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1.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 01 março 2021. 1-50 p. ilus, tab.
No convencional en Portugués | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1096093

RESUMEN

O surto da doença respiratória causada pelo novo coronavírus (SARS-CoV-2) aconteceu na cidade de Wuhan, capital da província de Hubei, na China, em dezembro de 2019, a qual disseminou-se de forma acelerada e, logo, atingiu mais de uma centena de países dos cinco continentes. Em 12 de março de 2020, a situação foi caracterizada como pandemia pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS, 2020). Em razão da disseminação o do Coronavírus pelo mundo, o Ministério da Saúde declarou Emergência de Saúde Pública de Importância Nacional (ESPIN) em decorrência da infecção pelo novo coronavírus (COVID-19) e estabeleceu o Centro de Operações de Emergência em Saúde Pública (COE-COVID-19) como mecanismo de gestão coordenada da resposta à ESPIN no país (BRASIL, 2020a). Seguindo a linha mundial, o Ministério da Saúde elaborou e publicou "Plano de Contingência Nacional para Infecção Humana pelo Novo Coronavírus COVID-19" para organizar a detecção, monitoramento e resposta dos serviços de saúde à doença (BRASIL, 2020b). O Estado de Goiás instituiu o Centro de Operações Estratégicas de Saúde Pública (COE) em 18 de fevereiro de 2020 (GOIÁS, 2020a). E, seguindo as orientações nacionais, propõe o presente PLANO ESTADUAL DE CONTINGÊNCIA PARA O ENFRENTAMENTO DA DOENÇA PELO CORONAVÍRUS (COVID-19), a fim de organizar e fortalecer as políticas públicas de saúde, visto que, para que atinjam eficácia e eficiência, é necessário atuação conjunta e ordenada dos entes federados, bem como dos setores públicos e privados.


The outbreak of respiratory disease caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in Wuhan city, capital of Hubei province, China, in December 2019, which spread rapidly and thus reached more than a hundred countries on five continents. On March 12, 2020, the situation was characterized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2020). Due to the spread of Coronavirus around the world, the Ministry of Health declared a Public Health Emergency of National Importance (ESPIN) due to infection by the new coronavirus (COVID-19) and established the Center for Emergency Operations in Public Health (COE-COVID-19) as a mechanism for coordinated management of the response to ESPIN in the country (BRASIL, 2020a). Following the global line, the Ministry of Health elaborated and published "National Contingency Plan for Human Infection by the New Coronavirus COVID-19" to organize the detection, monitoring and response of health services to the disease (BRASIL, 2020b). The State of Goiás established the Center for Strategic Operations of Public Health (COE) on February 18, 2020 (GOIÁS, 2020a). And, following the national guidelines, it proposes this State CONTINGENCY PLAN FOR COPING WITH CORONAVIRUS DISEASE (COVID-19), in order to organize and strengthen public health policies, since, in order to achieve effectiveness and efficiency, joint and orderly action of federal entities, as well as public and private sectors, is necessary.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Adulto Joven , Salud Pública , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Pandemias
2.
Goiania; SES-GO; 15 fev. 2021. 1-10 p. tab., graf., mapas.
No convencional en Portugués | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1148293

RESUMEN

Desde o início da pandemia causada pelo novo coronavírus (SARS-CoV-2) já era de se esperar o surgimento de novas linhagens virais resultantes de mutações ao longo do tempo. De acordo com o Centro de Controle e Prevenção de Doenças ­ CDC, algumas variantes do vírus emergem e desaparecem, enquanto outras emergem e persistem (CDC, 2021a).


Since the beginning of the pandemic caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) it was expected that new viral strains resulting from mutations over time were expected. According to the Cdc, some variants of the virus emerge and disappear, while others emerge and persist (CDC, 2021a).


