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1.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(2): e168-e176, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004486

RESUMEN

Tumour lysis syndrome is a complication of chemotherapy for haematological malignancies; in particular, aggressive leukaemias and lymphomas. For haematological malignancies, targeted therapies, such as small molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, have a high anti-tumour activity, are well tolerated, and have a low incidence of associated tumour lysis syndrome. The BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax has a high anti-tumour activity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, achieving deep remissions by potently inducing apoptosis and increasing the risk for tumour lysis syndrome. In this Viewpoint, we discuss the pathophysiology, risk factors, monitoring, changes in laboratory parameters, and clinical manifestations of tumour lysis syndrome, and the prophylaxis and treatments available for this complication. Prophylaxis and treatment strategies have been implemented as standard of care in patients receiving venetoclax to minimise the risk of both laboratory and clinical manifestations of tumour lysis syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crónica de Células B/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia Molecular Dirigida/efectos adversos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inhibidores , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/efectos adversos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-bcl-2/antagonistas & inhibidores , Síndrome de Lisis Tumoral/etiología , Lesión Renal Aguda/etiología , Lesión Renal Aguda/terapia , Alopurinol/uso terapéutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamiento farmacológico , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiología , Compuestos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos con Puentes/efectos adversos , Compuestos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos con Puentes/uso terapéutico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Hiperfosfatemia/etiología , Hiperfosfatemia/terapia , Hiperuricemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Hiperuricemia/etiología , Leucemia Linfocítica Crónica de Células B/enzimología , Diálisis Renal , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Sulfonamidas/efectos adversos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapéutico , Síndrome de Lisis Tumoral/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Lisis Tumoral/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Lisis Tumoral/prevención & control , Urato Oxidasa/uso terapéutico
2.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 28(1): 47-52, 2020 Jan 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023699

RESUMEN

Objective: To establish and evaluate diagnostic efficacy and applicability of serum Golgi protein (GP) 73 based non-invasive diagnostic model with other conventional serological indicators for compensated stage hepatitis B cirrhosis. Methods: 666 cases with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who had visited to the Fifth Medical Center of People's Liberation Army General Hospital from January 2010 to December 2017 were selected as the study subjects, and were classified according to compensated stage cirrhosis into clinical and pathological diagnosis group based on whether or not the liver histological examination was performed. A diagnostic model of compensated stage hepatitis B cirrhosis in the clinical diagnosis group was established. The current clinically used diagnostic model of liver cirrhosis, aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis index (FIB)-4 and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) were compared. Eventually, the diagnostic model was verified step by step by pathological diagnosis group. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of GP73 and APRI, FIB-4, and LSM for cirrhosis patients in the clinical diagnosis group were 0.842, 0.857, 0.864, and 0.832, respectively. The diagnostic efficiency of the four indicators were of similar (P value > 0.05). A diagnostic model of compensated stage hepatitis B cirrhosis (GAPA) using logistic regression analysis was established: LogitP = 1/ [1 + exp (1.614-0.054 × GP73-0.045 × Age + 0.030 × PLT-0.015 × ALP)]. The AUC of the model was as high as 0.940 and the optimal cut-off value were 0.41. The corresponding diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 0.92 and 0.82, respectively. The diagnostic efficiency was better than that of APRI, FIB-4, LSM and GP73 alone (P < 0.05). The AUC of GAPA was 0.877 in the pathological diagnosis group, which was similar to the diagnostic efficacy of LSM (0.891) and FIB-4 (0.847) (P > 0.1), but still superior to that of APRI (0.811) and GP73 alone (0.780) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: GAPA, a diagnostic model for compensated stage hepatitis B cirrhosis established in this study, has a good diagnostic efficacy in both the clinical and pathological diagnosis group, and has certain auxiliary diagnostic value in the areas where resources are relatively scarce or where LSM has not been developed.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cirrosis Hepática/diagnóstico , Hígado/metabolismo , Proteínas de la Membrana/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/metabolismo , Biopsia , Fibrosis , Hepatitis B , Humanos , Hígado/patología , Proteínas de la Membrana/sangre , Curva ROC , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
3.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(2): 18-22, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009356

