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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 472-480, 2022 Jan 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989532

RESUMEN

The bioavailability of heavy metals in soil and the physiological activities of rice determine the accumulation of heavy metals in brown rice. In this study, a field experiment was conducted in a rice paddy in which the total amount of Cd in the soil did not exceed the national standard, whereas the Cd in rice grains was at risk of overreaching in the suburbs of Guangzhou city. The bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil and the physiological barrier of rice were taken as the starting point. The early and late rice yield, brown rice heavy metal content, Cd and Pb enrichment coefficient, total soil heavy metals, soil physical and chemical properties, and soil Cd and Pb species distribution were investigated under the Si-rich amendment (JD), Ca-Mg amendment (YY), Si-rich amendment+flooding irrigation (JD+YS), and Ca-Mg amendment+flooding irrigation (YY+YS) treatments. The results showed that:① the total ω(Cd) in the soil was only 0.13 mg·kg-1 in the CK treatment. However, the average ω(Cd) in the grain of early rice reached up to 0.19 mg·kg-1. The early rice varieties (hybrid rice) had a more vital ability to accumulate Cd and total As in brown rice than that in late rice varieties (conventional rice) but a lower capacity for Pb accumulation. ② JD and YY application alone had no noticeable inhibitory effect on the accumulation of Cd and Pb in brown rice; however, JD+YS and YY+YS treatments significantly inhibited the accumulation of Cd and Pb in brown rice in both early and late rice, especially in the JD+YS treatment, which decreased the Cd and Pb accumulation by 65.8% and 68% for early rice and by 71.43% and 49.15% for late rice, respectively. The primary mechanism of JD+YS was to increase soil pH and maintain a low redox potential to promote soil Cd and Pb to be transformed from acid-soluble to a reduced state and residue state, thus decreasing Cd and Pb to migrate from the soil to the rice. At the same time, it effectively suppressed the absorption and transportation of Cd and Pb by early and late rice via the physiological barrier effect of Si nutrition and the competition for transportation channels between calcium and magnesium ions and cadmium and inhibited the accumulation of Cd and Pb in the brown rice of early and late rice. These results provide a theoretical basis for the exploration and application of the control technologies in the brown rice Cd and Pb resistance and have important practical significance for guiding the safe production in the rice-growing area in South China.


Asunto(s)
Oryza , Contaminantes del Suelo , Cadmio/análisis , Plomo , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
2.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt A): 113949, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872171

RESUMEN

Social distancing policies (SDPs) implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have led to temporal and spatial shifts in water demand across cities. Water utilities need to understand these demand shifts to respond to potential operational and water-quality issues. Aided by a fixed-effects model of citywide water demand in Austin, Texas, we explore the impacts of various SDPs (e.g., time after the stay home-work safe order, reopening phases) using daily demand data gathered between 2013 and 2020. Our approach uses socio-technical determinants (e.g., climate, water conservation policy) with SDPs to model water demand, while accounting for spatial and temporal effects (e.g., geographic variations, weekday patterns). Results indicate shifts in behavior of residential and nonresidential demands that offset the change at the system scale, demonstrating a spatial redistribution of water demand after the stay home-work safe order. Our results show that some phases of Texas's reopening phases had statistically significant relationships to water demand. While this yielded only marginal net effects on overall demand, it underscores behavioral changes in demand at sub-system spatial scales. Our discussions shed light on SDPs' impacts on water demand. Equipped with our empirical findings, utilities can respond to potential vulnerabilities in their systems, such as water-quality problems that may be related to changes in water pressure in response to demand variations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Agua , Humanos , Pandemias , Distanciamiento Físico , Políticas , Dinámica Poblacional , SARS-CoV-2 , Abastecimiento de Agua
3.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt A): 114009, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872175

