are confusing due to the classification being different in the West compared to among Asian and Korean criteria-based adults. We proposed a new term, called COVID obesity, to define the importance of this anthropometric parameter, among others, in relation with this pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Pandemias , Comorbilidad , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
19.
Science ; 373(6550)2021 07 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210852

RESUMEN

Large-scale human exome sequencing can identify rare protein-coding variants with a large impact on complex traits such as body adiposity. We sequenced the exomes of 645,626 individuals from the United Kingdom, the United States, and Mexico and estimated associations of rare coding variants with body mass index (BMI). We identified 16 genes with an exome-wide significant association with BMI, including those encoding five brain-expressed G protein-coupled receptors (CALCR, MC4R, GIPR, GPR151, and GPR75). Protein-truncating variants in GPR75 were observed in ~4/10,000 sequenced individuals and were associated with 1.8 kilograms per square meter lower BMI and 54% lower odds of obesity in the heterozygous state. Knock out of Gpr75 in mice resulted in resistance to weight gain and improved glycemic control in a high-fat diet model. Inhibition of GPR75 may provide a therapeutic strategy for obesity.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Exoma/genética , Obesidad/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Animales , Variación Genética , Humanos , Ratones , Ratones Noqueados , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Aumento de Peso/genética
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e051316, 2021 07 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226237

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible connection between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscle strength in early adulthood and severity of COVID-19 later in life. DESIGN: Prospective registry-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: 1 559 187 Swedish men, undergoing military conscription between 1968 and 2005 at a mean age of 18.3 (SD 0.73) years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hospitalisation, intensive care or death due to COVID-19 from March to September 2020, in relation to CRF and muscle strength. RESULTS: High CRF in late adolescence and early adulthood had a protective association with severe COVID-19 later in life with OR (95% CI) 0.76 (0.67 to 0.85) for hospitalisation (n=2 006), 0.61 (0.48 to 0.78) for intensive care (n=445) and 0.56 (0.37 to 0.85) for mortality (n=149), compared with the lowest category of CRF. The association remains unchanged when controlled for body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic diseases and parental education level at baseline, and incident cardiovascular disease before 2020. Moreover, lower muscle strength in late adolescence showed a linear association with a higher risk of all three outcomes when controlled for BMI and height. CONCLUSIONS: Physical fitness at a young age is associated with severity of COVID-19 many years later. This underscores the necessity to increase the general physical fitness of the population to offer protection against future viral pandemics.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Masculino , Fuerza Muscular , Aptitud Física , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Suecia/epidemiología
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