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1.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 229-233, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829720

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of a 40% miswak compared to a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 patients aged 20-55 years who attended the Periodontics Clinics at the College of Dentistry, Al-Iraqia University, Baghdad, Iraq, were allocated into 2 groups to use either 40% miswak mouthwash or 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate Kin Gingival (Laboratorios KIN) twice daily for 2 months. Gingival, bleeding, and plaque indices were assessed. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between the effectiveness of miswak and chlorhexidine mouthwashes in terms of gingivitis. The means of gingival, bleeding, and plaque indices using miswak mouthwash were 1.2, 0.4, and 0.53, respectively, i.e. indicating lower effectiveness, than when 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash was used (0.87, 0.43, 0.23, respectively). CONCLUSION: Miswak mouthwash is a good oral hygiene agent especially for long-term use even if its efficacy is lower than chlorhexidine mouthwash.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales , Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Adulto , Antiinfecciosos Locales/uso terapéutico , Clorhexidina/uso terapéutico , Placa Dental/tratamiento farmacológico , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Índice de Placa Dental , Gingivitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Gingivitis/prevención & control , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Antisépticos Bucales/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
2.
Head Face Med ; 17(1): 12, 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832490

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Our study attempted to observe the value of periodontal curettage combined with root planing on moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: There involved 72 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis who were diagnosed and treated in our hospital from January 2019 to December 2019. The patients enrolled were randomly divided into four groups using a computer-generated table: root planing and periodontal curettage combined group (n = 18), root planning group (n = 18), periodontal curettage group (n = 18) and cleansing group (n = 18). Blood glucose, plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), attachment loss (AL), serum levels of inflammatory factors (Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha [TNF- α] and hypersensitive C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) were observed before and after treatment. The collecting dates were analyzed by the chi-square χ 2 test, repeated measurement analysis of variance, or t-test according to different data types and research objectives. RESULTS: Before treatment, there was no significant difference in PI, GI, PD and AL among the four groups (P> 0.05), while after 3-month treatment, the levels of PI, GI, PD and AL in the combined group were lower than those in the root planing group, periodontal curettage group and cleansing group, with both root planing group and periodontal curettage group significantly lower than cleansing group (P< 0.05). The fasting blood glucose, 2-h postprandial blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in the combined group, root planing group, periodontal curettage group and cleansing group were significantly lower than those before treatment (P < 0.05). Before treatment, there was no significant difference in TNF- α and hs-CRP among the four groups (P> 0.05), but the levels of TNF- α and hs-CRP in the four groups decreased significantly after 3-month treatment (P< 0.05). The levels of TNF- α and hs-CRP in the combined group were lower than those in the root planing group, periodontal curettage group and cleansing group, and those in the root planing group and periodontal curettage group were significantly lower than those in the cleansing group (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION: The combination therapy of periodontal curettage and root planing exerted beneficial effects on moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which holds the potential to maintain the level of blood glucose and improve the quality of life of the patients.


Asunto(s)
Periodontitis Crónica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Periodontitis Crónica/complicaciones , Periodontitis Crónica/cirugía , Legrado , Índice de Placa Dental , Raspado Dental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Pérdida de la Inserción Periodontal , Bolsa Periodontal , Calidad de Vida , Aplanamiento de la Raíz
3.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 26(1): e2119248, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759964

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare three teaching methods' time and personnel requirements, and their effects on plaque and gingival indices. METHODS: This study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial on fixed orthodontic appliance candidates (n = 90), assigned into a control group (n = 30) and two different study groups (n = 30 each). The control group received standard printed educational material and was assisted with verbal information. The study groups either received video-assisted or hands-on training about fixed orthodontic appliance and oral hygiene. The time requirements for all three educational interventions was recorded during the initial visit. The adequacy of oral hygiene was documented through plaque and gingival indices during the initial visit and eighth week of the treatment. The continuous variables were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA. Tukey HSD and Student t-tests were used for post-hoc comparisons (α?#8197;= 0.05). Also, a chi-square test was used for the analysis of categorical variables. RESULTS: Standard education failed to maintain the plaque and gingival indices at the eighth week of the treatment. Although both video-assisted and hands-on training took a considerable amount of time, they served well in preserving both of the indices at the eighth week. The longer the educational intervention was, the better the preservation of the plaque and gingival indices. CONCLUSION: Educational intervention, either with video-assisted or hands-on programs, provided better results in oral hygiene depending on the time and personnel constraints of the orthodontist.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Higiene Bucal , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Índice de Placa Dental , Humanos , Aparatos Ortodóncicos , Índice Periodontal , Método Simple Ciego
4.
Evid Based Dent ; 22(1): 24-25, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772127