RESUMEN

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory connective tissue disorder with wide spectrum of presentation from polyarthritis to multisystem involvement. Apart from bones, muscles and other soft tissues, Vitamin D receptors have been found on many immune cells and tissues. The most vital function of Vitamin D is calcium and phosphorus absorption but it can also act as an immune-modulator hormone, which can affects both innate and adaptive immune responses leading to autoimmune diseases. Objectives: To study the relationship of vitamin D insufficiency with disease activity and functional disability in patients of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Material and Methods: The present study was an observational, cross sectional study done in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. The inclusion criteria comprised of patients attending the inpatient (IPD) and outpatient department (OPD), age above 18 years and fulfilling 1987 American college of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA. The exclusion criteria was patients suffering from any other connective tissue disorder (CTD) and patients who were taking vitamin D supplements for past 6 months. Thirty patients were enrolled in the study after satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria and appropriate clinical data and blood sample were collected after informed consent. Joint examination were performed and swollen joint count (SJC), tender joint count (TJC), patient global assessment (PGA) and evaluator global assessment (EGA) scores were recorded. Disease activity using DAS28ESR, DAS28CRP and CDAI were calculated and disability index was assessed using Short Fries Health Assessment Questionnaire. Results: In our study mean vitamin D level was 18.93 ng/ml (S.D. 6.64 ng/ml). Mean DAS28 ESR was 4.57±1.48. Mean Disability Index was 0.52±0.89. All the study population had low Vitamin D level (100%), while 50% patients had vitamin D level in deficiency range (<20ng/ml). On analysis by student t-test, statistically higher PGA (p value 0.024) and Disability Index (p value < 0.001) in vitamin D deficient patients, compared to vitamin D insufficient patient group was observed, however there was no significant difference in disease activity between the groups. Conclusion: Low Vitamin D levels are common in Indian rheumatoid arthritis patients. Mean PGA significantly increased, and disability index significantly increased in Vitamin D deficient group compared to insufficient group suggesting vitamin D deficient patients poor wellbeing and more disability.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Reumatoide/epidemiología , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Artritis Reumatoide/metabolismo , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18942, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000414

RESUMEN

This study analyzed independent risk factors that could improve the qSOFA scoring system among sepsis patients.This retrospective study evaluated 821 patients (2015-2016) who fulfilled the 2001 International Sepsis Definitions Conference diagnostic criteria. Patients were classified based on their survival outcomes after 28 days, and the predictive values of various predictive scores at admission were compared.The independent risk factors for 28-day mortality were fibrinogen, plasma lactic acid, albumin, oxygenation index, and procalcitonin level >0.5 ng/mL (all P < .05). The "PqSOFA" score combined the qSOFA score with procalcitonin, which provided an area under the curve value of 0.751 (95% CI: 0.712-0.790) for predicting 28-day mortality. A cut-off score of 2 points provided sensitivity of 83.2%, specificity of 54.9%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 33.03%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 92.47%, positive-likelihood ratio (PLR) of 1.85, and negative-likelihood ratio (NLR) of 0.31. The area under the curve for predicting 28-day mortality was significantly greater for the PqSOFA score than for the qSOFA score (Z = 7.019, P < .0001). The PqSOFA score was comparable to the SOFA and APACHE II scores.The PqSOFA score independently predicted poor short-term outcomes among high-risk sepsis patients.


Asunto(s)
Sepsis/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Aguda , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Curva ROC , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Sepsis/mortalidad , Sepsis/terapia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e19063, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028427

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Severity index and plasma paraquat (PQ) concentration can predict the prognosis of patients with PQ poisoning. However, the better parameter is yet to be systematically investigated and determined. Thus, we conduct this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the prognostic value of severity index and plasma PQ concentration in patients with PQ poisoning. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library to identify all relevant papers that were published up to March 2019. All diagnostic studies that compared severity index and plasma PQ concentration to predict mortality in patients with PQ poisoning were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for individual trials were pooled using a random-effect model. We also aggregated heterogeneity testing, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias analysis. RESULTS: Ultimately, seven studies involving 821 patients were included. The pooled OR with a 95% CI of severity index was 24.12 (95% CI: 9.34-62.34, P < .001), with an area under the curve of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85-0.90), sensitivity of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.74-0.91), and specificity of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87). Meanwhile, the pooled OR with 95% CI of plasma PQ concentration was 34.39 (95% CI: 14.69-80.56, P < .001), with an area under the curve of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.91-0.96), sensitivity of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.75-0.93), and specificity of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.76-0.95). Sensitivity analysis demonstrated the stability of the results of our meta-analysis. No significant publication bias was observed in this meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study indicated that severity index and plasma PQ concentration have relatively high-prognostic value in patients with PQ poisoning, and that the sensitivity and specificity of plasma PQ concentration are superior to those of severity index.


