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2.
J Environ Manage ; 335: 117471, 2023 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36863148

RESUMEN

Chlorination of ballast water could produce harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs) and total residual oxidants. The International Maritime Organization calls for toxicity testing of discharged ballast water with fish, crustacea and algae to reduce the risk, but it is difficult to evaluate the toxicity of treated ballast water in a short time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the applicability of luminescent bacteria to the assessment of residual toxicity of chlorinated ballast water. The toxicity unit for all treated samples were higher for Photobacterium phosphoreum than for microalgae (Selenastrum capricornutum and Chlorella pyrenoidosa), after adding neutralizer, all samples showed little effect on the luminescent bacteria and microalgae. For the DBPs, except for 2,4,6-Tribromophenol, Photobacterium phosphoreum could produce more sensitive and rapid test results than other species, the results in Photobacterium phosphoreum showed that the toxicity of DBPs in order of: 2,4-Dibromophenol > 2,6-Dibromophenol > 2,4,6-Tribromophenol > Monobromoacetic acid > Dibromoacetic acid > Tribromoacetic acid, and most binary mixtures (aromatic DBPs and aliphatic DBPs) presented synergistic effects based on the CA model. The aromatic DBPs in ballast water deserve more attention. In general, for ballast water management, the use of luminescent bacteria to evaluate the toxicity of treated ballast water and DBPs is desirable, this study could provide beneficial information for enhancing ballast water management.


Asunto(s)
Chlorella , Desinfectantes , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Animales , Agua , Desinfección/métodos , Bacterias , Abastecimiento de Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Halogenación
3.
BMJ Open ; 13(3): e067341, 2023 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36863743

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Despite clear linkages between provision of clean water and improvements in child health, limited information exists about the health impacts of large water infrastructure improvements in low-income settings. Billions of dollars are spent annually to improve urban water supply, and rigorous evaluation of these improvements, especially targeting informal settlements, is critical to guide policy and investment strategies. Objective measures of infection and exposure to pathogens, and measures of gut function, are needed to understand the effectiveness and impact of water supply improvements. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In the PAASIM study, we examine the impact of water system improvements on acute and chronic health outcomes in children in a low-income urban area of Beira, Mozambique, comprising 62 sub-neighbourhoods and ~26 300 households. This prospective matched cohort study follows 548 mother-child dyads from late pregnancy through 12 months of age. Primary outcomes include measures of enteric pathogen infections, gut microbiome composition and source drinking water microbiological quality, measured at the child's 12-month visit. Additional outcomes include diarrhoea prevalence, child growth, previous enteric pathogen exposure, child mortality and various measures of water access and quality. Our analyses will compare (1) subjects living in sub-neighbourhoods with the improved water to those living in sub-neighbourhoods without these improvements; and (2) subjects with household water connections on their premises to those without such a connection. This study will provide critical information to understand how to optimise investments for improving child health, filling the information gap about the impact of piped water provision to low-income urban households, using novel gastrointestinal disease outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Emory University Institutional Review Board and the National Bio-Ethics Committee for Health in Mozambique. The pre-analysis plan is published on the Open Science Framework platform (https://osf.io/4rkn6/). Results will be shared with relevant stakeholders locally, and through publications.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Niño , Femenino , Lactante , Humanos , Embarazo , Mozambique , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Prospectivos , Abastecimiento de Agua , Comités de Ética en Investigación
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(4): 458, 2023 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36897486