RESUMEN

Data sources Three electronic databases were searched (Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Central) with date of publication between January 2003 and May 2018. Only articles written in English were included. Following electronic searches, the authors conducted manual searches of oral implant/periodontal journals from January 2012 to May 2018. In the event of disagreement on article selection, a further senior reviewer would make the final decision on its inclusion or exclusion following discussion.Study selection In total, 172 articles from the electronic search and ten from manual search were identified for initial screening. From the title and abstract, 18 articles were identified for full-text screening. Following this, 13 articles were included for quantitative synthesis and meta-analysis. The articles assessed the impact of history of periodontitis (HP) on implant survival, radiographic bone loss, pocket depth and bleeding on probing around the dental implant. All studies were either cohort or controlled studies. Seven of the 13 identified studies were prospective. Included studies fulfilled the following criteria: any human studies with supportive periodontal treatment (SPT) application, details of SPT provided in the studies for implant maintenance, compares the outcomes of implants from both patients with and without a HP and peri-implant conditions recorded.Data extraction and synthesis Data extraction followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to carry out quality assessment. Data was extracted to calculate risk ratio (RR) of implant survival, weighted mean difference (WMD) for radiographic bone loss, pocket depth, bleeding on probing and plaque index in patients with and without a HP.Results Implant survival rate was assessed as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes also assessed were radiographic bone loss, pocket depth, bleeding on probing and plaque indices. In implants with rough surfaces, the HP group showed a reduced implant survival rate (RR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.98, P <0.001) even under regular supportive post-implant treatment. They also showed more radiographic marginal bone loss (WMD: 0.34 mm, 95% CI: 0.2-0.48, P <0.001), pocket depth (WMD: 0.47 mm, 95% CI: 0.19-0.74, P <0.001) and bleeding on probing (WMD: 0.08 mm, 95% CI: 0.04-0.11, P <0.001) when compared to the non-HP group. In implants with a machined surface, again the HP group had more radiographic bone loss (WMD: 0.88 mm, 95% CI: 0.65-1.11, P <0.001) than the non-HP group. However, in implants with machined surfaces, there was no statistically significant difference in survival rate between HP and non-HP groups (RR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.92-1.04, P = 0.895).Conclusion In implants with rough surfaces, a history of periodontal disease has a negative impact on survival rate, even with SPT.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Enfermedades Periodontales , Periodontitis , Índice de Placa Dental , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos
5.
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; 42(2): e5-e9, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740382

