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1.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 02 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540583

RESUMEN

Many viruses disrupt host gene expression by degrading host mRNAs and/or manipulating translation activities to create a cellular environment favorable for viral replication. Often, virus-induced suppression of host gene expression, including those involved in antiviral responses, contributes to viral pathogenicity. Accordingly, clarifying the mechanisms of virus-induced disruption of host gene expression is important for understanding virus-host cell interactions and virus pathogenesis. Three highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, have emerged in the past two decades. All of them encode nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in their genomes. Nsp1 of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV exhibit common biological functions for inducing endonucleolytic cleavage of host mRNAs and inhibition of host translation, while viral mRNAs evade the nsp1-induced mRNA cleavage. SARS-CoV nsp1 is a major pathogenic determinant for this virus, supporting the notion that a viral protein that suppresses host gene expression can be a virulence factor, and further suggesting the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 nsp1, which has high amino acid identity with SARS-CoV nsp1, may serve as a major virulence factor. This review summarizes the gene expression suppression functions of nsp1 of CoVs, with a primary focus on SARS-CoV nsp1 and MERS-CoV nsp1.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Proteínas no Estructurales Virales/fisiología , Animales , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Interacciones Microbiota-Huesped , Humanos , Ratones , ARN Mensajero/genética , Replicación Viral
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e23961, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545977

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This protocol is for a meta analysis that aims to systematically review the diagnostic value of anti-hepatitis B virus in serum tested by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in patients with hepatitis B. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The following electronic databases will be searched from inception to Mar 2021: PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Springer, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, and Wanfang Database. All study about enzyme linked immunosorbent assay reagents have been published at home and abroad to diagnose hepatitis B virus will be included. MetaDisc 1.4 soft will used to calculate pooled effect size in sensitivity, specifi city, likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio and summary receiver operating characteristic curve, and area under the curve as well. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Formal ethical approval is not required, as the data are not individualized. The findings of this systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed publication and/or presented at relevant conferences. REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY2020100051.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos Clínicos , Virus de la Hepatitis B/inmunología , Hepatitis B/enzimología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Virus de la Hepatitis B/patogenicidad , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e24282, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546052

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the only bacterium in the stomach. It is characterized by its ability to adhere to gastric mucosa and cause a series of pathological changes in the gastric mucosa. Modern research shows that Hp is an important pathogenic factor for chronic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer, and gastric cancer. Triple, quadruple, and triple combinations of antibacterial drugs, proton pump inhibitors, and bismuth aluminate preparations have been developed in modern medical research. Sequential therapy is used to treat Hp, but antibiotic resistance and repeated infections still exist. A large number of clinical trials have proved that traditional Chinese medicine has a good therapeutic effect on Hp. In this systematic review, we aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of Hp. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search for publications from Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Wan Fang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP database), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and EMBASE, which should be published from inception to December 2020. Two researchers will independently perform the selection of the studies, data extraction, and synthesis. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool will be used to evaluate the risk of bias in the randomized controlled trials. Statistical analysis will be performed by using the Cochrane Review Manager (RevMan 5.3) software. The I2 test will be used to identify the extent of heterogeneity. We will use the Egger funnel chart to evaluate possible publication biases, in addition, when possible we will perform a subgroup/meta-regression analysis. The strength of the evidence will be assessed according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: This study will systematically evaluate the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of Hp infection, and provide evidence for the clinical application of this treatment. The results of the research will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. ETHICS: This systematic review will evaluate the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine for Hp infection. Because all data used in this systematic review and meta-analysis have been published, this review does not require ethical approval. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY2020120057.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Helicobacter/tratamiento farmacológico , Medicina China Tradicional/normas , Helicobacter pylori/efectos de los fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidad , Humanos , Medicina China Tradicional/métodos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 55(1): 99-112, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590985