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión
3.
J Microbiol ; 59(3): 332-340, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624270

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 was originated from zoonotic coronaviruses and confirmed as a novel beta-coronavirus, which causes serious respiratory illness such as pneumonia and lung failure, COVID-19. In this review, we describe the genetic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, including types of mutation, and molecular epidemiology, highlighting its key difference from animal coronaviruses. We further summarized the current knowledge on clinical, genetic, and pathological features of several animal coronaviruses and compared them with SARS-CoV-2, as well as recent evidences of interspecies transmission and recombination of animal coronaviruses to provide a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection in One Health perspectives. We also discuss the potential wildlife hosts and zoonotic origin of this emerging virus in detail, that may help mitigate the spread and damages caused by the disease.


Asunto(s)
Mutación , Salud Única , /genética , Animales , Animales Salvajes/virología , Humanos , Recombinación Genética , Zoonosis/transmisión
4.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(4): 1, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537803

RESUMEN

Nosocomial infections, also known as hospital-acquired infections, pose a serious challenge to healthcare professionals globally during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) pandemic. Nosocomial infection of COVID­19 directly impacts the quality of life of patients, as well as results in extra expenditure to hospitals. It has been shown that COVID­19 is more likely to transmit via close, unprotected contact with infected patients. Additionally, current preventative and containment measures tend to overlook asymptomatic individuals and superspreading events. Since the mode of transmission and real origin of COVID­19 in hospitals has not been fully elucidated yet, minimizing nosocomial infection in hospitals remains a difficult but urgent task for healthcare professionals. Healthcare professionals globally should form an alliance against nosocomial COVID­19 infections. The fight against COVID­19 may provide valuable lessons for the future prevention and control of nosocomial infections. The present review will discuss some of the key strategies to prevent and control hospital­based nosocomial COVID­19 infections.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Personal de Salud , Infecciones Asintomáticas , China , Infección Hospitalaria/transmisión , Desinfección , Higiene de las Manos , Hospitales , Humanos , Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios , Equipo de Protección Personal , Calidad de Vida
6.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 88(1): e1-e8, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567843

RESUMEN

Human coronaviruses are known respiratory pathogens associated with a range of respiratory illnesses, and there are considerable morbidity and hospitalisation amongst immune-compromised individuals of all age groups. The emergence of a highly pathogenic human coronavirus in China in 2019 has confirmed the long-held opinion that these viruses are important emerging and re-emerging pathogens. In this review article, we trace the discovery and emergence of coronaviruses (CoVs) over time since they were first reported. The review article will enrich our understanding on the host range, diversity and evolution, transmission of human CoVs and the threat posed by these viruses circulating in animal populations but overtime have spilled over to humans because of the increased proximity between humans and animals.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Coronavirus/clasificación , Animales , Coronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Brotes de Enfermedades , Especificidad del Huésped , Humanos
7.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 48(1): 53-74, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573790

RESUMEN

Viral infections are common complications of pregnancy. Although some infections have maternal sequelae, many viral infections can be perinatally transmitted to cause congenital or chronic infection in fetuses or infants. Treatments of such infections are geared toward reducing maternal symptoms and complications and toward preventing maternal-to-child transmission of viruses. The authors review updates in the treatment of herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B and C viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, and COVID-19 during pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/terapia , Virosis/terapia , Virosis/transmisión , Adulto , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , /transmisión , Infecciones por Citomegalovirus/terapia , Infecciones por Citomegalovirus/transmisión , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/terapia , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Hepatitis B/terapia , Hepatitis B/transmisión , Hepatitis C/terapia , Hepatitis C/transmisión , Herpes Simple/terapia , Herpes Simple/transmisión , Humanos , Lactante , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología
8.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200513, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566952

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Different strategies for improvement of malaria control and elimination are based on the blockage of malaria parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. These strategies include the drugs that target the plasmodial sexual stages in humans and the early developmental stages inside mosquitoes. OBJECTIVES: Here we tested Malaria Box compounds in order to evaluate their activity against male and female gametocytes in Plasmodium berghei, mosquito infection in P. vivax and ookinete formation in both species. METHODS/FINDINGS: The membrane feeding assay and the development of ookinetes by a 24 h ex vivo culture and the ookinete yield per 1000 erythrocytes were used to test transmission-blocking potential of the Malaria Box compounds in P. vivax. For P. berghei we used flow cytometry to evaluate male and female gametocyte time course and fluorescence microscopy to check the ookinete development. The two species used in this study showed similar results concerning the compounds' activity against gametocytes and ookinetes, which were different from those in P. falciparum. In addition, from the eight Malaria Box compounds tested in both species, compounds MMV665830, MMV665878 and MMV665941 were selected as a hit compounds due the high inhibition observed. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that P. berghei is suitable as an initial screening system to test compounds against P. vivax.