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the anti-gingivitis and anti-plaque efficacy of a novel bioavailable stannous fluoride (SnF2) dentifrice to a negative control. METHODS: This was a 12-week randomized, controlled, double-blind, two-treatment, parallel group clinical study. One hundred generally healthy adults with evidence of plaque and gingivitis were enrolled into the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two dentifrice treatments: (1) novel SnF2 dentifrice containing the amino acid glycine as a stabilizing chelant (Procter and Gamble) or (2) a negative control sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice. Gingivitis was assessed using the Löe-Silness Gingivitis Index (LSGI) at baseline, Week 1, and Week 12 while plaque was evaluated according to the Turesky Modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index at baseline and Week 12. RESULTS: One hundred subjects completed the trial. Subjects using the novel SnF2 dentifrice demonstrated statistically significantly fewer bleeding sites and a lower LSGI score versus those using the negative control as early as Week 1 (P less than .001). The benefit increased throughout the study, with the SnF2 dentifrice showing 33.4% fewer bleeding sites and a 16.5% lower LSGI score versus the negative control at Week 12 (P less than .001). Subjects with localized or generalized gingivitis (≥10% bleeding sites) had 6 times better odds of transitioning to generally healthy (less than 10% bleeding sites) after using the SnF2 dentifrice for 12 weeks versus the negative control. Plaque scores for the SnF2 dentifrice were also statistically significantly lower (P less than .001) than those for the negative control at Week 12. CONCLUSION: The novel SnF2 dentifrice with the amino acid glycine produced statistically significant improvements in gingival health that were seen as early as 1 week and numerically increased throughout the study.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Dentífricos , Gingivitis , Adulto , Índice de Placa Dental , Dentífricos/uso terapéutico , Método Doble Ciego , Gingivitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Gingivitis/prevención & control , Humanos , Fluoruros de Estaño/uso terapéutico
6.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(4): 435-442, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573896

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this reseach was to compare the effects of different periodic periodontal scaling protocols on the periodontal health of adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances by assessing the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in gingival crevicular fluid and periodontal clinical indexes in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Forty-eight adolescents were divided into 3 groups according to the interval of periodontal scaling (group A: once a month; group B: once every 3 months; group C: once every 6 months). The AST and ALP levels in the gingival crevicular fluid were measured before orthodontic treatment (T0) and at 1 (T1), 3 (T2), 6 (T3), and 9 (T4) months during orthodontic treatment. Periodontal clinical indexes (plaque index [PI], gingival index [GI], and probing depth) were also assessed. RESULTS: At T2, significantly lower AST and ALP levels were observed in group A than in groups B and C (P <0.05). At T3 and T4, lower AST and ALP levels were detected in groups A and B than in group C (P <0.05), and there was no significant difference between the A and B groups at T4 (P >0.05). At T2, the PI and GI were increased in groups B and C compared with group A, and at T3 and T4, significantly lower PI and GI values were observed in groups A and B than in group C (P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal scaling promotes the oral hygiene of adolescents undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment, and periodontal scaling protocols administered monthly and once every 3 months are better for controlling periodontal health than treatments administered once every 6 months.


Asunto(s)
Higiene Bucal , Aparatos Ortodóncicos Fijos , Adolescente , Índice de Placa Dental , Líquido del Surco Gingival , Humanos , Aparatos Ortodóncicos/efectos adversos , Índice Periodontal , Estudios Prospectivos
7.
Lasers Med Sci ; 36(3): 619-629, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590365

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was comparing different lasers with conventional non-surgical treatment (CNT) for the management of peri-implantitis, regarding probing depth (PD), plaque index (PLI), clinical attachment level (CAL), and sulcus bleeding index (SBI). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on different lasers and CNT for peri-implantitis were searched. Pairwise and network meta-analyses were performed to analyze the PD, PLI, CAL, and SBI outcomes. The risk of bias, evidence quality, statistical heterogeneity, and ranking probability were also evaluated. Eleven studies were included in this study, involving three types of lasers. Diode + CNT had significantly superior efficacy to CNT alone, regarding PD reduction, while Er:YAG + CNT had significantly superior efficacy than CNT in terms of the PLI, CAL, and SBI. The highest probability of being most effective for PD was diode + CNT (49%), while Er:YAG + CNT had the highest probability of improving the PLI, CAL, and SBI (66%, 53%, and 79%, respectively). Diode + CNT was significantly superior for PD management in peri-implantitis compared with CNT alone, while Er:YAG + CNT significantly improved the PLI, CAL, and SBI. Therefore, Er:YAG + CNT might be recommended methods considered for management of peri-implantitis.