RESUMEN

In the semiarid Bulal transboundary catchment of southern Ethiopia, groundwater is the only reliable drought-resilient water source. The central and southern parts of the catchment are dominantly overlain by the transboundary aquifers of the Bulal basalts, while the basement rocks outcrop in the eastern part. This study uses an integrated geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing (RS), and analytical hierarchal process (AHP) to identify and delineate the groundwater potential zones of the semiarid Bulal catchment within the Ethiopian territory. Based on their relative importance to groundwater occurrence and movement, ten input parameters were chosen. According to Saaty's AHP approach, the input themes and each of their distinct features were given normalized weights. A composite groundwater potential zone index (GWPZI) map was generated by integrating all the input layers employing the GIS-overlay analysis technique. The map was validated using the yield of wells from the catchment. The GWPZI map depicts four groundwater potential zones: high (representing 27% of the total area), moderate (20%), low (28%), and very low (25%). The geological feature has the greatest influence on the distribution of groundwater potential. Areas with high potential are mainly overlain by the Bulal basaltic flow, while low groundwater potential zones are in the regolith over the basement rocks. Unlike conventional methods, our novel approach is effective in identifying relatively shallow GWPZs throughout the catchment, and it can be applied in similar semiarid regions. The GWPZI map serves as a quick guide for effectively planning, managing, and developing the catchment's groundwater resources.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agua Subterránea , Etiopía , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Abastecimiento de Agua , Sistemas de Información Geográfica
5.
Nature ; 615(7950): 87-93, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36859582

RESUMEN

Water resources sustainability in High Mountain Asia (HMA) surrounding the Tibetan Plateau (TP)-known as Asia's water tower-has triggered widespread concerns because HMA protects millions of people against water stress1,2. However, the mechanisms behind the heterogeneous trends observed in terrestrial water storage (TWS) over the TP remain poorly understood. Here we use a Lagrangian particle dispersion model and satellite observations to attribute about 1 Gt of monthly TWS decline in the southern TP during 2003-2016 to westerlies-carried deficit in precipitation minus evaporation (PME) from the southeast North Atlantic. We further show that HMA blocks the propagation of PME deficit into the central TP, causing a monthly TWS increase by about 0.5 Gt. Furthermore, warming-induced snow and glacial melt as well as drying-induced TWS depletion in HMA weaken the blocking of HMA's mountains, causing persistent northward expansion of the TP's TWS deficit since 2009. Future projections under two emissions scenarios verified by satellite observations during 2020-2021 indicate that, by the end of the twenty-first century, up to 84% (for scenario SSP245) and 97% (for scenario SSP585) of the TP could be afflicted by TWS deficits. Our findings indicate a trajectory towards unsustainable water systems in HMA that could exacerbate downstream water stress.


Asunto(s)
Altitud , Cambio Climático , Desecación , Predicción , Abastecimiento de Agua , Humanos , Asia , Cambio Climático/estadística & datos numéricos , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Tibet , Congelación , Nieve , Imágenes Satelitales , Lluvia , Océano Atlántico , Cubierta de Hielo , Conservación de los Recursos Hídricos
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(10): 4332-4341, 2023 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36857490

RESUMEN

Trade causes the geospatial separation of production and consumption, which drives telecoupling between resource utilization and distant consumption. While benefiting the economy, trade can also exacerbate resource use inequality among regions. Here, we propose telecoupled water withdrawal (TWW) to examine the impact of distant consumption on local water resources, defined as local water withdrawal driven remotely by consumption in other regions. We characterize the TWW in China in 2015 at the city level (350 cities) using a nested multiregional input-output model. We find that approximately 20% of TWW is linked to foreign consumption, more than a quarter of which is driven by the United States. Moreover, cities with high TWW are concentrated on the Southeast coast and in Northwest China. Cities in Xinjiang province (Northwest China) account for 12% of the national TWW but only 0.7% of China's GDP. Our findings shed light on the telecoupling of pressure on local water resources in China cities and distant consumption at the global scale, calling for joint efforts by the contributors and beneficiaries of TWW to ensure the synergistic sustainability of water resources and trade.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Agua , Agua , Ciudades , Recursos Hídricos , China
7.
Water Res ; 233: 119806, 2023 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36878178