RESUMEN

Green infrastructure (GI) is becoming a common solution to mitigate stormwater-related problems. Given the uncertain costs of GI relative to other stormwater management strategies, stakeholders investing in GI need performance-analysis tools that consider the full suite of benefits and the impacts of uncertainty to help justify GI expenditures. This study provides a quantitative and comparative analysis of GI benefits, including nutrient uptake from stormwater and air pollutant deposition. Economic costs and benefits of GI are assessed using two metrics, benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) and nutrient removal costs, at three scales: household, subwatershed, and watershed scale. Results from a case study in the state of Maryland show that the costs of nutrient uptake at the subwatershed scale can be lower than those at either the watershed or household scales. Moreover, rain gardens are far more efficient in stormwater treatment at the household scale in comparison to watershed scale, for which large-scale dry or wet basins are more efficient. Using a BCR metric, smaller subwatersheds show more promise, while using a nutrient removal cost metric indicates that upstream subwatersheds are more suitable for stormwater treatment. The results also show that implementation of GI at all potential pervious locations does not necessarily increase nutrient removal costs and that self-installation of rain gardens greatly reduces nutrient removal costs. Finally, the results show that using numerous small-sized rain garden practices in front of residential buildings yields lower nutrient removal costs in comparison to permeable pavements placed in parking lots and commercial buildings.


Asunto(s)
Lluvia , Purificación del Agua , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Incertidumbre , Abastecimiento de Agua
4.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113884, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607140

RESUMEN

Allocation of water over its six dimensions of quantity, quality, timing, location, price, and cost remains an ongoing challenge facing water resource planning worldwide. This challenge is magnified with growing evidence of climate change and related water supply stressors. This stress will challenge food, energy, and water systems as climate adaptation policy measures see continued debate. Despite numerous achievements made many by previous works, few attempts have scanned the literature on economic optimization analysis for water resources planning to discover affordable climate adaptation measures. This paper aims to fill that gap by reviewing the literature on water resource optimization analysis at the basin scale to guide discovery of affordable climate adaptation measures. It does so by posing the question "What principles, practices, and recent developments are available to guide discovery of policy measures to improve water resource system adaptions to growing evidence of climate water stress?" It describes past achievements and identifies improvements needed for optimization analysis to inform policy debates for crafting plans to improve climate resilience. It describes an economic conceptual framework as well as identifying data needs for conducting economic optimization exercises to support river basin planning faced by the challenge of managing the six water dimensions described above. It presents an example from an ongoing issue facing water planners in the Middle East. Conclusions find considerable utility in the use of economic optimization exercises to guide climate water stressadaptation. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Recursos Hídricos , Abastecimiento de Agua , Ríos
5.
Talanta ; 239: 123141, 2022 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34920262

RESUMEN

Since daily drinking water is one of the major source for the ingestion of radiotoxic 222Rn and 226Ra, the demand for a simple method to determine these two radionuclides has significantly increased. In the present study, a rapid, simple sequential analysis method for determining 222Rn and 226Ra in drinking water using a liquid scintillation counter was developed. The method employs solvent extraction and correction equations for the effect of native 222Rn for 226Ra analysis. Validation and examination of applicability for drinking water analysis were conducted using 222Rn-injected water and 226Ra standard source. Minimum required counting times for examining drinking water on Quantulus 1220 and Hidex 300SL were estimated via minimum detectable activity depending on the counting time. In addition, the correction method, including an equation for reducing analysis time by more than 10 days, was suggested based on the analytical results for different elapsed times between sampling and measurement.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Monitoreo de Radiación , Radio (Elemento) , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua , Radio (Elemento)/análisis , Conteo por Cintilación , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua/análisis , Abastecimiento de Agua
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 44-50, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932451

RESUMEN

Legionella pneumophila is the cause of Legionnaires' disease, a life-threatening pneumonia that occurs after inhalation of aerosolized water containing the bacteria. Legionella growth occurs in stagnant, warm-to-hot water (77°F-113°F) that is inadequately disinfected. Piped hot spring water in Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, USA, has naturally high temperatures (>135°F) that prevent Legionella growth, and Legionnaires' disease has not previously been associated with the park or other hot springs in the United States. During 2018-2019, Legionnaires' disease occurred in 5 persons after they visited the park; 3 of these persons were potentially exposed in spa facilities that used untreated hot spring water. Environmental testing revealed Legionella bacteria in piped spring water, including 134°F stagnant pipe water. These findings underscore the importance of water management programs to reduce Legionella growth in plumbing through control activities such as maintaining hot water temperatures, reducing stored water age, and ensuring adequate water flow.