Asunto(s)
Rayos Láser , Periimplantitis/cirugía , Adulto , Índice de Placa Dental , Hemorragia/etiología , Humanos , Metaanálisis en Red , Probabilidad , Sesgo de Publicación , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento
8.
Am J Dent ; 34(1): 54-60, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544990

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This 6-month study compared the effects of a smart-connected oscillating-rotating (O-R) electric rechargeable toothbrush with micro-vibrations with those of a marketed smart-connected sonic rechargeable toothbrush for the reduction of gingivitis and plaque. METHODS: In this single-center, examiner-blind, two-treatment, open-label, parallel-group, randomized study, 110 adult subjects with evidence of gingivitis and plaque were randomized to use either the O-R brush (Oral-B iO) or the sonic brush (Philips Sonicare DiamondClean). Both groups were instructed to brush twice daily with a standard sodium fluoride dentifrice. Gingivitis and plaque were assessed at baseline, week 1, and week 24 using the Modified Gingival Index (MGI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and the Rustogi Modification of the Navy Plaque Index (RMNPI). Designation of gingivitis case status as "healthy" or " not healthy" was made according to the World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions. RESULTS: A significantly greater percentage of subjects in the O-R brush group versus the sonic brush group transitioned from " not healthy" to " healthy" gingivitis case status at week 24 (96.4% vs. 81.8%; P= 0.029). The O-R toothbrush produced a significantly greater reduction in adjusted mean MGI score, adjusted mean GBI score, and adjusted mean number of bleeding sites than did the sonic brush (week 24, by 32.6% for MGI score, by 23.7% for GBI score, and by 26.1% for number of bleeding sites, P< 0.001). After a single use on day 1, plaque removal was statistically significantly greater for the O-R brush compared to the sonic brush (P< 0.001); by week 24, the O-R brush demonstrated greater reductions in whole mouth plaque (24.6%), gingival margin plaque (61.9%) and approximal region plaque 25.8% (P≤ 0.007 for all) compared to the sonic brush. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This 6-month study provides evidence supporting use of a smart-connected O-R electric toothbrush with micro-vibrations for plaque removal and gingivitis reductions, resulting in transitions to a healthy gingival state.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Adulto , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Índice de Placa Dental , Diseño de Equipo , Gingivitis/prevención & control , Humanos , Método Simple Ciego , Cepillado Dental
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528457

RESUMEN

The goal of this multicenter randomized controlled study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a newly developed ionic-sonic electric toothbrush in terms of plaque removal and reduction of gingival inflammation. A total of 78 subjects from three dental centers were invited to join the study. They were randomized to receive either a manual toothbrush (control group) or an ionic-sonic electric brush (test group). Full-mouth prophylaxis and oral hygiene instructions based on the stationary bristle technique were provided 1 week prior to the baseline visit. At baseline and at each follow-up appointment, Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were recorded. In addition, probing depth (PD) and bleeding on probing were recorded at baseline and at the last appointment (week 5). At completion of the study, subjects in the test group were given a questionnaire regarding their satisfaction with the toothbrush. Sixty-four subjects completed the study (control: 28; test: 36). The mean age of the subjects was 36.90 ± 12.19 years. No significant difference between the baseline and 5-week PD was found. Plaque removal efficacy and reduction in gingival inflammation were more significant for the test group at week 2. Both the control and test groups showed statistically significant improvement in PI and GI from baseline to week 5. The ionic-sonic toothbrush was more effective than manual toothbrush after a 1-week application.


Asunto(s)
Gingivitis , Cepillado Dental , Adulto , Índice de Placa Dental , Diseño de Equipo , Gingivitis/prevención & control , Humanos , Inflamación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Método Simple Ciego , Adulto Joven
10.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 129-135, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600090

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and periodontal health during treatment by examining gingival inflammation indices and saliva properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty consecutive orthodontic patients, aged 11-18 years old, who were eligible for fixed orthodontic appliances, were included in the study. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), salivary pH and flow rate were recorded at three timepoints: immediately before placement of orthodontic fixed appliances (T0), and 1 (T1) and 3 months (T2) after bonding. RESULTS: The hypothesis that PI would remain constant across timepoints was rejected. PI increased over time (0 to 1 scale, T1-T0: mean diff. = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.18, p = 0.01; T2-T0: mean diff. = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.08, 0.24, p < 0.001). On the other hand, GI changed statistically significantly over time (p = 0.05). Patients' age was not a predictor for PI change (p = 0.93), but it was for GI (p = 0.01). As anticipated, average PI was found to be higher for the mandibular dentition by 0.10 (95% CI = 0.04, 0.16) and the labial surfaces of teeth of both jaws by 0.51 (95% CI = 0.45, 0.57). CONCLUSIONS: Within the framework of the current study, orthodontic treatment appeared to affect the periodontal health of patients, but the changes were clinically negligible and not consistently statistically significant.