Asunto(s)
Paraquat/envenenamiento , Envenenamiento/mortalidad , Humanos , Paraquat/sangre , Envenenamiento/sangre , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(2): 1071-1077, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014956

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: Severe benign cicatricial stricture (SBCS) is a major complication after definitive chemoradiation therapy (dCRT) for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study was conducted to investigate risk factors of SBCS in patients with localized ESCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 197 patients with clinical stage (cSt) II/III ESCC with T3 primary tumor, treated with dCRT between 2000 and 2011. SBCS was defined as the inability to pass a 9-mm diameter endoscope or the presence of symptoms requiring treatment. RESULTS: Complete response was obtained in 87 patients (44%). Multivariate analysis revealed that hypoalbuminemia (hazard ratio=5.65; 95% confidence interval=1.50-21.28; p=0.010) and the inability to pass an endoscope (hazard ratio=5.90; 95% confidence interval=1.52-22.85; p=0.010) were risk factors of SBCS. CONCLUSION: The inability to pass an endoscope and hypoalbuminemia were identified as risk factors of SBCS in patients with cSt II/III ESCC with T3 primary tumor.


Asunto(s)
Quimioradioterapia/efectos adversos , Constricción Patológica/diagnóstico , Constricción Patológica/etiología , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicaciones , Esófago/patología , Adulto , Anciano , Biomarcadores , Quimioradioterapia/métodos , Constricción Patológica/epidemiología , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Análisis de Supervivencia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e16635, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011430

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the cost-effectiveness of etanercept plus methotrexate (ETN+MTX) compared to triple disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in treating Chinese rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: The 134 Chinese RA patients who were about to initiate ETN+MTX or triple DMARDs therapy based on treat-to-target strategy were consecutively recruited and categorized into ETN+MTX group (N = 49) or triple DMARDs group (N = 85). Treatment efficacy was assessed at month 3 (M3)/M6/M9/M12 after initiation of treatment. Also, 1-year treatment cost was evaluated, and cost-effectiveness analysis and sensitivity analysis were conducted. RESULTS: RA patients in ETN+MTX group exhibited similar disease activity and quality of life at each time point while elevated 28-joint disease activity score based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) change (M0-M12) and low disease activity rate compared with triple DMARDs group. For 1-year treatment cost, ETN+MTX required increased drug cost, decreased other medical cost, and finally elevated total cost compared with triple DMARDs. Meanwhile, compared to triple DMARDs, ETN+MTX produced an additional quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of 0.015, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of ¥2,939,506.7 per QALY that was 53.1 folds of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in China. More interestingly, sensitivity analysis revealed that the ETN price had to be reduced at least by 71.3% before ETN+MTX became cost-effectiveness compared to triple DMARDs. CONCLUSION: ETN+MTX is less cost-effective in treating Chinese RA patients compared with triple DMARDs.


Asunto(s)
Antirreumáticos/uso terapéutico , Artritis Reumatoide/tratamiento farmacológico , Etanercept/uso terapéutico , Metotrexato/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Anciano , Antirreumáticos/administración & dosificación , Antirreumáticos/economía , Sedimentación Sanguínea , China , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Quimioterapia Combinada , Etanercept/administración & dosificación , Etanercept/economía , Femenino , Gastos en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/administración & dosificación , Metotrexato/economía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida , Inducción de Remisión , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e18480, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028385

RESUMEN

This study aimed to synthetically evaluate the impact of intensive patients' education program (IEP) on anxiety, depression and patient global assessment (PGA) in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients.One hundred eighty DFU patients with Wagner grade 1 and Wagner grade 2 were consecutively recruited in this randomized, controlled study and randomly assigned to IEP group (N = 90) or control group (N = 90) as 1:1 ratio. In the IEP group, patients received the IEP and usual care, and patients in the control group received usual care only. IEP included educating patients and their family members, supervising patients' harmful habits and diets, psychological care for the patients and establishing a patient-physician-nurse WeChat group. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-anxiety/depression (HADS-A/D) and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety/depression Scale (SAS/SDS) were applied to assess anxiety/depression at M0-M3. PGA score was also assessed at M0-M3.For anxiety assessment, IEP group presented decreased HADS-A/SAS scores at M2/M3 and increased HADS-A/SAS score changes (M3-M0) compared to control group. For depression assessment, IEP group displayed reduced HADS-D/SDS scores at M2/M3 and raised SDS score change (M3-M0) compared to control group. Moreover, IEP group exhibited reduced PGA score at M1/M2/M3 and elevated PGA score change (M3-M0) compared to control group. Further subgroup analyses disclosed that IEP reduced HADS-A/SAS/HADS-D/PGA scores at M3 and elevated these score changes (M3-M0) in patients with Wagener grade 2 but not Wagener grade 1.IEP ameliorates anxiety, depression and PGA in DFU patients with Wagner grade 2 but not Wagner grade 1.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/terapia , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Pie Diabético/psicología , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Pie Diabético/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Resultado del Tratamiento
10.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 52(1): 29-37, ene. 2020. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET2-3526