RESUMEN

Candida auris has been isolated from clinical samples in different regions and countries since it was first described in 2009. Due to the difficulties in identification; decreased susceptibility or resistance to antifungal agents; exceptional capacity to colonize and persist on surfaces; ability to survive despite standard disinfection procedures; and significant increase in the number of regions and countries with reported cases, C.auris has become a global health concern and placed among the World's ten most concerned fungi list in 2018. It is stated that 60-90% of C.auris strains are resistant to fluconazole, 10-30% exhibit high minimum inhibitory concentration values for amphotericin B, and up to 5% can be considered as resistant to echinocandins. Existing data obtained from ongoing research on molecular mechanisms of antifungal resistance in C.auris revealed some common features with other Candida species. However, diverging aspects are also reported. In this review article, current information on molecular mechanisms and biofilm-related factors responsible for decreased susceptibility or resistance to antifungal agents and unexpectedly high survival potential of C.auris have been discussed.


Asunto(s)
Candida , Farmacorresistencia Fúngica , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Candida/efectos de los fármacos , Candida/patogenicidad , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 879, 2021 02 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563986

RESUMEN

Salmonella Typhimurium establishes systemic infection by replicating in host macrophages. Here we show that macrophages infected with S. Typhimurium exhibit upregulated glycolysis and decreased serine synthesis, leading to accumulation of glycolytic intermediates. The effects on serine synthesis are mediated by bacterial protein SopE2, a type III secretion system (T3SS) effector encoded in pathogenicity island SPI-1. The changes in host metabolism promote intracellular replication of S. Typhimurium via two mechanisms: decreased glucose levels lead to upregulated bacterial uptake of 2- and 3-phosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate (carbon sources), while increased pyruvate and lactate levels induce upregulation of another pathogenicity island, SPI-2, known to encode virulence factors. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of host glycolysis, activation of host serine synthesis, or deletion of either the bacterial transport or signal sensor systems for those host glycolytic intermediates impairs S. Typhimurium replication or virulence.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Factores de Intercambio de Guanina Nucleótido/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Salmonella typhimurium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidad , Sistemas de Secreción Tipo III/metabolismo , Animales , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Regulación Bacteriana de la Expresión Génica , Islas Genómicas , Glucosa/metabolismo , Ácidos Glicéricos/metabolismo , Glucólisis , Factores de Intercambio de Guanina Nucleótido/genética , Macrófagos/microbiología , Ratones , Células RAW 264.7 , Salmonella typhimurium/metabolismo , Serina/biosíntesis , Transducción de Señal , Sistemas de Secreción Tipo III/genética , Virulencia
6.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525437

RESUMEN

The establishment of selective colonies of potential vertebrate hosts for viruses would provide experimental models for the understanding of pathogen-host interactions. This paper briefly surveys the reasons to conduct such studies and how the results might provide information that could be applied to disease prevention activities.


Asunto(s)
Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Animales , /transmisión , Quirópteros/virología , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Especificidad del Huésped , Humanos , /genética , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Zoonosis/virología
7.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530620

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a new coronavirus (CoV), SARS-CoV-2, which is closely related to SARS-CoV that jumped the animal-human species barrier and caused a disease outbreak in 2003. SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus that was first described in 2019, unrelated to the commonly occurring feline coronavirus (FCoV) that is an alphacoronavirus associated with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and has spread globally within a few months, resulting in the current pandemic. Felids have been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Particularly in the Western world, many people live in very close contact with their pet cats, and natural infections of cats in COVID-19-positive households have been described in several countries. In this review, the European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD), a scientifically independent board of experts in feline medicine from 11 European Countries, discusses the current status of SARS-CoV infections in cats. The review examines the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and human-to-animal transmissions, including infections in domestic and non-domestic felids, as well as mink-to-human/-cat transmission. It summarises current data on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in domestic cats and the results of experimental infections of cats and provides expert opinions on the clinical relevance and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Gatos/virología , Animales , /virología , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Especificidad del Huésped , Humanos , Visón/virología , Prevalencia , /aislamiento & purificación , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Zoonosis/virología
8.
Lancet HIV ; 8(2): e106-e113, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539757