Asunto(s)
Gingivitis , Aparatos Ortodóncicos , Adolescente , Niño , Índice de Placa Dental , Humanos , Aparatos Ortodóncicos/efectos adversos , Índice Periodontal , Estudios Prospectivos , Saliva
11.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 149-156, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600091

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between periodontal parameters and lipid profiles. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 48 subjects with dyslipidemia, consisting of 33 subjects who did not receive lipid-lowering medication (NLM) and 15 subjects who did receive lipid-lowering medication (LM) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Sixteen systemically healthy subjects were recruited as controls. The plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured. The levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were determined. The variables related to high cholesterol levels, including age, gender, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI), were evaluated. RESULTS: The LM group had a statistically significantly higher CAL in comparison with either the control or the NLM groups. TG was statistically significantly correlated with PD (ρ = 0.398, p = 0.001) and CAL (ρ = 0.349, p = 0.005). HDL-C was negatively correlated with PI (ρ = -0.371, p = 0.003), GI (ρ = -0.284, p = 0.025), and PD (ρ = -0.289, p = 0.023). The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that BMI was statistically significantly associated with percentage of sites with BOP (ß = 0.367, p = 0.003) and PD (ß = 0.392, p = 0.002). CAL was statistically significantly influenced by age (ß = 0.496, p < 0.001) and HDL-C (ß = -0.259, p = 0.026). CONCLUSION: TG and HDL-C levels were correlated with periodontal status. BMI was found to be a stronger predictor of periodontal inflammation than serum lipid levels. No benefit of lipid-lowering medication on periodontal status was revealed.


Asunto(s)
Dislipidemias , Hiperlipidemias , Índice de Masa Corporal , Colesterol , HDL-Colesterol , Estudios Transversales , Índice de Placa Dental , Dislipidemias/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Lípidos
12.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 137-147, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615769

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To compare clinical outcomes and oral fluid biomarkers in gingivitis subjects using an electric toothbrush/irrigator combination (test) or a manual toothbrush alone (control) over 8 weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of n = 30. In both groups, toothbrushing was performed twice daily at home and no additional interdental cleaning aids were allowed. Plaque Index (PLI), Gingival Index (GI), whole saliva (WS), and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected at weeks 2, 4, and 8. RESULTS: Subjects' mean age was 23 years and 52% were female. Overall baseline means were 1.31 for PLI, 1.07 for GI, and 34.9 for number of bleeding sites. At every follow-up visit, both groups differed statistically significantly (p < 0.001) from baseline for all clinical parameters. The test group demonstrated statistically significantly (p < 0.001) greater reductions in GI vs the control group by 18% at week 2, 17% at week 4 and 24% at week 8. The test group also demonstrated statistically significantly (p < 0.002) greater reductions in the number of bleeding sites vs the control group by 33% at week 2, 34% at week 4 and 43% at week 8. Between-group comparisons for both WS and GCF revealed numerical trends for decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß in GCF after 4 and 8 weeks, but these were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: In subjects using the electric toothbrush/irrigator combination, increased clinical improvements may be found accompanied by similarly improved trends for oral fluid biomarkers such as IL-1ß.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Índice de Placa Dental , Diseño de Equipo , Femenino , Gingivitis/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Método Simple Ciego , Cepillado Dental , Adulto Joven
13.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(3): 189-201.e1, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632408