RESUMEN

Objetivos: Evaluar la prevalencia, severidad y factores de riesgo asociados a la retinopatía diabética (RD) en Cantabria. Diseño: Estudio transversal de base poblacional. Emplazamiento: Centro de salud de Cantabria. Participantes: Muestra aleatoria de 442 pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Mediciones principales: Retinografía no midriática, clasificándolas según la International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity Scale. Los factores de riesgo estudiados: edad, sexo, edad diagnóstico, años de evolución de la diabetes, grado de control glucémico (HbA1c), tratamiento de la diabetes, control de la tensión arterial, control lipídico, obesidad, tabaquismo, hematocrito bajo, embarazo, déficit de vitamina D, nefropatía y eventos cardiovasculares. Resultados: Prevalencia de RD del 8,56% (IC: 5,81-11,32). RD no proliferativa leve: 5,07% (IC: 2,89-7,25); RD no proliferativa moderada: 1,38% (IC: 0,17-2,60); RD no proliferativa severa: 0,27% (IC: 0,006-1,28); RD proliferativa: 1,84% (IC: 0,46-3,22); edema macular diabético: 2,30% (IC: 0,77-3,83). Edad media: 70 años, edad de diagnóstico 58,97 años; índice de masa corporal 29,86; hipertensos 78,40%; dislipidemia 67,30% y HbA1c mediana 6,76%. El déficit de 25 (OH) D fue del 77%. En el análisis multivariante los factores independientes fueron tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2, índice de masa corporal, años de evolución y control de la diabetes. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de RD ha disminuido hasta el 8,56%; esta disminución se asocia a la mejora en el control de los factores de riesgo modificables. Los factores de riesgo asociados de forma independiente fueron: tratamiento, índice de masa corporal, años de evolución y control de la diabetes. Las variables control hipertensión arterial, eventos cardiovasculares y nefropatía también mostraron capacidad predictiva para la RD


Objetive: To assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Cantabria. Design: Cross-sectional population based study. Location: Health center of Cantabria. Particiants: A random sample of 442 patients with type 2 diabetes. Main measurements: Non-mydiatric retinography, classifying them according to the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity Scale. The analyzed risk factors were: age, gender, age at diabetes onset, duration of diabetes, glycated haemoglobin levels (A1C), treatment of diabetes, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), serum lipids concentration, body mass index, smoking status, hematocrit, pregnancy, serum vitamin D (25 OH D) levels, nephropathy and cardiovascular events. Results: The prevalence of DR was 8.56% (CI: 5.81-11.32): Mild non-proliferative DR: 5.07% (CI: 2.89-7.25); Moderate non-proliferative DR: 1.38% (CI: 0.17-2.60); Severe non-proliferative DR: 0.27% (CI: 0.006-1.28); proliferative DR: 1.84% (CI: 0.46-3.22). Diabetic macular oedema: 2.30% (CI: 0.77-3.83). Mean age: 70 years, mean diagnostic age: 58.97 years, mean body mass index 29.86, 78.40% patients with hypertension, 67.30% dyslipidemia and median A1C: 6.7%. A deficit of 25 (OH) D was identified in 77% of patients. In the multivariate analysis, treatment of type 2 diabetes, body mass index, duration of diabetes and metabolic control of glycaemia were identified as independent risk factors. Conclusions: The prevalence of DR, compared with former studies, has decreased to 8.56%; this decrease is associated with the improvement in the control of modifiable risk factors. The associated independent risk factors were: treatment, body mass index, duration and control of diabetes. The variables antihypertensive treatment, cardiovascular events and nephropathy showed predictive value for DR


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Retinopatía Diabética/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , España/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Centros de Salud , Glucemia , Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Nefropatías Diabéticas/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(1): e1919940, 2020 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995213

