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1.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(5): 1137-1142, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526973

RESUMEN

Background: It's reported SARS-CoV-2 could transmit via gastrointestinal tract, with or without pulmonary symptoms. However, as far as we know, there is no effective marker to predict the virus discharge in stool and initial gastrointestinal involvement of COVID-19 patients. Aims: We aimed to investigate the likely biomarker predicting virus discharge in stool and initial gastrointestinal involvement of COVID-19, which may assist the clinicians in better preventing COVID-19 spread. Methods: The patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, including vomiting, diarrhea, with or without respiratory symptoms, attending the Sixth People's Hospital of Wenzhou, and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, were screened by qRT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed COVID-19 patients, without any history of intaking contaminated food or water, were all enrolled to investigate the association between circulating lymphocyte count and virus discharge, initial gastrointestinal involvement. Results: Seventy-six COVID-19 patients were included in the final analysis (mean age of 44.5 years, male 44.7%), with 24 (31.5%) complained of initial gastrointestinal symptoms. Significantly lower circulating lymphocyte count was found in the patients with positive results of qRT-PCR on stool (p = 0.012). Patients were divided into tertile groups by circulating lymphocyte count: lymphocyte ≤0.88*10^9/l ( n = 25 ), 0.88*10^9/l -1.2*10^9/l ( n = 28 ), and >1.2*10^9/l ( n = 23 ), respectively. When circulating lymphocyte count increased from 1st tertile to the 2nd and 3rd tertiles, the risk of initial gastrointestinal symptoms decreased by nearly 75% (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.98, p = 0.047), 83% (OR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.63, p = 0.008), after adjusting for likely confounders. Conclusions: The circulating lymphocyte count is inversely associated with virus discharge in stool, and the risk of initial gastrointestinal involvement in COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
/inmunología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/virología , Adulto , Heces/virología , Femenino , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/inmunología , Humanos , Recuento de Linfocitos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
2.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(5): 1285-1296, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526990

RESUMEN

Background: Considering transaminase more than the upper limit of normal value as liver injury might overestimate the prevalence of liver involvement in COVID-19 patients. No meta-analysis has explored the impact of varied definitions of liver injury on the reported prevalence of liver injury. Moreover, few studies reported the extent of hypertransaminasemia stratified by COVID-19 disease severity. Methods: A literature search was conducted using PubMed and Embase. The pooled prevalence of liver injury and hypertransaminasemia was estimated. Results: In total, 60 studies were included. The overall prevalence of liver injury was 25%. Compared to subgroups with the non-strict definition of liver injury (33%) and subgroups without giving detailed definition (26%), the subgroup with a strict definition had a much lower prevalence of liver injury (9%). The overall prevalence of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation was 19% and 22%. The prevalence of elevated ALT and AST were significantly higher in severe COVID-19 cases compare to non-severe cases (31% vs 16% and 44% vs 11%). In critically ill and fatal cases, no difference was found in the prevalence of elevated ALT (24% vs 30%) or AST (54% vs 49%). Sensitivity analyses indicated that the adjusted prevalence of ALT elevation, AST elevation, and liver injury decreased to 14%, 7%, and 12%. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of liver injury and hypertransaminasemia in COVID-19 patients might be overestimated. Only a small fraction of COVID-19 patients have clinically significant liver injury. The prevalence of hypertransaminasemia was significantly higher in severe COVID-19 cases compare to non-severe cases. Hence, in severe COVID-19 patients, more attention should be paid to liver function tests.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Hepatopatías/virología , /enzimología , Humanos , Hepatopatías/enzimología , Hepatopatías/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Transaminasas/sangre
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e24369, 2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530232

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The evidence for the incidence and severity of liver injury in Chinese patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to summarize the incidence of liver injury and the differences between liver injury markers among different patients with COVID-19 in China. METHODS: Computer searches of PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and medRxiv were used to obtain reports on the incidence and markers of liver injury in Chinese patients with COVID-19, from January 1, 2020 to April 10, 2020. (No. CRD42020181350). RESULTS: A total of 57 reports from China were included, including 9889 confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection. The results of the meta-analysis showed that among the patients with early COVID-19 infection in China, the incidence of liver injury events was 24.7% (95% CI, 23.4%-26.4%). Liver injury in severe patients was more common than that in non-severe patients, with a risk ratio of 2.07 (95% CI, 1.77-2.43). Quantitative analysis showed that the severe the coronavirus infection, the higher the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspertate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and the lower the level of albumin (ALB). CONCLUSION: There is a certain risk of liver injury in Chinese patients with COVID-19, and the risk and degree of liver injury are related to the severity of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Hepatopatías/epidemiología , /epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Hepatopatías/virología , Pandemias , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e24475, 2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530261