Asunto(s)
Manantiales de Aguas Termales , Legionella pneumophila , Enfermedad de los Legionarios , Arkansas , Humanos , Enfermedad de los Legionarios/epidemiología , Enfermedad de los Legionarios/prevención & control , Parques Recreativos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Agua , Microbiología del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
8.
Chemosphere ; 290: 133145, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921856

RESUMEN

Excessive heavy metal content in drinking water could lead to red water and acute and chronic diseases. A field study in combination with batch experiments using pipe scales of drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) in the study area, was used to determine the content distribution and migration of As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb, and V in DWDS. In the field study, As, Cd, Cr, Pb, and V contents in pipe scales and drinking water were extremely low and did not exceed the Chinese drinking water standards. However, Mn concentrations at the end of the DWDS with aged and corrosive pipes were relatively high, which presented a risk of excessive release. The batch experiment showed that As in pipe scales would not be released into water under static immersion conditions; however, pipe scales would release excessive Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb, and V in the initial reaction stage, and the heavy metal contents released by tubercle scales in the initial release stage were at least twice as much as those released by loose scales. The mass percentage of four metals (excluding Cd and Pb) released from pipe scales was extremely low. The field study and batch experiment data both suggested a strong correlation between Cr and V released into the water, indicating a synergistic effect. There were differences in heavy metals released in the field research and the batch experiment. The amount of Cd, Cr, Pb, and V released were not consistent with its proportion in pipe scales. As release did not occur under static conditions, but may be promoted by the water flow in the actual network. The effect of water flow on heavy metal release in DWDS should be considered.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , China , Corrosión , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales Pesados/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Abastecimiento de Agua
9.
Environ Pollut ; 296: 118755, 2022 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971741

RESUMEN

Water shortages are an issue of growing worldwide concern. Irrigated agriculture accounts for about 70% of total freshwater withdrawals globally, therefore alternatives to use of conventional sources need to be investigated. This paper critically reviews the application of treated wastewater for agricultural fertigation (i.e., water and nutrient recovery) considering different perspectives: legislation, agronomic characteristics, social acceptability, sustainability of treatment technologies. Critical issues that still need further investigation for a wider application of fertigation practices include accumulation of emerging contaminants in soils, microbiological and public health implications, and stakeholders' acceptance. A techno-economic methodological approach for assessing the sustainability of treated wastewater reuse in agriculture is subsequently proposed herein, which considers different possible local conditions (cultivated crops and effluent characteristics). The results showed that tailoring effluent characteristics to the desired nutrient composition could enhance the process economic sustainability; however, water savings have a major economic impact than fertilizers' savings, partly due to limited P reuse efficiency. The developed methodology is based on a practical approach and may be generalized to most agricultural conditions, to evaluate and encourage safe and efficient agricultural wastewater reuse practices.


Asunto(s)
Aguas Residuales , Purificación del Agua , Agricultura , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
10.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111729, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478727

RESUMEN

This study was focused on identifying the region suitable for agriculture-based, using new irrigation groundwater quality plot and its spatio-temporal variation with fuzzy logic technique in a geographic information system (GIS) platform. Six hundred and eighty groundwater samples were collected during pre, southwest, northeast, and post monsoon periods. A new ternary plot was also attempted to determine the irrigation suitability of water by considering four essential parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), permeability index (PI), Sodium percentage (Na %), and electrical conductivity (EC). The derived ternary plot was the most beneficial over other available plots, as it incorporated four parameters, and it differs from the US Salinity Laboratory (USSL) plot, such that the groundwater with higher EC could also be used for irrigation purposes, depending on the Na%. The ternary plot revealed that the groundwater predominantly manifested good to moderate category during post, northeast, and southwest monsoons. The assessment with the amount of fertilizer used during the study period showed that the NPK fertilizers were effectively used for irrigation during monsoon periods. Spatial maps on EC, Kelly's ratio, Mg hazard, Na%, PI, potential salinity (PS), SAR, residual sodium carbonate (RSC), and soluble sodium percentage (SSP) were prepared for each season using fuzzy membership values, integrated for each season. A final suitability map derived by an overlay of all the seasonal outputs has identified that the groundwater in the western and the eastern part of the study area are suitable for agriculture. The study recommends cultivation of groundwater-dependent short-term crops, along the western and northern regions of the study area during the pre-monsoon season.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Agua Potable/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Lógica Difusa , India , Análisis Espacial , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
11.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 238-246, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576944