Asunto(s)
Malaria Vivax/prevención & control , Mosquitos Vectores/parasitología , Plasmodium berghei/efectos de los fármacos , Plasmodium vivax/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Malaria Vivax/tratamiento farmacológico , Malaria Vivax/transmisión
9.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(1): 22-31, 2021 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571142

RESUMEN

In late 2019 a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China and spread throughout the world over a short period of time causing a pandemic of a respiratory disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is easily transmitted from person to person through respiratory droplets and direct contact. The scarce available data indicate that dental healthcare personnel are at increased risk for acquisition of infection. Following the lockdown lifting, dental schools should be prepared to refunction safely and provide essential educational and healthcare services while protecting their students, patients, and personnel. The generation of aerosols in dental practice, in association with the high-transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 through aerosol-generation procedures, the simultaneous provision of dental services to patients in the same areas, and the fact that asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic infected persons may transmit the virus, render the implementation of specific infection prevention and control measures imperative for dental schools. Herein we review the few evidence-based data available to guide infection prevention and control measures for COVID-19 in dental schools.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Personal de Salud , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Facultades de Odontología , Aerosoles , Infecciones Asintomáticas , Portador Sano/transmisión , Portador Sano/virología , Humanos
10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(1): 58-68, 2021 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571146

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV2 pandemic marks the need to pay attention to bacterial pathogens that can complicate the hospital stay of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). ESKAPE bacteria which includes Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae are considered the most important, because of their close relationship with the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The aim of this work was to identify and characterize ESKAPE bacteria and to detect their possible clonal spread in medical devices, patients, and medical personnel of the ICU for COVID-19 patients of the Hospital Juarez de Mexico. METHODOLOGY: Genetic identification of ESKAPE bacteria was performed by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene. Resistance assays were performed according to the CLSI guidelines. Assembly of AdeABCRS operon and inhibition assays of pumps efflux in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were performed. Associated gene involved in biofilm formation (icaA) was performed in isolates belonging to the Staphylococcus genus. Finally, typing by ERIC-PCR and characterization of mobile genetic element SCCmec were done. RESULTS: Heterogeneous distribution of ESKAPE and non-ESKAPE bacteria was detected in various medical devices, patients, and medical personnel. Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant ESKAPE members. The analysis of intergenic regions revealed an important clonal distribution of A. baumannii (AdeABCRS+). Genotyping of SCCmec mobile genetic elements and the icaA gene showed that there is no clonal distribution of S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Clonal spread of A. baumannii (AdeABCRS+) highlights the importance of adopting good practices for equipment disinfection, surfaces and management of COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Acinetobacter/transmisión , Acinetobacter baumannii/aislamiento & purificación , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Acinetobacter baumannii/patogenicidad , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Infección Hospitalaria/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Equipos y Suministros/microbiología , Genotipo , Humanos , Secuencias Repetitivas Esparcidas , México , Neumonía Asociada al Ventilador/microbiología
11.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 22, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588935