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: To evaluate the antiviral effect and safety of arbidol and Lianhuaqingwen Capsule (LH) in treating patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).108 patients with COVID-19 were divided into 2 groups, including 40 patients in the arbidol group and 68 patients in the arbidol + LH group. Patients in the arbidol + LH group received 200 mg of arbidol and 1400 mg of LH per 8 hour, and the arbidol group was given 200 mg arbidol per 8 hour. Blood routine examination, blood biochemistry detection, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection, and chest CT scans were performed to evaluate the clinical effects between the 2 groups.No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in terms of preoperative characteristics including the baseline characteristics, laboratory indicators, and chest CT. On day 7 after admission, patients in the arbidol + LH group showed a higher level of Lymphocytes count, and a lower level of serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein levels (P < .05). Moreover, the median time from admission to the first negative result of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection was shorter in the arbidol + LH group (P < .05). Analysis based on CT scan results showed a better extinction of lung inflammation in the arbidol + LH group. No apparent side effects were found in both groups. No patients were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) treatment.Arbidol combined with LH treatment may be more effective in improving the prognosis and accelerating the SARS-CoV-2 clearance in patients with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/tratamiento farmacológico , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Indoles/uso terapéutico , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Cápsulas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina China Tradicional , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/virología , Estudios Retrospectivos
5.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 23, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531046

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the first SARS-CoV-2 pandemic phase, the sudden closure of schools was one of the main measures to minimize the spread of the virus. In the second phase, several safety procedures were implemented to avoid school closure. To evaluate if the school is a safe place, students and staff of two school complexes of Rome were monitored to evaluate the efficacy of prevention measures inside the school buildings. METHODS: Oral secretions specimens were collected from 1262 subjects for a total of 3431 samples, collected over a 3 months period. Detection of Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was performed by real-time PCR. Target genes were represented by E gene, RdRP/S gene and N gene. RESULTS: Among the 3431 samples analyzed, just 16 sample resulted as positive or low positive: 1 sample in the first month, 12 samples in the second month and 3 in the third month. In each period of evaluation, all positive children attended different classes. CONCLUSIONS: Even if the school has the potential for spreading viruses, our preliminary results show the efficacy of the implementations undertaken in this setting to minimize virus diffusion. Our evidence suggests that school does not act as an amplifier for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and can be really considered a safe place for students.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Adolescente , /transmisión , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e22670, 2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530154

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between different types of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and preterm birth.Preterm birth was studied among all singleton pregnancies and compared between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected women.We performed a matched case-control study from the pregnancy outcome registry of Cayenne Hospital. HIV-infected and uninfected women who delivered in the maternity ward of Cayenne Hospital from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015 were studied. We conducted an initial analysis to determine the risk factors for preterm birth among HIV-infected pregnant women. We also evaluated associations between exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and preterm birth.There were 8682 deliveries; of these, 117 involved HIV-infected women, representing a prevalence of 1.34%. There were 470 controls. The sociodemographic characteristics were comparable. HIV-infected women were more likely to experience preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-9.9). Overall, 95.73% of the women received antiretroviral therapy before becoming pregnant, and they were in good clinical condition. The median CD4 count at the beginning of pregnancy was 500 cells/mm3 (357-722). Additionally, 53% of HIV-infected women had an undetectable viral load count (<20 copies/mL). Their median haemoglobin level was 120 g/L (100-120). There were 2 human immunodeficiency virus-infected babies. A higher rate of preterm birth was associated with protease inhibitor-based ART than a reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART regimen. The sample size being small this result would be considered with caution.The preterm birth rate among HIV-infected pregnant women was twice that of the general population; this trend was not explained by sociodemographic characteristics. Preterm birth was independently associated with combination ART, especially with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor therapy during pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/efectos adversos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/efectos adversos , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Nacimiento Prematuro/inducido químicamente , Adulto , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , VIH , Humanos , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Oportunidad Relativa , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Nacimiento Prematuro/virología , Sistema de Registros , Factores de Riesgo , Ritonavir/efectos adversos
8.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200287, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533869