RESUMEN

Intestinal nutrition has a close association with the onset and development of fluorosis. Intestinal microbes play a major role in intestinal nutrition. However, the effect of fluoride on intestinal microbes is still not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the dose-response of fluoride on fecal microbes as well as the link between fluorosis and fecal microbes. The results showed that fluoride did not significantly alter the diversity of fecal microbiota, but richness estimators (ACE and Chao) increased first, and then decreased with the increase of water fluoride. At the genus level, 150 mg/L fluoride significantly reduced the abundances of Roseburia and Clostridium sensu stricto, and 100 mg/L and 150 mg/L fluoride obviously increased the abundances of Unclassified Ruminococcaceaes and Unclassified Bdellovibrionales, respectively. The correlation analysis showed fluoride exposure had a negative association with Roseburia and Turicibacter and was positively associated with Pelagibacterium, Unclassified Ruminococcaceae, and Unclassified Bdellovibrionales. Dental fluorosis was negatively associated with Clostridium sensu stricto, Roseburia, Turicibacter, and Paenalcaligenes and had a positive association with Pelagibacterium, Unclassified Ruminococcaceae, and Unclassified Bdellovibrionales. In conclusion, this study firstly reports fluoride in drinking water has a remarkable biphasic effect on fecal microbiota in rats, and some bacteria are significantly associated with fluoride exposure and dental fluorosis. These results indicate the gut microbiota may play an important role in fluorosis, and some bacteria are likely to be developed as biomarkers for fluorosis.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Fluorosis Dental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animales , Fluoruros/toxicidad , Ratas , Abastecimiento de Agua
12.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131586, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303907

RESUMEN

Monitoring of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in water supply system is important to ensure safety of drinking water. Yet it is a laborious job. Developing predictive DBPs models using simple and easy parameters is a promising way. Yet current models could not be well applied into practice because of the improper dataset (e.g. not from real tap water) they used or involving the parameters that are difficult to measure or require expensive instruments. In this study, four simple and easy water quality parameters (temperature, pH, UVA254 and Cl2) were used to predict trihalomethane (THMs) occurrence in tap water. Linear/log linear regression models (LRM) and radial basis function artificial neural network (RBF ANN) were adopted to develop the THMs models. 64 observations from tap water samples were used to develop and test models. Results showed that only one or two parameters entered LRMs, and their prediction ability was very limited (testing datasets: N25 = 46-69%, rp = 0.334-0.459). Different from LRM, the prediction accuracy of RBF ANNs developed with pH, temperature, UVA254 and Cl2 can be improved continuously by tweaking the maximum number of neuron (MN) and Gaussian function spread (S) until it reached best. The optimum RBF ANNs of T-THMs, TCM and BDCM were obtained when setting MN = 20, S = 100, 100.1 and 60, respectively, where the N25 and rp values for testing datasets reached 85-92% and 0.813-0.886, respectively. Accurate predictions of THMs by RBF ANNs with these four simple and easy parameters paved an economic and convenient way for THMs monitoring in real water supply system.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Desinfectantes/análisis , Desinfección , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Trihalometanos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126714, 2022 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325293

RESUMEN

Cryptosporidium is a critical waterborne protozoan pathogen found in water resources that have been a major cause of death and serious illnesses worldwide, costing millions of dollars annually for its detection and treatment. Over the past several decades, substantial efforts have been made towards developing techniques for the detection of Cryptosporidium. Early diagnostic techniques were established based on the existing tools in laboratories, such as microscopes. Advancements in fluorescence microscopy, immunological, and molecular techniques have led to the development of several kits for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. However, these methods have several limitations, such as long processing times, large sample volumes, the requirement for bulky and expensive laboratory tools, and the high cost of reagents. There is an urgent need to improve these existing techniques and develop low-cost, portable and rapid detection tools for applications in the water quality industry. In this review, we compare recent advances in nanotechnology, biosensing and microfluidics that have facilitated the development of sophisticated tools for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp.Finally, we highlight the advantages and disadvantages, of these state-of-the-art detection methods compared to current analytical methodologies and discuss the need for future developments to improve such methods for detecting Cryptosporidium in the water supply chain to enable real-time and on-site monitoring in water resources and remote areas.