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Infections of animals with SARS-CoV-2 have recently been reported, and an increase of severe lung pathologies in domestic dogs has also been detected by veterinarians in Spain. Therefore, further descriptions of the pathological processes in those animals that show symptoms similar to those described in humans affected by COVID-19 would be highly valuable. The potential for companion animals to contribute to the continued transmission and community spread of this known human-to-human disease is an urgent issue to be considered. Forty animals with pulmonary pathologies were studied by chest X-ray, ultrasound analysis, and computed tomography. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs were analyzed to detect canine pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. An additional twenty healthy dogs living in SARS-CoV-2-positive households were included. Immunoglobulin detection by several immunoassays was performed. Our findings show that sick dogs presented severe alveolar or interstitial patterns with pulmonary opacity, parenchymal abnormalities, and bilateral lesions. The forty sick dogs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 but Mycoplasma spp. was detected in 26 of 33 dogs. Five healthy and one pathological dog presented IgG against SARS-CoV-2. Here we report that despite detecting dogs with α-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, we never obtained a positive RT-qPCR for SARS-SoV-2, not even in dogs with severe pulmonary disease; suggesting that even in the case of canine infection, transmission would be unlikely. Moreover, dogs living in COVID-19-positive households could have been more highly exposed to infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/transmisión , Inmunoglobulinas/sangre , Zoonosis/transmisión , Animales , /virología , Enfermedades de los Perros/virología , Perros , Femenino , Inmunidad Humoral , Masculino , España , Zoonosis/virología
12.
Prev Vet Med ; 188: 105281, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530012

RESUMEN

Pigs (Sus scrofa) may be important surveillance targets for risk assessment and risk-based control planning against emerging zoonoses. Pigs have high contact rates with humans and other animals, transmit similar pathogens as humans including CoVs, and serve as reservoirs and intermediate hosts for notable human pandemics. Wild and domestic pigs both interface with humans and each other but have unique ecologies that demand different surveillance strategies. Three fundamental questions shape any surveillance program: where, when, and how can surveillance be conducted to optimize the surveillance objective? Using theory of mechanisms of zoonotic spillover and data on risk factors, we propose a framework for determining where surveillance might begin initially to maximize a detection in each host species at their interface. We illustrate the utility of the framework using data from the United States. We then discuss variables to consider in refining when and how to conduct surveillance. Recent advances in accounting for opportunistic sampling designs and in translating serology samples into infection times provide promising directions for extracting spatio-temporal estimates of disease risk from typical surveillance data. Such robust estimates of population-level disease risk allow surveillance plans to be updated in space and time based on new information (adaptive surveillance) thus optimizing allocation of surveillance resources to maximize the quality of risk assessment insight.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Vigilancia en Salud Pública/métodos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Animales , Animales Salvajes/virología , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Humanos , Sus scrofa/virología , Porcinos/virología , Zoonosis/transmisión
13.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557048

RESUMEN

Recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection highlight the urgent need to evaluate the efficacy of current public health measures to educate susceptible groups about how to prevent infection, modes of viral transmission, and consequences of infection. We performed a cross-sectional study in the city of Jundiaí, São-Paulo, from March 2016 to August 2017. In 315 high-risk pregnant women we evaluated the rate of ZIKV infection, knowledge of pathways of ZIKV transmission, and the use of protective measures. Data were analyzed and correlated with sociodemographic variables. The rate of ZIKV infection was 10.8%. ZIKV transmission by mosquitoes was the best-known means of virus acquisition, while transmission of ZIKV by sexual intercourse as well as mother-fetus transmission was known by less than half of the women. The use of insect repellent, reported by 53% of participants, was correlated with higher education and personal directives from health professionals. Condom use was reported by 19.5% of subjects. Improved strategies to increase awareness of ZIKV infection and its consequences, designed to appeal to specific, targeted populations, are clearly necessary to more accurately prevent the spread of this infection and diminish adverse consequences in the pregnant population.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Mujeres Embarazadas , Infección por el Virus Zika/prevención & control , Infección por el Virus Zika/transmisión , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Riesgo , Adulto Joven , Virus Zika , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología
14.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567490