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The heat-labile nature of Dengue virus (DENV) in serum samples must be considered when applying routine diagnostic tests to avoid issues that could impact the accuracy of test results with direct implications for case management and disease reporting. OBJECTIVES: To check if pre-analytical variables, such as storage time and temperature, have an impact on the accuracy of the main routine diagnostic tests for dengue. METHODS: Virus isolation, reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and NS1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were evaluated using 84 samples submitted to different pre-analytical conditions. FINDINGS: Sensitivity and negative predictive value were directly affected by sample storage conditions. RT-PCR and virus isolation showed greater dependence on well-conserved samples for an accurate diagnosis. Interestingly, even storage at -30ºC for a relatively short time (15 days) was not adequate for accurate results using virus isolation and RT-PCR tests. On the other hand, NS1 ELISA showed no significant reduction in positivity for aliquots tested under the same conditions as in the previous tests. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the stability of the NS1 marker in ELISA diagnosis and indicate that the accuracy of routine tests such as virus isolation and RT-PCR is significantly affected by inadequate transport and storage conditions of serum samples.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos Virales/sangre , Virus del Dengue/aislamiento & purificación , Dengue/diagnóstico , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Pruebas Inmunológicas/métodos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa/métodos , Proteínas no Estructurales Virales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Antígenos Virales/inmunología , Dengue/sangre , Dengue/virología , Virus del Dengue/genética , Virus del Dengue/inmunología , Humanos , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Proteínas no Estructurales Virales/genética
9.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200313, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533870

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is the sole vector of urban arboviruses in French Guiana. Overtime, the species has been responsible for the transmission of viruses during yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika outbreaks. Decades of vector control have produced resistant populations to deltamethrin, the sole molecule available to control adult mosquitoes in this French Territory. OBJECTIVES: Our surveillance aimed to provide public health authorities with data on insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations and other species of interest in French Guiana. Monitoring resistance to the insecticide used for vector control and to other molecule is a key component to develop an insecticide resistance management plan. METHODS: In 2009, we started to monitor resistance phenotypes to deltamethrin and target-site mechanisms in Ae. aegypti populations across the territory using the WHO impregnated paper test and allelic discrimination assay. FINDINGS: Eight years surveillance revealed well-installed resistance and the dramatic increase of alleles on the sodium voltage-gated gene, known to confer resistance to pyrethroids (PY). In addition, we observed that populations were resistant to malathion (organophosphorous, OP) and alpha-cypermethrin (PY). Some resistance was also detected to molecules from the carbamate family. Finally, those populations somehow recovered susceptibility against fenitrothion (OP). In addition, other species distributed in urban areas revealed to be also resistant to pyrethroids. CONCLUSION: The resistance level can jeopardize the efficiency of chemical adult control in absence of other alternatives and conducts to strongly rely on larval control measures to reduce mosquito burden. Vector control strategies need to evolve to maintain or regain efficacy during epidemics.


Asunto(s)
Aedes/efectos de los fármacos , Insectos Vectores/genética , Resistencia a los Insecticidas/genética , Insecticidas/farmacología , Mosquitos Vectores/efectos de los fármacos , Piretrinas/farmacología , Aedes/genética , Aedes/virología , Animales , Guyana Francesa , Insectos Vectores/efectos de los fármacos , Control de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vectores/virología , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
11.
Rev Neurosci ; 32(2): 219-234, 2021 02 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550782

RESUMEN

COVID-19 was first reported in December 2019 in the Wuhan city of China, and since then it has spread worldwide taking a heavy toll on human life and economy. COVID-19 infection is commonly associated with symptoms like coughing, fever, and shortness of breath, besides, the reports of muscle pain, anosmia, hyposmia, and loss of taste are becoming evident. Recent reports suggest the pathogenic invasion of the SARS-CoV-2 into the CNS, that could thereby result in devastating long term complications, primarily because some of these complications may go unnoticed for a long time. Evidence suggest that the virus could enter the CNS through angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor, neuronal transport, haematogenous route, and nasal route via olfactory bulb, cribriform plate, and propagates through trans-synaptic signalling, and shows retrograde movement into the CNS along nerve fiber. COVID-19 induces CNS inflammation and neurological degenerative damage through a diverse mechanism which includes ACE-2 receptor damage, cytokine-associated injury or cytokine storm syndrome, secondary hypoxia, demyelination, blood-brain barrier disruption, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation. Viral invasion into the CNS has been reported to show association with complications like Parkinsonism, Alzheimer's disorder, meningitis, encephalopathy, anosmia, hyposmia, anxiety, depression, psychiatric symptoms, seizures, stroke, etc. This review provides a detailed discussion of the CNS pathogenesis of COVID-19. Authors conclude that the COVID-19 cannot just be considered as a disorder of the pulmonary or peripheral system, rather it has a significant CNS involvement. Therefore, CNS aspects of the COVID-19 should be monitored very closely to prevent long term CNS complications, even after the patient has recovered from COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/virología , Sistema Nervioso Central/virología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , /complicaciones , Humanos , Inflamación/complicaciones , Inflamación/virología , Convulsiones/complicaciones , Convulsiones/virología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/virología
12.
J Ovarian Res ; 14(1): 28, 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550983