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The impact of hyperglycemia on dental implant therapy remains unclear. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the authors compared the rates of implant failure and peri-implant bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and peri-implant bone loss (PIBL) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nondiabetic patients. The authors performed subgroup analyses based on glycemic level to evaluate whether patients with higher glycemic levels were more prone to peri-implant inflammation. TYPE OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors searched 4 databases for original clinical studies. Studies in which the researchers provided information on the rate of implant failure or peri-implant parameters were included. RESULTS: Nine clinical studies were identified on the basis of the inclusion criteria. No significant differences were found in rates of implant failure (P = .46) and PD (P = .1) between diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Significant differences in BOP (P < .00001) and PIBL (P = .02), favoring nondiabetic patients, were observed. Results of subgroup analyses indicated that the increase in glycemic level did not significantly influence BOP, PD, and PIBL values among diabetic patients. CONCLUSIONS AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus seem to be able to achieve a rate of implant survival similar to that of healthy patients. Regarding peri-implant parameters, BOP and PIBL were higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, indicating that hyperglycemia is an important risk factor for peri-implant inflammation. No association was found between peri-implant parameters and glycemic level among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, providing oral hygiene was strictly maintained.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar , Implantes Dentales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperglucemia , Periimplantitis , Índice de Placa Dental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Humanos , Hiperglucemia/etiología , Índice Periodontal
14.
Quintessence Int ; 52(2): 176-186, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433083

RESUMEN

At present, the most important criterion for the size selection of interdental brushes is the PHD-value (passage hole diameter) according to the ISO standard for interdental brushes ISO 16409:2016. The PHD size range of commercially available products currently lies between 0.6 and 5.2 mm. With the exceptions of special situations, a range between 0.7 and 2.9 mm is sufficient for clinical routine. As most products have longer filaments nowadays, one brush can often be applied for two PHD intervals. Consequently, adequate patient counseling and the individual selection of the appropriate interdental brushes can generally be achieved with an assortment of 12 systematically arranged interdental brush sizes. An application example is the "Heidelberg set" described herein. It is crucial that the correct choice of size is based upon continuously rising PHD-values, and not upon parameters such as stem size, outer diameter of filaments, or similar, as these do not allow for a reliable conclusion regarding the interdental passage. The usage of ISO sizes is also not recommendable due to their insufficient size differentiation. (Quintessence Int 2021;52: 176-186; doi: 10.3290/j.qi.b872241; Revised from an article originally published (in German) in Parodontologie 2020;31(1)37-49)

.


Asunto(s)
Dispositivos para el Autocuidado Bucal , Placa Dental , Índice de Placa Dental , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Cepillado Dental
15.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 67, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491380

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Orthodontic treatment may introduce a risk to the integrity of enamel due to plaque accumulation and colonisation by oral microbes. This prospective cohort study observed the effect of fixed, self-ligating orthodontic appliances on saliva properties and oral microbial flora. Materials and Methods: Thirty adolescent patients were recruited (13 female, 17 male, mean age 13.97 ±â€¯2.07 years). Saliva samples were collected before placement of fixed orthodontic appliances (T0), and 4 (T1) and 12 (T2) weeks later. Salivary pH, flow rate and buffering capacity were recorded. All saliva samples were cultured on agar plates for 2 days. Salivary prevalence of Neisseria spp., streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Candida albicans were assessed. Results: High buffering capacity was reported in 21 patients at T0, 22 patients at T1 and in 28 patients at T2. Saliva flow rate also increased over time (7.08 ml/5 min at T0, 7.93 ml/5 min at T1 and 8.35 ml/5min at T2). Mean pH was 7.63 at T0, 7.67 at T1 and 7.78 at T2. There was no evidence that either pH or the number of colonies of any of the microbial species changed over time. Conclusion: The increased buffering capacity of saliva as well as the salivary flow rate after initial bonding might be protective against the development of dental caries. Current microbial findings indicate that initiation of orthodontic treatment may not be associated with significant changes in oral microbial flora.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Saliva , Adolescente , Niño , Índice de Placa Dental , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Aparatos Ortodóncicos , Aparatos Ortodóncicos Fijos/efectos adversos , Estudios Prospectivos
16.
Quintessence Int ; 0(0): 292-298, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491389