RESUMEN

Recent research indicates that most tissue and cell types can secrete and release membrane-enclosed small vesicles, known as exosomes, whose content reflects the physiological/pathological state of the cells from which they originate. These exosomes participate in the communication and cell-to-cell transfer of biologically active proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Studies of RNA viruses have demonstrated that exosomes release regulatory factors from infected cells and deliver other functional host genetic elements to neighboring cells, and these functions are involved in the infection process and modulate the cellular responses. This review provides an overview of the biogenesis, composition, and some of the most striking functions of exosome secretion and identifies physiological/pathological areas in need of further research. While initial indications suggest that exosome-mediated pathways operate in vivo, the exosome mechanisms involved in the related effects still need to be clarified. The current review focuses on the role of exosomes in RNA virus infections, with an emphasis on the potential contributions of exosomes to pathogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Exosomas/metabolismo , Infecciones por Virus ARN/patología , Virus ARN/fisiología , Exosomas/química , Biogénesis de Organelos , Infecciones por Virus ARN/metabolismo , Infecciones por Virus ARN/transmisión , Infecciones por Virus ARN/virología , Virus ARN/clasificación , Replicación Viral
15.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567525

RESUMEN

Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 are capable of mutating from low to high pathogenicity strains, causing high mortality in poultry with significant economic losses globally. During 2015, two outbreaks of H7N7 low pathogenicity AIV (LPAIV) in Germany, and one each in the United Kingdom (UK) and The Netherlands occurred, as well as single outbreaks of H7N7 high pathogenicity AIV (HPAIV) in Germany and the UK. Both HPAIV outbreaks were linked to precursor H7N7 LPAIV outbreaks on the same or adjacent premises. Herein, we describe the clinical, epidemiological, and virological investigations for the H7N7 UK HPAIV outbreak on a farm with layer chickens in mixed free-range and caged units. H7N7 HPAIV was identified and isolated from clinical samples, as well as H7N7 LPAIV, which could not be isolated. Using serological and molecular evidence, we postulate how the viruses spread throughout the premises, indicating potential points of incursion and possible locations for the mutation event. Serological and mortality data suggested that the LPAIV infection preceded the HPAIV infection and afforded some clinical protection against the HPAIV. These results document the identification of a LPAIV to HPAIV mutation in nature, providing insights into factors that drive its manifestation during outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Subtipo H7N7 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H7N7 del Virus de la Influenza A/patogenicidad , Gripe Aviar/virología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Pollos , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Granjas , Genoma Viral/genética , Glicoproteínas Hemaglutininas del Virus de la Influenza/genética , Glicoproteínas Hemaglutininas del Virus de la Influenza/inmunología , Subtipo H7N7 del Virus de la Influenza A/clasificación , Subtipo H7N7 del Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología , Gripe Aviar/epidemiología , Gripe Aviar/patología , Gripe Aviar/transmisión , Mutación , Filogenia , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/patología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/transmisión , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Esparcimiento de Virus/genética
16.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579009

RESUMEN

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), a zoonotic disease, is a major threat to humans and poultry health worldwide. In January 2014, HPAI virus subtype H5N8 first infected poultry farms in South Korea, and 393 outbreaks, overall, were reported with enormous economic damage in the poultry industry. We analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution of HPAI H5N8 outbreaks in poultry farms using the global and local spatiotemporal interaction analyses in the first (January to July 2014) and second (September 2014 to June 2015) outbreak waves. The space-time K-function analyses revealed significant interactions within three days and in an over-40 km space-time window between the two study periods. The excess risk attributable value (D0) was maintained despite the distance in the case of HPAI H5N8 in South Korea. Eleven spatiotemporal clusters were identified, and the results showed that the HPAI introduction was from the southwestern region, and spread to the middle region, in South Korea. This spatiotemporal interaction indicates that the HPAI epidemic in South Korea was mostly characterized by short period transmission, regardless of the distance. This finding supports strict control strategies such as preemptive depopulation, and poultry movement tracking. Further studies are needed to understand HPAI disease transmission patterns.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Subtipo H5N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/patogenicidad , Gripe Aviar/transmisión , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/transmisión , Animales , Análisis por Conglomerados , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Granjas , Gripe Aviar/epidemiología , Gripe Aviar/prevención & control , Aves de Corral , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control , República de Corea/epidemiología , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
17.
Risk Anal ; 41(2): 223-228, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590520

RESUMEN

This introduction for the third special issue on modeling poliovirus risks provides context for the current status of global polio eradication efforts and gives an overview of the individual papers included in the issue. Although risk analysis continues to support the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), efforts to finish the job remained off track at the beginning of 2020 and prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, as discussed in the special issue. The disruptions associated with COVID-19 occurring now will inevitably change the polio eradication trajectory, and future studies will need to characterize the impacts of these disruptions on the polio endgame.