RESUMEN

Ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 will require addressing stigma more systematically and at a larger scale than current efforts. Existing global evidence shows that stigma is a barrier to achieving each of the 90-90-90 targets; it undermines HIV testing, linkage to care, treatment adherence, and viral load suppression. However, findings from both research studies and programmatic experience have helped to inform the growing body of knowledge regarding how to reduce stigma, leading to key principles for HIV stigma reduction. These principles include immediately addressing actionable drivers of stigma, centring groups affected by stigma at the core of the response, and engaging opinion leaders and building partnerships between affected groups and opinion leaders. Although there is still room to strengthen research on stigma measurement and reduction, in particular for intersectional stigma, the proliferation of evidence over the past several decades on how to measure and address stigma provides a solid foundation for immediate and comprehensive action.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/prevención & control , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/psicología , Epidemias/prevención & control , Miedo/psicología , Estigma Social , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/virología , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Femenino , VIH/efectos de los fármacos , VIH/crecimiento & desarrollo , VIH/patogenicidad , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperación del Paciente/psicología , Cooperación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento/psicología , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e23926, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545964

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection may induce a systemic hypercoagulable abnormality, like organ embolism and infarction. Indexes of blood coagulation and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been reported different between healthy people and mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) patients, but this difference in MPP patients with different chest imaging findings has rarely been reported.We performed a retrospective study of 101 children with MPP and 119 controls, combined with radiological examination and blood tests, to compare the blood coagulation and CRP level among MPP children with different chest imaging findings.For the MPP children with different chest imaging findings, there were significant differences in CRP, fibrinogen (FIB) and D-dimer (D-D) levels among subgroups (P = .004, P = .008 and P < .001 respectively). The CRP level in group of interstitial pneumonia was significantly higher than that in groups of bronchopneumonia and hilar shadow thickening (P = .003 and P = .001 respectively). And the FIB and D-D values in group of lung consolidation were significantly higher than that in the other 3 groups (all P < .05). When compared with controls, the white blood cell, CRP, FIB, and D-D levels in MPP children were significantly higher, and the activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time levels were significantly lower (all P < .05).Our results showed that CRP level changed most significantly in group of interstitial pneumonia, whereas FIB, D-D levels changed most significantly in the lung consolidation group.


Asunto(s)
Factores de Coagulación Sanguínea/análisis , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Neumonía por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico por imagen , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagen , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Productos de Degradación de Fibrina-Fibrinógeno/análisis , Fibrinógeno/análisis , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/patogenicidad , Neumonía por Mycoplasma/sangre
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 765, 2021 02 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536414

RESUMEN

Chickens are the most common birds on Earth and colibacillosis is among the most common diseases affecting them. This major threat to animal welfare and safe sustainable food production is difficult to combat because the etiological agent, avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), emerges from ubiquitous commensal gut bacteria, with no single virulence gene present in all disease-causing isolates. Here, we address the underlying evolutionary mechanisms of extraintestinal spread and systemic infection in poultry. Combining population scale comparative genomics and pangenome-wide association studies, we compare E. coli from commensal carriage and systemic infections. We identify phylogroup-specific and species-wide genetic elements that are enriched in APEC, including pathogenicity-associated variation in 143 genes that have diverse functions, including genes involved in metabolism, lipopolysaccharide synthesis, heat shock response, antimicrobial resistance and toxicity. We find that horizontal gene transfer spreads pathogenicity elements, allowing divergent clones to cause infection. Finally, a Random Forest model prediction of disease status (carriage vs. disease) identifies pathogenic strains in the emergent ST-117 poultry-associated lineage with 73% accuracy, demonstrating the potential for early identification of emergent APEC in healthy flocks.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Escherichia coli/prevención & control , Escherichia coli/genética , Evolución Molecular , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control , Animales , Pollos , Escherichia coli/clasificación , Escherichia coli/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Genes Bacterianos , Variación Genética , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo/métodos , Genotipo , Humanos , Filogenia , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología , Virulencia/genética
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 763, 2021 02 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536429