RESUMEN

Circular water management has the potential to close resource and material loops within and across value chains. In the water industry, circular municipal wastewater management through industrial urban symbiosis (IUS) is recognized as a solution to overcome water scarcity in urban environments. IUS involves collaboration between actors with different organizational backgrounds, which can lead to inherent risks of conflicting goals. This study explores how different values drive various organizations to participate in an emerging circular wastewater collaboration. The study comprises a literature review of 34 scientific articles and a case study of a potential circular wastewater system through IUS in Simrishamn, Sweden. It presents an interdisciplinary framework based on the total economic value concept and organizational archetypes for examining actor values in circular wastewater management. This framework provides a novel approach for assessing different values and how they may compete or align. It can also identify the absence of certain values, enabling the achievement of a minimum level of value coherence amongst different actors, and thereby increasing the sustainability and effectiveness of circular wastewater collaborations. Therefore, careful planning and stakeholder interaction, in accordance with economic value perspectives, can enhance the legitimacy and policy development of circular solutions.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales , Abastecimiento de Agua , Suecia , Aguas Residuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(10): 4318-4331, 2023 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36854446

RESUMEN

Balancing human communities' and ecosystems' need for freshwater is one of the major challenges of the 21st century as population growth and improved living conditions put increasing pressure on freshwater resources. While frameworks to assess the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption have been proposed at the regional scale, an operational method to evaluate the consequences of consumption on different compartments of the water system and account for their interdependence is missing at the global scale. Here, we develop depletion factors that simultaneously quantify the effects of water consumption on streamflow, groundwater storage, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration globally. We estimate freshwater availability and water consumption using the output of a global-scale surface water-groundwater model for the period 1960-2000. The resulting depletion factors are provided for 8,664 river basins, representing 93% of the landmass with significant water consumption, i.e., excluding Greenland, Antarctica, deserts, and permanently frozen areas. Our findings show that water consumption leads to the largest water loss in rivers, followed by aquifers and soil, while simultaneously increasing evapotranspiration. Depletion factors vary regionally with ranges of up to four orders of magnitude depending on the annual consumption level, the type of water used, aridity, and water transfers between compartments. Our depletion factors provide valuable insights into the intertwined effects of surface and groundwater consumption on several hydrological variables over a specified period. The developed depletion factors can be integrated into sustainability assessment tools to quantify the ecological impacts of water consumption and help guide sustainable water management strategies, while accounting for the performance limitations of the underlying model.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Agua Subterránea , Abastecimiento de Agua , Humanos , Ingestión de Líquidos , Ecosistema , Ríos , Suelo
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(8): 3248-3259, 2023 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36795589

RESUMEN

COVID-19 pandemic-related building restrictions heightened drinking water microbiological safety concerns post-reopening due to the unprecedented nature of commercial building closures. Starting with phased reopening (i.e., June 2020), we sampled drinking water for 6 months from three commercial buildings with reduced water usage and four occupied residential households. Samples were analyzed using flow cytometry and full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing along with comprehensive water chemistry characterization. Prolonged building closures resulted in 10-fold higher microbial cell counts in the commercial buildings [(2.95 ± 3.67) × 105 cells mL-1] than in residential households [(1.11 ± 0.58) × 104 cells mL-1] with majority intact cells. While flushing reduced cell counts and increased disinfection residuals, microbial communities in commercial buildings remained distinct from those in residential households on the basis of flow cytometric fingerprinting [Bray-Curtis dissimilarity (dBC) = 0.33 ± 0.07] and 16S rRNA gene sequencing (dBC = 0.72 ± 0.20). An increase in water demand post-reopening resulted in gradual convergence in microbial communities in water samples collected from commercial buildings and residential households. Overall, we find that the gradual recovery of water demand played a key role in the recovery of building plumbing-associated microbial communities as compared to short-term flushing after extended periods of reduced water demand.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Agua Potable , Microbiota , Humanos , Ingeniería Sanitaria , Agua Potable/microbiología , Abastecimiento de Agua , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Pandemias , Calidad del Agua , Microbiología del Agua
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36833930