RESUMEN

Importance: Prenatal maternal stress is increasingly associated with adverse outcomes in pregnant women and their offspring. However, the association between maternal stress and human fetal brain growth and metabolism is unknown. Objective: To identify the association between prenatal maternal psychological distress and fetal brain growth, cortical maturation, and biochemical development using advanced 3-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study prospectively recruited pregnant women from low-risk obstetric clinics in Washington, DC, from January 1, 2016, to April 17, 2019. Participants were healthy volunteers with a normal prenatal medical history, no chronic or pregnancy-induced physical or mental illnesses, and normal results on fetal ultrasonography and biometry studies. Fetal brain MRI studies were performed at 2 time points between 24 and 40 weeks' gestation. Exposures: Prenatal maternal stress, anxiety, and depression. Main Outcomes and Measures: Volumes of fetal total brain, cortical gray matter, white matter, deep gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, and hippocampus were measured from 3-dimensional reconstructed T2-weighted MRI scans. Cortical folding measurements included local gyrification index, sulcal depth, and curvedness. Fetal brain N-acetylaspartate, creatine, and choline levels were quantified using 1H-MRS. Maternal stress, depression, and anxiety were measured with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (SSAI), and Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results: A total of 193 MRI studies were performed in 119 pregnant women (67 [56%] carrying male fetuses and 52 [44%], female fetuses; maternal mean [SD] age, 34.46 [5.95] years) between 24 and 40 gestational weeks. All women were high school graduates, 99 (83%) were college graduates, and 100 (84%) reported professional employment. Thirty-two women (27%) had positive scores for stress, 31 (26%) for anxiety, and 13 (11%) for depression. Maternal trait anxiety was associated with smaller fetal left hippocampal volume (STAI score: -0.002 cm3; 95% CI, -0.003 to -0.0008 cm3; P = .004). Maternal anxiety and stress were associated with increased fetal cortical gyrification in the frontal lobe (ß for SSAI score: 0.004 [95% CI, 0.001-0.006; P = .002]; ß for STAI score: 0.004 [95% CI, 0.002-0.006; P < .001]; ß for PSS score: 0.005 [95% CI, 0.001-0.008; P = .005]) and temporal lobe (ß for SSAI score: 0.004 [95% CI, 0.001-0.007; P = .004]; ß for STAI score: 0.004 [95% CI, 0.0008-0.006; P = .01]). Elevated maternal depression was associated with decreased creatine (EPDS score: -0.04; 95% CI, -0.06 to -0.02; P = .005) and choline (EPDS score: -0.03; 95% CI, -0.05 to -0.01; P = .02) levels in the fetal brain. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that the prevalence of maternal psychological distress in healthy, well-educated, and employed pregnant women was high, underappreciated, and associated with impaired fetal brain biochemistry and hippocampal growth as well as accelerated cortical folding. These findings appear to support the need for routine mental health surveillance for all pregnant women and targeted interventions in women with elevated psychological distress.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Corteza Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Desarrollo Fetal/fisiología , Sustancia Gris/diagnóstico por imagen , Complicaciones del Embarazo/diagnóstico por imagen , Estrés Psicológico/patología , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen Tridimensional/métodos , Recién Nacido , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/psicología , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico por imagen
12.
Codas ; 32(2): e20190093, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939494

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The attitude of mothers of children who stutter is believed to be crucial in the management of therapy process. Therefore, this study aimed at the description of resilience, perceived social support and trait anxiety levels of mothers of children with stuttering, as well as at the exploration of the relationship between them. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 33 mothers of children with stuttering aged 6-12 years. The data were gathered using the following instruments: Mother Resilience Scale, Revised Parental Social Support Scale, State-trait Anxiety Inventory, Stuttering Severity Instrument-4, and a personal information form. RESULTS: Resilience of mothers of children who stutter was high, whereas perceived social support and trait anxiety levels of the participants were lower. Mother's increased level of perceived social support resulted in increased resilience level and decreased trait anxiety level. The trait anxiety levels of mothers with a college degree were significantly lower than those of mothers with other education levels. No statistically significant correlation was observed between stuttering severity and the levels of resilience, perceived social support and trait anxiety. CONCLUSION: Although mothers of stuttering children present the required skills to cope with the situation, it is believed that they need more social support. Consequently, offering professional support to mothers in the course of stuttering management and referring them to appropriate intervention programs are emphasized.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Madres/psicología , Resiliencia Psicológica , Apoyo Social , Tartamudeo/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Percepción , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Valores de Referencia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Turquia
13.
N Engl J Med ; 382(4): 328-340, 2020 01 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971678