RESUMEN

Human and animal infections with bacteria of the genus Sarcina (family Clostridiaceae) are associated with gastric dilation and emphysematous gastritis. However, the potential roles of sarcinae as commensals or pathogens remain unclear. Here, we investigate a lethal disease of unknown etiology that affects sanctuary chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Sierra Leone. The disease, which we have named "epizootic neurologic and gastroenteric syndrome" (ENGS), is characterized by neurologic and gastrointestinal signs and results in death of the animals, even after medical treatment. Using a case-control study design, we show that ENGS is strongly associated with Sarcina infection. The microorganism is distinct from Sarcina ventriculi and other known members of its genus, based on bacterial morphology and growth characteristics. Whole-genome sequencing confirms this distinction and reveals the presence of genetic features that may account for the unusual virulence of the bacterium. Therefore, we propose that this organism be considered the representative of a new species, named "Candidatus Sarcina troglodytae". Our results suggest that a heretofore unrecognized complex of related sarcinae likely exists, some of which may be highly virulent. However, the potential role of "Ca. S. troglodytae" in the etiology of ENGS, alone or in combination with other factors, remains a topic for future research.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades del Simio Antropoideo/diagnóstico , Enfisema/diagnóstico , Gastritis/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/diagnóstico , Sarcina/genética , Animales , Enfermedades del Simio Antropoideo/microbiología , ADN Bacteriano/análisis , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Enfisema/microbiología , Gastritis/microbiología , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/microbiología , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/veterinaria , Humanos , Pan troglodytes , Sarcina/clasificación , Sarcina/patogenicidad , Sierra Leona , Virulencia/genética , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma/métodos
12.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(3): 0-0, nov.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195072

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: La pandemia ocasionada por el SARS-CoV-2 ha supuesto una reestructuración sin precedentes de la asistencia sanitaria y también de los centros de salud. OBJETIVO: Conocer las percepciones del personal médico del Centro de Salud Albaycín sobre la respuesta del equipo de Atención Primaria ante la pandemia de la COVID-19 en los meses de marzo y abril de 2020. MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo, observacional de orientación fenomenológica mediante entrevistas individuales. El ámbito de estudio es el Centro de Salud Albaycín. La saturación teórica determinó el tamaño de la muestra (la totalidad de la plantilla médica). Se llevó a cabo un análisis narrativo del contenido. RESULTADOS: Los discursos muestran seis categorías de análisis: organización de la toma de decisiones, características de la respuesta dada, mantenimiento de los pilares de la Atención Primaria, cualidades del equipo potenciadas, rol de la docencia y nuevas dinámicas generadas. Los resultados describen una respuesta adecuada, coordinada con la comunidad y anticipada a las directrices institucionales. La toma de decisiones ha sido consensuada y horizontal, potenciándose las cualidades del equipo. A pesar de las limitaciones, se ha mantenido la accesibilidad y la longitudinalidad. Durante la pandemia se ha visto afectada la calidad asistencial y la actividad docente. DISCUSIÓN: Un liderazgo transformacional, que refuerza el vínculo entre profesionales y fomenta la participación activa también de los residentes, permite una respuesta satisfactoria ante una situación emergente. Contar con la participación de la comunidad puede generar confianza en la organización y mejorar los resultados en salud


INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought about an unprecedented restructuring of healthcare and health centers. OBJECTIVES: Learn the perceptions of medical staff from Albayzín Health Centre regarding the Primary Care team's response to the COVID-19 pandemic in March and April 2020. METHODS: Qualitative, observational study with a phenomenological approach conducted by means of individual interviews. The scope of the study is Albaycín Health Centre. The theoretical saturation determined sample size (the entire medical staff). Content was analysed in narrative terms. RESULTS: Conversations revealed six categories of analysis: organization of the decision-making process, characteristics of the response provided, maintaining the cornerstones of Primary Care, enhanced team qualities, role of teaching and new dynamics generated. The results report an adequate response, which was coordinated with the community and anticipated institutional guidelines. Decision-making was consensual and horizontal, which enhanced the team's qualities. Despite the limitations, accessibility and longitudinal configuration have been maintained. Both the quality of care and teaching have been affected during the pandemic. DISCUSSION: Transformational leadership, which strengthens the bond between professionals and encourages residents to participate actively, facilitates a satisfactory response to an emerging situation. Having the community participate can build trust in the organization and improve health outcomes


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Virus del SRAS/patogenicidad , Planificación de Instituciones de Salud/organización & administración , Personal de Salud/organización & administración , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 117, 2021 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402692

RESUMEN

Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), endemic in Southeast Asia, lacks effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Even in high-income countries the 5-year survival rate for stage IV NPC is less than 40%. Here we report high somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) expression in multiple clinical cohorts comprising 402 primary, locally recurrent and metastatic NPCs. We show that SSTR2 expression is induced by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) via the NF-κB pathway. Using cell-based and preclinical rodent models, we demonstrate the therapeutic potential of SSTR2 targeting using a cytotoxic drug conjugate, PEN-221, which is found to be superior to FDA-approved SSTR2-binding cytostatic agents. Furthermore, we reveal significant correlation of SSTR expression with increased rates of survival and report in vivo uptake of the SSTR2-binding 68Ga-DOTA-peptide radioconjugate in PET-CT scanning in a clinical trial of NPC patients (NCT03670342). These findings reveal a key role in EBV-associated NPC for SSTR2 in infection, imaging, targeted therapy and survival.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr/genética , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/genética , Receptores de Somatostatina/genética , Proteínas de la Matriz Viral/genética , Animales , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr/mortalidad , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr/virología , Femenino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/efectos de los fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 4/crecimiento & desarrollo , Herpesvirus Humano 4/patogenicidad , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Metástasis Linfática , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Desnudos , Terapia Molecular Dirigida , FN-kappa B/genética , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/mortalidad , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/virología , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/virología , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/tratamiento farmacológico , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/mortalidad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/virología , Octreótido/farmacología , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Receptores de Somatostatina/antagonistas & inhibidores , Receptores de Somatostatina/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Análisis de Supervivencia , Proteínas de la Matriz Viral/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas de la Matriz Viral/metabolismo , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(2): e24105, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466180

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies suggested Banxia Xiexin Decoction is effective in the treatment of helicobacter pylori (HP) positive peptic ulcer. The present meta-analysis aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of Banxia Xiexin decoction in the treatment HP positive peptic ulcer. METHODS: We will search PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Chinese biomedical databases from their inceptions to the November 30th, 2020. Two authors will independently carry out searching literature records, scanning titles and abstracts, full texts, collecting data, and assessing risk of bias. Review Manager 5.2 and Stata14.0 software will be used for data analysis. RESULTS: This systematic review will determine the efficacy and safety of Banxia Xiexin decoction in the treatment HP positive peptic ulcer. CONCLUSION: Its findings will provide helpful evidence for the efficacy and safety of Banxia Xiexin decoction in the treatment HP positive peptic ulcer. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: INPLASY2020120002.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos Clínicos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/normas , Helicobacter pylori/efectos de los fármacos , Úlcera Péptica/etiología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidad , Humanos , Úlcera Péptica/microbiología
15.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 846-851, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437221