RESUMEN

The globalization of trade has caused tremendous pressure on water resources globally, and a virtual water trade provides a new perspective on global freshwater sharing and water sustainability. No study has yet explored the structural characteristics and drivers of the evolution of global virtual water trade networks from a network structure evolution perspective. This paper aims to fill this critical gap by developing a research framework to explore how endogenous network structures and external factors have influenced the evolution of virtual water trade networks. We constructed virtual water trade networks for 62 countries worldwide from 2000 to 2015 and used an innovative combination of multi-regional input-output data and stochastic actor-oriented models for analytical purposes. Our results support the theoretical hypothesis of ecologically unequal exchange and trade drivers, arguing that virtual water flows from less developed countries to developed countries under global free trade and that unequal trade patterns lead to excessive consumption of virtual water in less developed countries. The results partially support the theoretical content of water endowment and traditional gravity models, finding that trade networks are expanding to farther and larger markets, confirming that national water scarcity levels do not impact the evolution of virtual water trade networks. Finally, we point out that meritocratic links, path dependence, reciprocity, and transmissive links have extreme explanatory power for the evolutionary development of virtual water networks.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Agua , Agua , Agricultura/métodos , Recursos Hídricos , Internacionalidad
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36834457

RESUMEN

Studying the historical and future trends of water resources in a basin and explaining the causes of water resource changes is very important, which is key to the management of water resources in a basin. The Hanjiang River Basin is an important water supply source for southwestern Fujian and eastern Guangdong, but it has an uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and an outstanding conflict between supply and demand. In this study, the SWAT model was used to simulate the conditions of the Hanjiang River Basin in the last 50 years, using long time series climate data to study the characteristics and driving mechanism of water resources trend change. The results show that the water resources in the basin have not increased significantly in the last 50 years, but evapotranspiration has increased significantly. The forecast results for water resources in the future are reduced. The water resource changes in the basin have been unevenly distributed in the last 50 years. Climate change has been the main factor in total water resource change in the basin, while the difference in water resource change trends within the basin is caused by land use. The key reason for the decrease in water resources in the Hanjiang River Basin is the significant increase in evapotranspiration due to the significant increase in temperature. If this situation continues, the available water resources in the basin will continue to decline. In fact, many basins around the world are currently likely to have such problems, such as the 2022 summer drought in the Danube River Basin in Europe and the Yangtze River Basin in China, so this article is informative and representative of future water resources management in the basin.


Asunto(s)
Ríos , Recursos Hídricos , Abastecimiento de Agua , Agua , China , Cambio Climático
12.
Water Sci Technol ; 87(4): 969-986, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36853774

RESUMEN

Old wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) must be upgraded to alleviate the problems associated with aging and reduce their total environmental impacts. To enhance the environmental sustainability in retrofitting large and old WWTPs, the decision-making process for selecting the most appropriate alternative is complicated. In this study, evaluation criteria were proposed to select the most sustainable alternatives for mid- to long-term retrofitting plans for a large WWTP with the treatment capacity of 1.6 M m3/d, which is initially built in 1987. An analytic hierarchy process was applied to estimate the weights of each criterion. Fourteen experts evaluated the relative importance of criteria through pairwise comparisons. In order to assess the current retrofitting opinions, three retrofitting alternatives were constructed: A focused on energy sufficiency; B expanded the bioreactor capacity and enhancement of the facility for incinerating the sludge leaving the anaerobic digestor; C emphasized the treatment of contaminants of emerging concerns (CECs). A achieved the highest score (0.623) owing to the environmental benefits associated with recycling and first flush stormwater treatment. C exhibited the second highest score (0.612) as the focus on CECs removal. B corresponded to the lowest sustainability (0.426), with the lowest scores pertaining to effective land use and first flush stormwater treatment.