Asunto(s)
Cryptosporidium , Abastecimiento de Agua , Criptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Calidad del Agua
14.
Environ Res ; 203: 111899, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416251

RESUMEN

IoT is a secure communication technology used to transfer data from a physical entity to a device with intelligent analysis tools through a wireless channel. The wastewater treatment method extracts pollutants and transforms them into effluents added to the water supply with minimal environmental effects or recovered directly. The major issue is monitoring the disposal of sewage in the treatment plants. Hence, this paper, Surveillance-based Sewage Wastewater Monitoring System (SSWMS) with IoT, has been proposed for monitoring wastewater treatment and improving water quality. A smart water sensor enabled by IoT monitors water quality, water pressure, and water temperature and quantifies water dynamics to map water flow through the entire treatment facility. The proposed method calculates the wastewater treatment facility's effectiveness and ensures that chemical releases are maintained below allowable levels. Thus, the experimental results show the improved recycling water quality level is raised to 97.98%, enhancing secure communication and less moisture content when compared to other methods.


Asunto(s)
Internet de las Cosas , Purificación del Agua , Internet , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150618, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592272

RESUMEN

Most Americans receive their drinking water from publicly supplied sources, a large portion of it from groundwater. Mapping these populations consistently and at a high resolution is important for understanding where the resource is used and needs to be protected. The results show that 269 million people are supplied by public supply, 107 million are supplied by groundwater and 162 million are supplied by surface water. The population using public supply drinking water was mapped in two ways: the census enhanced method (CEM) evenly distributes the population across populated census blocks, and the urban land-use enhanced method (ULUEM) distributes the population only to certain urban land use designations. In addition, a two-dimensional polygon dataset was created for the conterminous U.S. that identifies 177 unique Hydrogeologic Mapping Units (HMUs) with similar hydrogeologic characteristics. The HMUs do not overlap, but they can delineate areas where stacked hydrogeologic regions (HRs) contribute drinking water from below the surface. HRs are waterbearing geologic regions identified as either a principal aquifers (PA) or secondary hydrogeologic regions (SHR). Within each HMU, the wells were used to determine the proportion of each HR that is providing groundwater to the HMU. In 63% of the HMUs, a single HR is providing water to the public supply wells located within it, while the rest of the HMUs show that the wells are tapping up to a maximum of four stacked HRs. In total, groundwater from 108 HRs provide drinking water for public supply, six of which provide more than 50% of the groundwater used for public supply drinking water. The aquifer serving the largest number of equivalent people (>17 million) is the glacial aquifer. The HR providing the greatest number of people per km2 is the Biscayne aquifer in Florida at nearly 453 people per km2.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Abastecimiento de Agua , Pozos de Agua
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150616, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592279

RESUMEN

Stagnant water can cause water quality deterioration and, in particular, microbiological contaminations, posing potential health risks to occupants. University buildings were unoccupied with little water usage during the COVID-19 pandemic. It's an opportunity to study microbiological quality of long-term stagnant water (LTSW) in university buildings. The tap water samples were collected for three months from four types of campus buildings to monitor water quality and microbial risks after long-term stagnation. Specifically, the residual chlorine, turbidity, and iron/zinc were disqualified, and the heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) exceeded the Chinese national standard above 100 times. It took 4-54 days for these parameters to recover to the routine levels. Six species of pathogens were detected with high frequency and levels (101-105 copies/100 mL). Remarkably, L. pneumophilia occurred in 91% of samples with turbidity > 1 NTU. The absence of the culturable cells for these bacteria possibly implied their occurrence in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) status. The bacterial community of the stagnant tap water differed significantly and reached a steady state in more than 50 days. Furthermore, a high concentration of endotoxin (>10 EU/mL) was found in LTSW, which was in accordance with the high proportion of dead bacteria. The results suggested that the increased microbiological risks require more attention and the countermeasures before the building reopens should be taken.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Abastecimiento de Agua , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Universidades , Microbiología del Agua , Calidad del Agua
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150598, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597537