RESUMEN

In the last 50 years we have experienced two big pandemics, the HIV pandemic and the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Both pandemics are caused by RNA viruses and have reached us from animals. These two viruses are different in the transmission mode and in the symptoms they generate. However, they have important similarities: the fear in the population, increase in proinflammatory cytokines that generate intestinal microbiota modifications or NETosis production by polymorphonuclear neutrophils, among others. They have been implicated in the clinical, prognostic and therapeutic attitudes.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , VIH-1/patogenicidad , Pandemias/historia , /patogenicidad , /inmunología , /transmisión , Citocinas/sangre , Citocinas/inmunología , Trampas Extracelulares/inmunología , Trampas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Miedo , Carga Global de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/inmunología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , VIH-1/inmunología , VIH-1/aislamiento & purificación , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Humanos , Mediadores de Inflamación/sangre , Mediadores de Inflamación/inmunología , Mortalidad , Neutrófilos/inmunología , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Pronóstico , /aislamiento & purificación
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 90, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397943

RESUMEN

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) induces changes to the intestinal cell cytoskeleton and formation of attaching and effacing lesions, characterized by the effacement of microvilli and then formation of actin pedestals to which the bacteria are tightly attached. Here, we use a Caenorhabditis elegans model of EHEC infection to show that microvillar effacement is mediated by a signalling pathway including mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and diaphanous-related formin 1 (CYK1). Similar observations are also made using EHEC-infected human intestinal cells in vitro. Our results support the use of C. elegans as a host model for studying attaching and effacing lesions in vivo, and reveal that the CDK1-formin signal axis is necessary for EHEC-induced microvillar effacement.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Escherichia coli Enterohemorrágica/fisiología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Microvellosidades/microbiología , Microvellosidades/patología , Actinas/metabolismo , Animales , Células CACO-2 , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiología , Caenorhabditis elegans/ultraestructura , Carbohidrato Epimerasas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli Enterohemorrágica/patogenicidad , Forminas , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiología , Microvellosidades/metabolismo , Fosforilación , Fosfotreonina/metabolismo , Virulencia
17.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244937, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406122

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 in regions endemic for both Dengue and Chikungunya is still not fully understood. Considering that symptoms/clinical features displayed during Dengue, Chikungunya and SARS-CoV-2 acute infections are similar, undiagnosed cases of SARS-CoV-2 in co-endemic areas may be more prevalent than expected. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of covert cases of SARS-CoV-2 among samples from patients with clinical symptoms compatible with either Dengue or Chikungunya viral infection in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: Presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody specific to SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein was detected using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay in samples from 7,370 patients, without previous history of COVID-19 diagnosis, suspected of having either Dengue (n = 1,700) or Chikungunya (n = 7,349) from December 1st, 2019 to June 30th, 2020. FINDINGS: Covert cases of SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 210 (2.85%) out of the 7,370 serum samples tested. The earliest undiagnosed missed case of COVID-19 dated back to a sample collected on December 18, 2019, also positive for Dengue Virus. Cross-reactivity with either Dengue virus or other common coronaviruses were not observed. INTERPRETATION: Our findings demonstrate that concomitant Dengue or Chikungunya outbreaks may difficult the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate, with a robust sample size (n = 7,370) and using highly specific and sensitive chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay method, that covert SARS-CoV-2 infections are more frequent than previously expected in Dengue and Chikungunya hyperendemic regions. Moreover, our results suggest that SAR-CoV-2 cases were occurring prior to February, 2020, and that these undiagnosed missed cases may have contributed to the fast expansion of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Brazil. Data presented here demonstrate that in arboviral endemic regions, SARS-CoV-2 infection must be always considered, regardless of the existence of a previous positive diagnosis for Dengue or Chikungunya.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Fiebre Chikungunya/epidemiología , Dengue/epidemiología , Adulto , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Brasil/epidemiología , Virus Chikungunya/patogenicidad , Coinfección/epidemiología , Virus del Dengue/patogenicidad , Errores Diagnósticos/tendencias , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , /patogenicidad
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 129, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420082