RESUMEN

Improving early diagnosis along with timely and effective treatment of COVID-19 are urgently needed. However, at present, the mechanisms underlying disease spread and development, defined prognosis, and immune status of patients with COVID-19 remain to be determined. Patients with severe disease state exhibit a hyperinflammatory response associated with cytokine storm syndrome, hypercoagulability, and depressed cell-mediated immunity. These clinical manifestations, sharing similar pathogenesis, have been well-studied in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. The present review suggests treatment approaches for COVID-19 based on strategies used against ovarian cancer, which shares similar immunopathology and associated coagulation disorders.The chronicization of the hyperinflammatory cytokine storm in patients with severe COVID-19 highlights a defective resistance phase that leads to aspecific chronic inflammation, associated with oxidative stress, which impairs specific T-cell response, induces tissue and endothelial damage, and thrombosis associated with systemic effects that lead to severe multi-organ failure and death. These events are similar to those observed in advanced ovarian cancer which share similar pathogenesis mediated primarily by Interleukin-6, which is, as well demonstrated in ovarian cancer, the key cytokine driving the immunopathology, related systemic symptoms, and patient prognosis.Consistent with findings in other disease models with similar immunopathology, such as advanced ovarian cancer, treatment of severe COVID-19 infection should target inflammation, oxidative stress, coagulation disorders, and immunodepression to improve patient outcome. Correctly identifying disease stages, based on available laboratory data, and developing a specific protocol for each phase is essential for effective treatment.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/etiología , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ováricas/metabolismo , Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , Aspirina/uso terapéutico , /metabolismo , /terapia , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunización Pasiva , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Inflamación/virología , Interleucina-6/inmunología , Necrosis , Neoplasias Ováricas/complicaciones , Neoplasias Ováricas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ováricas/inmunología , Estrés Oxidativo
14.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 183(5)2021 02 01.
Artículo en Danés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570033

RESUMEN

This case report describes a young woman, pregnant in week 33, who was admitted to hospital with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. As her condition worsened over the next few days with increasing respiratory distress and oxygen needs, it was decided to perform a subacute caesarean delivery. The patient improved rapidly over the next days following the delivery, and the neonate, who tested negative for COVID-19, was vigorous after two days of nasal continuous positive airway pressure. This case emphasises that delivery by cesarean section should be considered as a treatment option in pregnant women with severe COVID-19 infection.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Cesárea , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Nacimiento Prematuro , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo
15.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 183(5)2021 02 01.
Artículo en Danés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570034

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes COVID-19. Most infected children have asymptomatic or mild clinical manifestations. A few develop serious illness, and the case fatality rate is lower than in adults. The most frequent symptoms are fever and cough. Studies indicate that children might be less susceptible to infection than adults as summarised in this review. Despite mild manifestation, some children experience a hyper-inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 infection called multisystem inflammatory syndrome, similarly to Kawasaki disease. The syndrome is still very rare, and the pathogenesis remains unknown.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica/epidemiología , Niño , Tos/virología , Fiebre/virología , Humanos
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 944, 2021 02 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574228

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibits high levels of mortality and morbidity and has dramatic consequences on human life, sociality and global economy. Neutralizing antibodies constitute a highly promising approach for treating and preventing infection by this novel pathogen. In the present study, we characterize and further evaluate the recently identified human monoclonal MD65 antibody for its ability to provide protection against a lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection of K18-hACE2 transgenic mice. Eighty percent of the untreated mice succumbed 6-9 days post-infection, while administration of the MD65 antibody as late as 3 days after exposure rescued all infected animals. In addition, the efficiency of the treatment is supported by prevention of morbidity and ablation of the load of infective virions in the lungs of treated animals. The data demonstrate the therapeutic value of human monoclonal antibodies as a life-saving treatment for severe COVID-19 infection.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales/administración & dosificación , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/administración & dosificación , Anticuerpos Antivirales/administración & dosificación , /inmunología , Animales , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/genética , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/genética , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Chlorocebus aethiops , Femenino , Inmunoglobulina G/administración & dosificación , Inmunoglobulina G/genética , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Pulmón/patología , Pulmón/virología , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Transgénicos , /fisiología , Seroconversión , Células Vero , Carga Viral
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 961, 2021 02 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574281