Asunto(s)
Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Poliomielitis/transmisión , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Salud Global , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Poliovirus , Vacunas contra Poliovirus
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533811

RESUMEN

Chagas disease (CD) is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and it is mainly acquired through the vector route, however, blood transfusion and congenital transmission are implicated in the spread of the illness worldwide. The congenital route can occur at any stage of pregnancy and its frequency varies. In the Federal District, in Brazil, the frequency of T. cruzi infection in pregnant women and their offspring has not been updated. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in pregnant women and the rate of congenital transmission in the Federal District. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. cruzi from 2014 to 2016 in the population of pregnant women attended by the public health service throughout the Federal District and a descriptive cohort for the evaluation of congenital transmission. During the study, prenatal data of 98,895 women were consulted and pregnant women registered in 2016, presenting with positive T. cruzi serology, were part of the descriptive cohort. The estimated prevalence of T. cruzi infection in the three years was 0.19% and the congenital transmission rate was 1/40 (2.5%). Our results have shown that, although the main routes of transmission of CD have been interrupted, there is still a risk of congenital transmission in the Federal District. This present study highlights the need for the continuous implementation of a screening program for pregnant women and timely treatment of infected newborns and children.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas/epidemiología , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Complicaciones Parasitarias del Embarazo/epidemiología , Trypanosoma cruzi/aislamiento & purificación , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Chagas/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Chagas/transmisión , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Atención Prenatal , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
19.
Euro Surveill ; 26(5)2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541485

RESUMEN

In June-November 2020, SARS-CoV-2-infected mink were detected in 290 of 1,147 Danish mink farms. In North Denmark Region, 30% (324/1,092) of people found connected to mink farms tested SARS-CoV-2-PCR-positive and approximately 27% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25-30) of SARS-CoV-2-strains from humans in the community were mink-associated. Measures proved insufficient to mitigate spread. On 4 November, the government ordered culling of all Danish mink. Farmed mink constitute a potential virus reservoir challenging pandemic control.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/virología , /veterinaria , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/veterinaria , Visón/virología , Pandemias/veterinaria , /aislamiento & purificación , /transmisión , Animales , /virología , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Granjas , Genes Virales , Humanos , Incidencia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Salud Pública , ARN Viral/análisis , ARN Viral/genética , /virología , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 726, 2021 02 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563980

RESUMEN

Human mobility is a primary driver of infectious disease spread. However, existing data is limited in availability, coverage, granularity, and timeliness. Data-driven forecasts of disease dynamics are crucial for decision-making by health officials and private citizens alike. In this work, we focus on a machine-learned anonymized mobility map (hereon referred to as AMM) aggregated over hundreds of millions of smartphones and evaluate its utility in forecasting epidemics. We factor AMM into a metapopulation model to retrospectively forecast influenza in the USA and Australia. We show that the AMM model performs on-par with those based on commuter surveys, which are sparsely available and expensive. We also compare it with gravity and radiation based models of mobility, and find that the radiation model's performance is quite similar to AMM and commuter flows. Additionally, we demonstrate our model's ability to predict disease spread even across state boundaries. Our work contributes towards developing timely infectious disease forecasting at a global scale using human mobility datasets expanding their applications in the area of infectious disease epidemiology.


Asunto(s)
Predicción/métodos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Aprendizaje Automático , Australia/epidemiología , Humanos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/transmisión , Modelos Teóricos , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Dinámica Poblacional , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Teléfono Inteligente
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