Asunto(s)
Lluvia , Purificación del Agua , Seúl , Abastecimiento de Agua , Reactores Biológicos
13.
Water Sci Technol ; 87(4): 954-968, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36853773

RESUMEN

The development of compact treatment devices (CTDs) with high removal efficiencies and low space requirements is a key objective of urban stormwater treatment. Thus, many devices utilize a combination of sedimentation and upward-flow filtration in a single system. Here, sedimentation is used before filtration, which makes it difficult to evaluate the individual treatment stages separately. This study determines the removal efficiency by sedimentation and the expected filter load in a specific compact treatment device designed for a catchment area of up to 10,000 m2. In contrast to a full-scale investigation, small-scale physical hydraulic modeling is applied as a new cost-saving alternative. To validate upscaling laws, tracer signals and particle-size-specific removal efficiencies are determined for two geometrically similar models at different length scales. Thereby, Reynolds number similarity produces similar flow patterns, while the similarity of Hazen numbers allows to upscale removal efficiencies. Upscaling to the full-scale reveals that the filter in the device is only partly loaded by particulate matter that consists mostly of particles ≤63 µm. Thus, sedimentation upstream of a filter is of relevant importance in CTDs. The proposed dimensionless relationship may be used for particles from different catchments and helps to size the device accordingly.


Asunto(s)
Lluvia , Purificación del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua , Filtración , Tamaño de la Partícula
14.
J Environ Public Health ; 2023: 6739550, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36824232

RESUMEN

This article considers and adds empirical nuances to the recent conceptualization of pro-poor water management. Using the concept of pro-poor hydraulic governmentality along the Vietnam-Cambodia border of ThÆ°ong PhÆ°oc commune, we argue that water management is linked to local rural livelihoods in a complex and dynamic pro-poor mechanism. While certain policies organize local populations according to cost-effectiveness ignoring local customs, the practicalities of dealing with such constraints are much more ambivalent. This article demonstrates the structural pro-poor complexity among sand excavation, riverbank landslides, water management, local livelihoods, and populace resettlement. The government's resettlement plans and the perceptions of residents of these plans are intertwined with a wider political, economic, social, and cultural significance in the context of strong institutional power in Vietnam. Limitations and future research agenda are also indicated in the discussion and conclusion section.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Agua , Agua , Gobierno , Vietnam , Cambodia
15.
Water Res ; 231: 119667, 2023 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36724724

RESUMEN

Cellular 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) yield of cyanobacteria varies under different conditions according to culture studies and field investigations, the causal mechanism remains unclear and results in ineffective MIB prediction. Through an intensive field survey during an MIB episode produced by Pseudanabaena cinerea in QCS reservoir, we demonstrated that MIB synthesis (mic) gene abundance (DNA) and expression (RNA) might be useful as parameters for early warning of MIB production. It was found that the abundance of mic DNA and RNA peaked ahead of MIB concentrations by 10 and 7 days, respectively. In addition, the RNA abundance (R2 = 0.45, p < 0.01) showed a slightly higher correlation with MIB compared to DNA abundance (R2 = 0.37, p < 0.01), suggesting that the conditions for the growth of Pseudanabaena cinerea might be slightly different from those for mic gene expression, which was verified by a culture experiment. The highest cell growth was obtained under 36 µmol photons m-2 s-1, while the highest cellular MIB yield and mic gene expression level were obtained under 85 µmol photons m-2 s-1. Our results clearly supported that light intensity was the virtual regulator governing the mic gene expression within the controlled culture experiment and the actual MIB episode in the reservoir. Besides these results, we developed an early warning model using mic gene abundance as an indicator of MIB episodes, which was verified in two other reservoirs. Our findings highlight the effect of light intensity on mic gene expression and MIB synthesis and provide an early warning tool targeting MIB episode prediction, which therefore should be of importance for source water authorities.