RESUMEN

The global spread of SARS-CoV-2 is posing major public health challenges. One feature of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is the insertion of multi-basic residues at the S1/S2 subunit cleavage site. Here, we find that the virus with intact spike (Sfull) preferentially enters cells via fusion at the plasma membrane, whereas a clone (Sdel) with deletion disrupting the multi-basic S1/S2 site utilizes an endosomal entry pathway. Using Sdel as model, we perform a genome-wide CRISPR screen and identify several endosomal entry-specific regulators. Experimental validation of hits from the CRISPR screen shows that host factors regulating the surface expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) affect entry of Sfull virus. Animal-to-animal transmission with the Sdel virus is reduced compared to Sfull in the hamster model. These findings highlight the critical role of the S1/S2 boundary of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in modulating virus entry and transmission and provide insights into entry of coronaviruses.


Asunto(s)
/virología , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Internalización del Virus , Células A549 , /metabolismo , Animales , Chlorocebus aethiops , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Endosomas/virología , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mesocricetus , Serina Endopeptidasas , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/metabolismo , Células Vero
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e24354, 2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530229

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and how DM affects the prognosis of HCC have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to compare clinicopathological characteristics and survival between hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC patients with and without DM and to determine risk factors for overall survival after hepatectomy.Among 474 patients with HBV-related HCC, 119 patients had DM. Patients were divided into the diabetic group and nondiabetic group. The short-term and long-term outcomes were evaluated by using propensity score matching analysis.After 1:2 propensity score matching, there were 107 patients in diabetic group, 214 patients in nondiabetic group. The proportion of vessels invasion were higher in diabetic group. The overall survival rate in the diabetic group was 44.7% at 3 years, which was lower than that in the nondiabetic group (56.1%, P = .025). The multivariate analysis indicated that fasting blood glucose >7.0, capsular invasion, microvascular invasion and satellite were independent risk factor of poor prognosis in HCC.DM dose affect the recurrence-free survival and overall survival in HBV-related HCC patients after hepatectomy. One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study is that DM induced higher proportion of major vessel invasion in HCC patients implied unfavorable prognosis.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidad , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/virología , Virus de la Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B/complicaciones , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidad , Glucemia/análisis , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirugía , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Femenino , Hepatectomía/mortalidad , Hepatitis B/virología , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirugía , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Pronóstico , Puntaje de Propensión , Factores de Riesgo , Tasa de Supervivencia , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533916

RESUMEN

Several studies have analyzed antiviral immune pathways in late-stage severe COVID-19. However, the initial steps of SARS-CoV-2 antiviral immunity are poorly understood. Here we have isolated primary SARS-CoV-2 viral strains and studied their interaction with human plasmacytoid predendritic cells (pDCs), a key player in antiviral immunity. We show that pDCs are not productively infected by SARS-CoV-2. However, they efficiently diversified into activated P1-, P2-, and P3-pDC effector subsets in response to viral stimulation. They expressed CD80, CD86, CCR7, and OX40 ligand at levels similar to influenza virus-induced activation. They rapidly produced high levels of interferon-α, interferon-λ1, IL-6, IP-10, and IL-8. All major aspects of SARS-CoV-2-induced pDC activation were inhibited by hydroxychloroquine. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2-induced pDC activation critically depended on IRAK4 and UNC93B1, as established using pDC from genetically deficient patients. Overall, our data indicate that human pDC are efficiently activated by SARS-CoV-2 particles and may thus contribute to type I IFN-dependent immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
/inmunología , Plasticidad de la Célula/inmunología , Células Dendríticas/inmunología , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Quinasas Asociadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Membrana/metabolismo , /inmunología , Biomarcadores , /virología , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/virología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacología , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Inmunomodulación , Inmunofenotipificación , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Interferón Tipo I/metabolismo , Interferones/metabolismo
20.
Euro Surveill ; 26(5)2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541485

RESUMEN

In June-November 2020, SARS-CoV-2-infected mink were detected in 290 of 1,147 Danish mink farms. In North Denmark Region, 30% (324/1,092) of people found connected to mink farms tested SARS-CoV-2-PCR-positive and approximately 27% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25-30) of SARS-CoV-2-strains from humans in the community were mink-associated. Measures proved insufficient to mitigate spread. On 4 November, the government ordered culling of all Danish mink. Farmed mink constitute a potential virus reservoir challenging pandemic control.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/virología , /veterinaria , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/veterinaria , Visón/virología , Pandemias/veterinaria , /aislamiento & purificación , /transmisión , Animales , /virología , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Granjas , Genes Virales , Humanos , Incidencia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Salud Pública , ARN Viral/análisis , ARN Viral/genética , /virología , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
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