RESUMEN

Objectives: Recent data show that teeth prepared with horizontal finishing lines supporting crowns and fixed partial dentures present more periodontal disorders than untreated control teeth. Several studies have shown that NitrAdine (bonyf) induces a significant reduction of dental biofilm. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that 10-day use of PerioTabs (bonyf), a NitrAdine-based gingiva brushing solution, is effective in treating gingival inflammation of prosthodontic patients. Method and materials: Forty-nine subjects were instructed to brush their teeth, gingivae, and prostheses with the PerioTabs solution for 10 days (treatment group) and 49 with any toothpaste (control group). The initial and 11-day Plaque Index and Bleeding Index were recorded. A five-point Likert scale was used to evaluate the level of patient satisfaction. The Shapiro-Wilk statistical test was used to compare the results for the two groups. Results: Highly significant differences between the treatment and control group (P < .001) for the Plaque Index and Bleeding Index resulted. The treatment group patients' satisfaction was high: 31 (63.3%) reported the highest level, 5, on the Likert scale, and 18 (36.7%) declared they were satisfied (level 4). Conclusions: The use of a NitrAdine-based gingiva brushing solution (PerioTabs) was effective in reducing the gingival inflammation in periodontally affected patients treated with fixed partial dentures. Clinical relevance: The NitrAdine-based gingiva brushing solution (PerioTabs) was highly accepted by the patients and seems to be a promising alternative to the solutions widely used.


Asunto(s)
Encía , Gingivitis , Índice de Placa Dental , Dentadura Parcial Fija , Humanos , Cepillado Dental
17.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(2): 105-114, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358239

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The authors of this study aimed to evaluate the clinical antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of 3 oral hygiene regimens: toothbrushing with standard fluoride toothpaste and manual toothbrush and using a mouthrinse containing cetylpyridinium chloride, zinc lactate, and fluoride (CPC + Zn + F) in an alcohol-free base; toothbrushing with standard fluoride toothpaste and manual toothbrush and using a mouthrinse containing essential oils (EO) in an alcohol-free base; and toothbrushing with manual toothbrush and standard fluoride toothpaste and manual toothbrush (control). METHODS: The participants (N = 120) were randomly assigned to study groups and followed the assigned regimens twice daily for 6 weeks. The participants were examined by a calibrated examiner for the Quigley-Hein plaque index (Turesky modification) and Löe-Silness gingival index at baseline, week 4, and week 6. Statistical analyses were performed separately for plaque and gingival indexes by means of analysis of variance, paired t test, and analysis of covariance (α = 0.05). RESULTS: At week 4, the CPC + Zn + F group presented additional reductions in dental plaque compared with EO and control groups of (21.4% [P < .001] and 31.4% [P < .001], respectively). After 6 weeks, these values were 26.7% (P < .001) and 44.8% (P < .001), respectively. For Löe-Silness gingival index, additional reduction in the CPC + Zn + F group compared with EO were 10.6% (P < .001) and 13.7% (P < .001) at 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Compared with control, these reductions were 13.6% (P < .001) and 17.8% (P < .001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The regimen including a mouthrinse containing CPC + Zn + F presented higher antiplaque and antigingivitis effects than EO and control regimens. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: A mouthrinse containing CPC + Zn + F is an effective protocol for the control of dental plaque and gingivitis.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales , Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Aceites Volátiles , Antiinfecciosos Locales/uso terapéutico , Cetilpiridinio/uso terapéutico , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Índice de Placa Dental , Gingivitis/prevención & control , Humanos , Lactatos , Antisépticos Bucales/uso terapéutico , Aceites Volátiles/uso terapéutico , Cepillado Dental , Zinc/uso terapéutico
18.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(2): 115-126.e4, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358240