Asunto(s)
Cianobacterias , Agua Potable , Agua Potable/microbiología , Canfanos , Cianobacterias/metabolismo , Abastecimiento de Agua , Odorantes/análisis
16.
Water Res ; 231: 119602, 2023 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36736109

RESUMEN

The provision of self-cleaning velocities has been shown to reduce the risk of discolouration in water distribution networks (WDNs). Despite these findings, control implementations continue to be focused primarily on pressure and leakage management. This paper considers the control of diurnal flow velocities to maximize the self-cleaning capacity (SCC) of WDNs. We formulate a new optimal design-for-control problem where locations and operational settings of pressure control and automatic flushing valves are jointly optimized. The problem formulation includes a nonconvex objective function, nonconvex hydraulic conservation law constraints, and binary variables for modelling valve placement, resulting in a nonconvex mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) optimization problem. Considering the challenges with solving nonconvex MINLP problems, we propose a heuristic algorithm which combines convex relaxations (with domain reduction), a randomization technique, and a multi-start strategy to compute feasible solutions. We evaluate the proposed algorithm on case study networks with varying size and degrees of complexity, including a large-scale operational network in the UK. The convex multi-start algorithm is shown to be a more robust solution method compared to an off-the-shelf genetic algorithm, finding good-quality feasible solutions to all design-for-control numerical experiments. Moreover, we demonstrate the implemented multi-start strategy to be a fast and scalable method for computing feasible solutions to the nonlinear SCC control problem. The proposed method extends the control capabilities and benefits of dynamically adaptive networks to improve water quality in WDNs.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Abastecimiento de Agua
17.
Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) ; 22(4): 434-439, 2023 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36753243

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to determine the risk of exposure to Legionella pneumophila in hotel golf courses located in the province of Malaga (Spain). METHOD: Spray irrigation systems were analyzed as sources for spreading the Legionella bacterium. Spanish legislation requires that irrigation systems be monitored for their water quality as well as for reasons related to health and hygiene. Based on an observational study and non-parametric tests (Goodman-Kruskal Tau and uncertainty coefficient), this study states the regulatory enforcement among the systems and contributed to announce Legionella prevention. The quality criteria for recycled water, waste water treatment plant and well water were analyzed in relationship to the hotels' categories. RESULTS: Deficiencies were found in the preventive maintenance of irrigation systems, but no relationship exists between the type of water and the risk detected. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that aerosolized water used in golf course watering systems could pose risk to the population by exposing them to Legionella.


Asunto(s)
Legionella pneumophila , Humanos , Abastecimiento de Agua , Microbiología del Agua , Calidad del Agua , España
18.
Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) ; 21(4): 398-403, 2023 Feb 03.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36753261

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify the capacity to provide appropriate access to facilities and equipment that encourage drinking water consumption at the Universidad de Panamá, as part of its commitment to promote behaviors that benefit the health of this community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive statistical study and a multivariate analysis were carried out using the correspondence analysis technique to explore relationships among the variables "University Group" (students, teachers and administrative staff) vs. "Access to water sources" and "Access to water sources" vs. "Inputs to facilitate water consumption". RESULTS: 66.3% of the population surveyed recognized drinking water as the most accessible drink for consumption, mainly from water sources, followed by bottled water. CONCLUSIONS: This work highlights the importance of promoting water consumption in the university population, suggesting that the Universidad de Panamá has infrastructure conditions that allow water intake, thus promoting healthy habits and fulfilling its commitment to the health of the population.