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Uterine fibroids are hormone-responsive neoplasms that are associated with heavy menstrual bleeding. Elagolix, an oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist resulting in rapid, reversible suppression of ovarian sex hormones, may reduce fibroid-associated bleeding. METHODS: We conducted two identical, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 6-month phase 3 trials (Elaris Uterine Fibroids 1 and 2 [UF-1 and UF-2]) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of elagolix at a dose of 300 mg twice daily with hormonal "add-back" therapy (to replace reduced levels of endogenous hormones; in this case, estradiol, 1 mg, and norethindrone acetate, 0.5 mg, once daily) in women with fibroid-associated bleeding. An elagolix-alone group was included to assess the impact of add-back therapy on the hypoestrogenic effects of elagolix. The primary end point was menstrual blood loss of less than 80 ml during the final month of treatment and at least a 50% reduction in menstrual blood loss from baseline to the final month; missing data were imputed with the use of multiple imputation. RESULTS: A total of 412 women in UF-1 and 378 women in UF-2 underwent randomization, received elagolix or placebo, and were included in the analyses. Criteria for the primary end point were met in 68.5% of 206 women in UF-1 and in 76.5% of 189 women in UF-2 who received elagolix plus add-back therapy, as compared with 8.7% of 102 women and 10% of 94 women, respectively, who received placebo (P<0.001 for both trials). Among the women who received elagolix alone, the primary end point was met in 84.1% of 104 women in UF-1 and in 77% of 95 women in UF-2. Hot flushes (in both trials) and metrorrhagia (in UF-1) occurred significantly more commonly with elagolix plus add-back therapy than with placebo. Hypoestrogenic effects of elagolix, especially decreases in bone mineral density, were attenuated with add-back therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Elagolix with add-back therapy was effective in reducing heavy menstrual bleeding in women with uterine fibroids. (Funded by AbbVie; Elaris UF-1 and Elaris UF-2 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02654054 and NCT02691494.).


Asunto(s)
Estradiol/uso terapéutico , Estrógenos/uso terapéutico , Hormona Liberadora de Gonadotropina/antagonistas & inhibidores , Hidrocarburos Fluorados/uso terapéutico , Leiomioma/complicaciones , Menorragia/tratamiento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Densidad Ósea/efectos de los fármacos , Método Doble Ciego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Sofocos/inducido químicamente , Humanos , Hidrocarburos Fluorados/efectos adversos , Menorragia/etiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pirimidinas/efectos adversos , Calidad de Vida , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Lancet ; 395(10220): 273-284, 2020 01 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928765

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hong Kong has been embroiled in increasingly violent social unrest since June, 2019. We examined the associated population mental health burden, risk factors, and health-care needs. METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort, adult participants aged 18 years or older were assessed at nine timepoints from 2009. Probable depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (score ≥10) and suspected post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (score ≥14), plus direct exposure to traumatic events related to the ongoing social unrest. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with both outcomes, adjusting for doctor-diagnosed depression or anxiety disorders before the unrest. On the basis of routine service statistics and respondents' intention to seek professional care, we projected the number of additional ambulatory specialist psychiatric visits required. FINDINGS: After the two baseline surveys, we followed up random subsets of 1213-1736 adults at each timepoint. Probable depression was reported by 11·2% (95% CI 9·8-12·7) of participants in 2019, compared with 1·9% (1·6-2·1) during 2009-14 and 6·5% (5·3-7·6) in 2017 after the Occupy Central Movement and before the current unrest. Prevalence of suspected PTSD in 2019 was estimated to be 12·8% (11·2-14·4). Age, sex, educational attainment, or household income were not associated with either outcome, whereas heavy social media use (≥2 h per day) was associated with both. Political attitude or protest participation was not associated with probable depression, but neutrality towards the extradition bill approximately halved the risk of suspected PTSD. Family support mitigated against probable depression. We estimated that the mental health burden identified would translate into roughly an excess 12% service requirement to the public sector queue or equivalent. INTERPRETATION: We have identified a major mental health burden during the social unrest in Hong Kong, which will require substantial increases in service surge capacity. Health-care and social care professionals should be vigilant in recognising possible mental health sequelae. In a world of increasing unrest, our findings might have implications for service planning to better protect population mental health globally. FUNDING: Research Grants Council, University Grants Committee of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Exposición a la Violencia/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Desórdenes Civiles/psicología , Femenino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Prospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18461, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895777

RESUMEN

This study was conducted to examine the effect of protective factors on the relationship between crisis episodes and depression in the elderly population in Taiwan.In this study, the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging was used as basis for a cross-sectional secondary data analysis. After eliminating respondents below the age of 65 years and those with missing values, 2426 samples were collected. Predictive variables, such as crisis episodes, personal resources, family ties, social participation, and social support, were investigated, and the dependent variable of "depression status" was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale.According to the results of regression analysis, the protective factors of self-assessed health (ß = -0.290, P < .001), instrumental support (ß = -0.153, P < .001), financial satisfaction (ß = -0.126, P < .001), emotional support (ß = -0.101, P < .001), crisis episodes (ß = 0.087, P < .001), support satisfaction (ß = -0.081, P < .001), leisure participation (ß = -0.053, P < .05), family ties (ß = -0.048, P < .05), and community participation (ß = -0.042, P < .05) had a significant effect on depression status. Moreover, leisure participation had a moderating effect on the relationship between crisis episodes and depression (ß = -0.07, P < .01). In addition, according to path analysis results, family ties had a significant negative predictive power on depression (ß = -0.225, P < .001), as did social support (ß = -0.978, P < .001). The predictive power of crisis episodes on depression through social support was 0.197 (-0.201 × -0.978 = 0.197, P < .001), and it was -0.324 (-0.331 × -0.978 = -0.324, P < .001) through social participation, which indicated that social support plays a mediating role between crisis episodes and depression and between social participation and depression.Strengthening effective protective factors can improve the resilience of elderly people and enable them to cope with dilemmas rapidly and effectively when faced with crisis episodes as well as restore their health status and enjoy a satisfactory life.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Resiliencia Psicológica , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Factores Protectores , Apoyo Social , Taiwán/epidemiología
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18571, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895801