RESUMEN

The recent Californian hot drought (2012-2016) precipitated unprecedented ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) mortality, largely attributable to the western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis; WPB). Broad-scale climate conditions can directly shape tree mortality patterns, but mortality rates respond non-linearly to climate when local-scale forest characteristics influence the behavior of tree-killing bark beetles (e.g., WPB). To test for these cross-scale interactions, we conduct aerial drone surveys at 32 sites along a gradient of climatic water deficit (CWD) spanning 350 km of latitude and 1000 m of elevation in WPB-impacted Sierra Nevada forests. We map, measure, and classify over 450,000 trees within 9 km2, validating measurements with coincident field plots. We find greater size, proportion, and density of ponderosa pine (the WPB host) increase host mortality rates, as does greater CWD. Critically, we find a CWD/host size interaction such that larger trees amplify host mortality rates in hot/dry sites. Management strategies for climate change adaptation should consider how bark beetle disturbances can depend on cross-scale interactions, which challenge our ability to predict and understand patterns of tree mortality.


Asunto(s)
Sequías , Pinus ponderosa/parasitología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/parasitología , Árboles/parasitología , Gorgojos/patogenicidad , Animales , California , Seguimiento de Parámetros Ecológicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos/fisiología , Feromonas/metabolismo , Pinus ponderosa/fisiología , Corteza de la Planta/parasitología , Dispersión de las Plantas , Árboles/fisiología , Agua , Gorgojos/fisiología
19.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499234

RESUMEN

Respiratory viruses such as influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are a constant threat to public health given their ability to cause global pandemics. Infection with either virus may lead to aberrant host responses, such as excessive immune cell recruitment and activation, dysregulated inflammation, and coagulopathy. These may contribute to the development of lung edema and respiratory failure. An increasing amount of evidence suggests that lung endothelial cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of both viruses. In this review, we discuss how infection with influenza or SARS-CoV-2 may induce endothelial dysfunction. We compare the effects of infection of these two viruses, how they may contribute to pathogenesis, and discuss the implications for potential treatment. Understanding the differences between the effects of these two viruses on lung endothelial cells will provide important insight to guide the development of therapeutics.


Asunto(s)
Endotelio/virología , Influenzavirus A/patogenicidad , Lesión Pulmonar/patología , Lesión Pulmonar/virología , /patogenicidad , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliales/metabolismo , Células Endoteliales/patología , Endotelio/metabolismo , Endotelio/patología , Trampas Extracelulares/inmunología , Humanos , Uniones Intercelulares/patología , Lesión Pulmonar/terapia
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 595, 2021 01 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500409

RESUMEN

Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged from obscurity in 2013 to spread from Asia to the South Pacific and the Americas, where millions of people were infected, accompanied by severe disease including microcephaly following congenital infections. Phylogenetic studies have shown that ZIKV evolved in Africa and later spread to Asia, and that the Asian lineage is responsible for the recent epidemics in the South Pacific and Americas. However, the reasons for the sudden emergence of ZIKV remain enigmatic. Here we report evolutionary analyses that revealed four mutations, which occurred just before ZIKV introduction to the Americas, represent direct reversions of previous mutations that accompanied earlier spread from Africa to Asia and early circulation there. Our experimental infections of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, human cells, and mice using ZIKV strains with and without these mutations demonstrate that the original mutations reduced fitness for urban, human-amplifed transmission, while the reversions restored fitness, increasing epidemic risk. These findings include characterization of three transmission-adaptive ZIKV mutations, and demonstration that these and one identified previously restored fitness for epidemic transmission soon before introduction into the Americas. The initial mutations may have followed founder effects and/or drift when the virus was introduced decades ago into Asia.


Asunto(s)
Epidemias , Evolución Molecular , Aptitud Genética , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología , Virus Zika/genética , Aedes/virología , África/epidemiología , Américas/epidemiología , Sustitución de Aminoácidos , Animales , Asia/epidemiología , Línea Celular , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Queratinocitos , Ratones , Mutación , Filogenia , Cultivo Primario de Células , Salud Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Virus Zika/patogenicidad , Infección por el Virus Zika/transmisión , Infección por el Virus Zika/virología
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