OBJETIVO: Identificar la capacidad de brindar un buen acceso a instalaciones y equipos que propicien el consumo de agua dentro de la Universidad de Panamá, como parte de su compromiso de promover comportamientos que beneficien la salud en esta comunidad. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó un estudio estadístico descriptivo y análisis multivariado, utilizando la técnica de análisis de correspondencia entre las variables "Estamentos Universitarios" (estudiantes, docentes y administrativos) vs "Acceso a fuentes de agua" y el "Acceso a fuentes de agua" vs "Insumos para facilitar el consumo de agua". RESULTADOS: El 66,3% de los encuestados reconocieron al agua como la bebida más accesible para consumo, proveniente principalmente de las fuentes de agua, seguido del agua embotellada. CONCLUSIONES: Este trabajo pone de manifiesto el reconocimiento de la importancia del consumo de agua en la población universitaria, sugiriendo que la Universidad de Panamá provee de condiciones en infraestructura para que haya accesibilidad a ella, promoviendo así hábitos de consumo saludables, cumpliendo con su compromiso con la salud de la población.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Humanos , Universidades , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Ingestión de Líquidos , Abastecimiento de Agua
19.
J Environ Radioact ; 259-260: 107124, 2023 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36724575

RESUMEN

Gross alpha, a measurement of radioactivity in drinking water, is the most frequent laboratory test to exceed primary drinking water standards among wells tested under the New Jersey Private Well Testing Act (NJ PWTA). Certain geological factors prevalent in New Jersey (NJ) are primarily responsible for the presence of radioactivity in private well drinking water and thus, many of the estimated one million private well users in NJ may be at-risk of water contamination from naturally occurring radionuclides. Neighbor-based private well outreach methodology was utilized to identify high risk wells in both northern and southern NJ regions and offer free private well testing for radionuclides. Previously tested wells with gross alpha exceeding or equal to 3.7 becquerels per liter (Bq L-1; 100 pCi/L) were selected (n = 49) to identify neighbors (n = 406) within 152.4 m (500 feet). Invitation letters were mailed to selected neighbors and some of the previously tested high wells (n = 12) offering free water sampling for the following parameters: gross alpha (48-hour rapid test), combined radium-226 and radium-228 (Ra-226 + Ra-228), uranium-238 (U-238), radon-222 (Rn-222) and iron. Overall, 70 neighbors and 5 high PWTA wells participated in this free water testing opportunity. For neighboring wells, gross alpha results revealed 47 (67.1%) wells exceeding the gross alpha MCL of 0.555 Bq L-1 (15 pCi/L) mainly due to radium activity in the raw/untreated water. Of those with water treatment (n = 62), 12 (19.4%) treated water samples exceeded the gross alpha MCL. Targeting neighbors of known highly radioactive wells for private well testing is an effective public health outreach method and can also provide useful insight of regional contaminant variations.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Monitoreo de Radiación , Radiactividad , Radio (Elemento) , Radón , Uranio , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua , Uranio/análisis , Monitoreo de Radiación/métodos , Pozos de Agua , Radioisótopos/análisis , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua/análisis , Radio (Elemento)/análisis
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(3): 381, 2023 Feb 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36757435

RESUMEN

Karachi is the largest industrial metropolitan of Pakistan facing an acute water shortage which is leading to an overdraft of groundwater resources in the city. Groundwater is an important freshwater resource for the city as millions of people depend for sustenance. However, over-exploitation of groundwater has led to decreased groundwater levels within the city leading to environmental issues of depleting aquifers, deteriorating groundwater quality, land subsidence, and harm to groundwater-dependent ecosystems. The objective of the study was to assess the potential groundwater accumulation zones by integrating hydrogeological aspects of the city through nine thematic layers using the Geographic Information System (GIS) based multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) technique. The potential groundwater accumulation map reveals that 20% of the area has a low potential, 70% has moderate potential, and around 10% of the area in the city is composed of a high potential accumulation zone. The upstream regions of the city have the highest recharge potential because of sandy soil and barren land use, which promote high infiltration rates. The urbanized downstream areas have the lowest recharge potential due to impervious fabric. The findings reveal that the MCDA technique can be used with confidence in data-scarce regions for groundwater resource assessment and management. The recharge potential map can help better manage groundwater resources in the city by helping explore groundwater extraction opportunities and could hint at areas suitable for artificial recharge wells/ponds.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Agua Subterránea , Humanos , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Agua Subterránea/análisis , Abastecimiento de Agua
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