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a growing literature on the significance of systemic immune-inflammation index in hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the results were inconsistent due to the small sample size and different study endpoints. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to further systematically and comprehensively verify the prognostic role of the SII in HCC. METHODS: Several databases were searched systematically, and relevant papers were selected. The main outcome measure was overall survival (OS); the secondary outcome measure was a composite of time to recurrence (TTR), progression-free survival (PFS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS). RESULTS: Ten published retrospective studies involving 2796 HCC patients were included. The results revealed that elevated pre-treatment SII was related to lower OS (HR:1.54, P < .001) and earlier TTR (HR:1.77, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated SII is a poor prognostic factor for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The clinical application of SII is encouraged to evaluate the progress of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidad , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Inflamación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/mortalidad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Pronóstico , Supervivencia sin Progresión , Estudios Retrospectivos
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18501, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914020

RESUMEN

The frailty represents a key determinant of elderly clinical assessment, especially because it allows the identification of risk factors potentially modifiable by clinical and therapeutic interventions. The frailty assessment in elderly patients usually is made by using of Fried criteria. However, to assess the frailty in cirrhotic patients, multiple but different tools are used by researchers. Thus, we aimed to compare frailty prevalence in elderly patients with well-compensated liver cirrhosis and without cirrhosis, according to Fried criteria.Among 205 elderly patients screened, a total of 148 patients were enrolled. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence/absence of well-compensated liver cirrhosis.After clinical examination with conventional scores of cirrhosis, all patients underwent anthropometric measurements, nutritional, biochemical, comorbidity, and cognitive performances. Frailty assessment was evaluated according to Fried frailty criteria.Unexpectedly, according to the Fried criteria, non-cirrhotic patients were frailer (14.2%) than well-compensated liver cirrhotic patients (7.5%). The most represented Fried criterion was the unintentional weight loss in non-cirrhotic patients (10.1%) compared to well-compensated liver cirrhotic patients (1.4%). Moreover, cumulative illness rating scale -G severity score was significantly and positively associated with frailty status (r = 0.234, P < .004). In a multivariate linear regression model, only female gender, body mass index and mini nutritional assessment resulted associated with frailty status, independently of other confounding variables.Despite the fact that elderly cirrhotic patients are considered to be frailer than the non-cirrhotic elderly patient, relying solely on "mere visual appearance," our data show that paradoxically non-cirrhotic elderly patients are frailer than elderly well-compensated liver cirrhotic patients. Thus, clinical implication of this finding is that frailty assessment performed in the well-compensated liver cirrhotic patient can identify those cirrhotic patients who may benefit from tailored interventions similarly to non-cirrhotic elderly patients.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/complicaciones , Cirrosis Hepática/complicaciones , Cirrosis Hepática/epidemiología , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hepacivirus/aislamiento & purificación , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Humanos , Cirrosis Hepática/diagnóstico , Masculino , Evaluación Nutricional , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18504, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914021

RESUMEN

We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of bacterial coexistence and the coinfection dynamics between bacteria and respiratory viruses among young children. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from children aged < 5 years hospitalized with a community-acquired single respiratory viral infection of influenza, adenovirus, or RSV during 2 recent consecutive influenza seasons. Remnant respiratory specimens were used for bacterial PCR targeting Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus.A total of 102 children were included; median age was 0.8 years and 44.1% had underlying comorbidities. Overall, 6.8% (7/102) of cases were classified as severe diseases requiring intensive care unit admission and/or mechanical ventilation and ranged from 8.8% for a patient with RSV and 7.6% for those with adenovirus to 0% for those with influenza viruses. The overall viral-bacterial codetection rate was 59.8% (61/102); M catarrhalis was the most frequent (33.3%), followed by H influenzae (31.4%). Influenza cases showed higher bacterial codetection rates (80.0%; 8/10) compared with those with adenoviruses (69.2%; 9/13) and RSV (55.7%; 44/79). S pneumoniae and H influenzae codetections were associated with reduced severity (aOR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.89), and reduced risk of wheezing (aOR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.13-0.98), respectively.We observed the interactions between respiratory viruses and bacteria and the clinical significance of viral-bacterial coexistence in upper airway on disease severity. Future study will be necessary to elucidate the active interactions between different viruses and bacteria and give clues to risk stratified strategy in the management of respiratory infections among young children.