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The authors conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy of oscillating rotating (OR) versus side-to-side (SS) powered toothbrushes on plaque and gingival index reduction. METHODS: The authors searched 3 electronic databases and the gray literature for randomized clinical trials in which investigators compared OR with SS powered toothbrushes. Two authors independently screened the studies, performed data abstraction, and assessed the risk of bias. The authors used random-effects model meta-analyses to pool results across trials and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to rate the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: This systematic review included 24 trials in which researchers enrolled a total of 2,998 patients. There was moderate-certainty evidence that SS toothbrushes may result in little to no difference in plaque index reduction from baseline to 4 weeks compared with OR toothbrushes (standardized mean difference, 0.02; 95% confidence interval, -0.46 to 0.42). There was moderate-certainty evidence that SS toothbrushes may result in little to no difference in gingival index reduction from baseline to 4 weeks compared with OR toothbrushes (standardized mean difference, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, -0.47 to 0.22). There was moderate-quality evidence suggesting little to no difference in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence does not suggest the superiority of either OR or SS toothbrushes for plaque or gingival index reduction. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Clinicians and patients considering the use of either of these toothbrushes are unlikely to observe more benefits with one type versus the other.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Dispositivos para el Autocuidado Bucal , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Índice de Placa Dental , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos , Índice Periodontal , Cepillado Dental
19.
Spec Care Dentist ; 41(2): 202-209, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350502

RESUMEN

AIMS: Persons with physical disabilities require specific methods for sustaining good oral health. This study aimed to evaluate an individually tailored oral hygiene intervention program (IT-OHI) for improving gingival health among adults with disabilities. METHODS AND RESULTS: A single group, quasi-experimental design with pre- and post-tests, conducted at a community club for disabled people in Thailand. This study included 145 adults with disabilities, aged 18-74 years. Trained caregivers provided IT-OHI program to all participants. Calibrated dentists assessed the gingival bleeding and dental plaque at baseline/pre-intervention (T0) and at 6 (T1) and 12 (T2) weeks post-intervention. The outcomes were analyzed using the Friedman test, Cochran's Q test, and Binary logistic regression. There were significant decreases in bleeding on probing scores (P < .001) and plaque control record scores (P < .001) throughout the study. However, considering the individual periods, values between T1 and T2 did not improve. Additionally, the IT-OHI program's protective effect was more substantial among the male participants at 12 weeks post-intervention (odds ratio = 0.094, P = .027) than among the females. CONCLUSION: The IT-OHI program had partial effectiveness in improving gingival health and reducing dental plaque accumulation in a group of Thai people with physical disabilities; however, the long-term impact remains unclear.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Higiene Bucal , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Placa Dental , Femenino , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Bucal , Tailandia , Adulto Joven
20.
Angle Orthod ; 91(2): 220-226, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378447

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of metronidazole gel and mobile telephone short-message service (SMS) reminders on gingivitis in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The trial was double blinded (patient and investigator), and only the clinical trial unit pharmacist was unblinded. Data were collected from patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment for at least 6 months. A total of 66 patients were randomly assigned to either 0.8% metronidazole gel (n = 22), SMS reminder and placebo gel (n = 22), or placebo (control) group only (n = 22). Gingival index (GI), bleeding index (BI), and orthodontic plaque index (OPI) were evaluated on several teeth at baseline (T0) and after 4 weeks (T1). Paired-sample t-tests were used to compare mean differences of indexes at T0 and T1 in the groups, and independent-sample t-tests were used to determine the effects of interventions compared with the controls. RESULTS: Data from 64 patients were analyzed; there were 2 dropouts. There were statistically significant (P < .05) reductions in GI, BI, and OPI scores from T0 to T1 for each intervention. However, there were no significant differences between each intervention and the control group. There were no adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: The null hypothesis could not be rejected. There is no difference between interventions (application of 0.8% metronidazole gel and SMS reminder for reinforcing oral hygiene) in reducing gingival inflammation in orthodontic patients.


Asunto(s)
Gingivitis , Metronidazol , Índice de Placa Dental , Gingivitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Gingivitis/prevención & control , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Índice Periodontal
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