Asunto(s)
Adenoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Haemophilus influenzae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/virología , Bacterias/genética , Preescolar , Coinfección/microbiología , Coinfección/virología , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/microbiología , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/virología , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Gripe Humana/diagnóstico , Gripe Humana/virología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Ruidos Respiratorios/diagnóstico , Ruidos Respiratorios/etiología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/virología , Virus Sincitiales Respiratorios/genética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación , Streptococcus pneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Virus/genética
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18626, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914044

RESUMEN

Detection of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression can begin early intervention to improve the prognosis of severe non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This bi-directional cross-sectional study evaluates the roles of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) and retinol binding protein (RBP4), which are produced from inflamed liver, adipose tissue and immune cells, for the prediction of CKD progression in severe NAFLD. Ninety severe NAFLD patients with hypertension and proteinuria (NAFLDHTN) were enrolled and divided into CKD (n = 39) and non-CKD groups (n = 51). Among 39 NAFLDHTN patients, 18 cases were categorized as CKD progression group. In comparison with CKD stable group (n = 21), the positive correlation between fold change values of hepatic fibrotic score (KPa), urinary FABP4 or urinary RBP4 versus severity of albuminuria were noted among CKD progression group. On multivariate analysis, high body mass index (BMI, >25 kg/m), high hepatic fibrosis score (>9.5 KPa), high urinary level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, >2239 µg/g cr), high urinary level of FABP4 (>115 ng/g cr) and high urinary level of RBP4 (>33.5 mg/g cr) are 5 independent predictors for progressive CKD during 24 months of follow-up. Synergetic effect was noted among these 5 risk factors for the prediction of CKD progression in NAFLDHTN patients. The in vitro experiments revealed that both FABP4 and RBP4 directly enhanced albumin-induced ER stress and apoptosis of human renal tubular epithelial cell line HK-2 cells and human podocytes cell lines. Through clinical and experimental approaches, this study revealed new 5 synergetic predictors including high BMI, hepatic fibrosis score, urinary level of VCAM-1, urinary level of FABP4 and RBP4, for the CKD progression in severe NAFLD patients with hypertension and proteinuria.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos/orina , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/epidemiología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/fisiopatología , Proteínas de Unión al Retinol/orina , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Albuminuria/epidemiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Línea Celular Transformada , Estudios Transversales , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Molécula 1 de Adhesión Celular Vascular/orina , Adulto Joven
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18671, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914057

RESUMEN

Liver cirrhosis is a common chronic progressive liver disease in clinical practice, and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) is a promising magnetic resonance method to assess liver cirrhosis, so our purpose was to investigate association of liver-lobe-based IVIM-derived parameters with hepatitis-B-related cirrhosis and its severity, and esophageal and gastric fundic varices. Seventy-four patients with hepatitis-B-related cirrhotic and 25 healthy volunteers were enrolled and underwent upper abdominal IVIM diffusion-weighted imaging with b-values of 0, 20, 50, 80, 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 s/mm. IVIM-derived parameters (D, pure molecular diffusion; D, pseudo diffusion; and f, perfusion fraction) of left lateral lobe (LLL), left medial lobe (LML), right lobe (RL), and caudate lobe (CL) were assessed statistically to show their associations with cirrhosis and its severity, and esophageal and gastric fundic varices. In this research, we found that D, D, and f values of LLL, LML, RL, and CL were lower in cirrhotic liver than in normal liver (all P-values <.05). D, D, and f values of LLL, LML, RL, and CL were inversely correlated with Child-Pugh class of cirrhosis (r = -0.236 to -0.606, all P-values <.05). D of each liver lobe, D of LLL and CL, and f of LLL, LML, and CL in patients with esophageal and gastric fundic varices were lower than without the varices (all P-values <.05). D values of RL and CL could best identify cirrhosis, and identify esophageal and gastric fundic varices with areas under receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.857 and 0.746, respectively. We concluded that liver-lobe-based IVIM-derived parameters can be associated with cirrhosis, and esophageal and gastric fundic varices.


Asunto(s)
Imagen de Difusión por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Várices Esofágicas y Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagen , Cirrosis Hepática/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Anciano , Várices Esofágicas y Gástricas/etiología , Femenino , Hepatitis B/complicaciones , Humanos , Cirrosis Hepática/etiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Estudios Prospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto Joven
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