RESUMEN

This longitudinal flood-relief study assessed the impact of the March 2019 Cyclone Idai flood event on E. coli contamination of hand-pumped boreholes in Mulanje District, Malawi. It established the microbiological water-quality safety of 279 community supplies over three phases, each comprising water-quality survey, rehabilitation and treatment verification monitoring. Phase 1 contamination three months after Idai was moderate, but likely underestimated. Increased contamination in Phase 2 at 9 months and even greater in Phase 3, a year after Idai was surprising and concerning, with 40% of supplies then registering E. coli contamination and 20% of supplies deemed 'unsafe'. Without donor support for follow-up interventions, this would have been missed by a typical single-phase flood-relief activity. Contamination rebound at boreholes successfully treated months earlier signifies a systemic problem from persistent sources intensified by groundwater levels likely at a decade high. Problem extent in normal, or drier years is unknown due to absence of routine monitoring of water point E. coli in Malawi. Statistical analysis was not conclusive, but was indicative of damaged borehole infrastructure and increased near-borehole pit-latrine numbers being influential. Spatial analysis including groundwater flow-field definition (an overlooked sector opportunity) revealed 'hit-and-miss' contamination of safe and unsafe boreholes in proximity. Hydrogeological control was shown by increased contamination near flood-affected area and in more recent recharge groundwater otherwise of good quality. Pit latrines are presented as credible e-coli sources in a conceptual model accounting for heterogeneous borehole contamination, wet season influence and rebound behavior. Critical to establish are groundwater level - flow direction, hand-pump plume draw, multiple footprint latrine sources - 'skinny' plumes, borehole short-circuiting and fast natural pathway (e.g. fracture flow) and other source influences. Concerted WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) sector investment in research and policy driving national water point based E. coli monitoring programs are advocated.


Asunto(s)
Tormentas Ciclónicas , Agua Subterránea , Escherichia coli , Inundaciones , Abastecimiento de Agua
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150549, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600211

RESUMEN

Pipe scales that form in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) can accumulate pollutants that may be re-released into bulk water, posing a significant threat to water safety. This study aims to evaluate the pollutant enrichment capacity of the pipe scale and identify speciation changes in heavy metals under variations in water quality. When the water quality conditions changed, the forms of inorganic metal elements in drinking water pipe scales also changed and the proportion of unstable forms increased, thereby increasing the risk of secondary pollution. Morphological analysis showed that the pipe scale samples had porous structures and large specific surface areas (the maximum was 52.94 m2/g, which is higher than that of many natural adsorbents), which could promote the accumulation of contaminants. XRD profiles also showed that the pipe scale samples were rich in substances with heavy metal adsorption capacities, such as Fe3O4. As the pH changed from 6 to 10, no significant difference in the release of heavy metals was found. The maximum release of Cu, Cr, As, Pb, and Cd at pH 8 was 0.56, 0.51, 1.82, 0.84, and 0.72 µg/g, respectively. Although the amounts were small, the speciation distribution of the heavy metals changed significantly. In addition, the proportion of unstable fractions increased, which increased the release risk of the pipe scale. The presence of humic acid accelerated the dissolution of organic matter and metals in the pipe scale, which further proved that the pipe scales were unstable and susceptible to water quality conditions. The pipe scales could not maintain stability when the water quality changed, and the DWDS should be regularly monitored and cleaned when necessary.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Metales Pesados/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150811, 2022 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626637

RESUMEN

Groundwater represents the most important available freshwater reserves and is of critical importance to global water and food security. Old environmental burdens that have led to the spread of contaminants in groundwater limit its use, thus interventions to mitigate contamination must often be carried out to ensure a safe drinking water supply. This study presents the optimization of well field management designs to reduce the desethylatrazine (DEA) concentration in the deep wells of the Brest Water Works (Central Slovenia). It investigates artificial recharge by injection wells using water from the nearby river and elaborates five well field management scenarios prioritizing different objectives. A multi-objective simulation-optimization framework was developed. A transient groundwater flow and solute transport model was applied to simulate the effects of the proposed recharge and pumping regimes. The shuffled complex evolution method was used to identify optimal values of well field management variables (location of injection well(s), minimum required injection rate, maximum pumping rate from production well) in the proposed scenarios. Model simulations showed that optimized well field management designs can significantly reduce DEA concentration in production wells (below 0.05 µg/L), assure compliance with water quality standards with (26%) reduced injection rate, and, with the implementation of two injection wells, achieve lower DEA concentration and higher pumping rate (up to 27 L/s). The optimization solutions depend on the defined well field management priorities and reveal a trade-off between the objectives (reduction of DEA concentration, increase of pumping rate, and reduction of injection rate). The impact of management variables on mitigation efficiency is not uniform and largely depends on the location of the injection well(s), which increases the complexity of mitigation design. The study has shown that the presented approach can be efficiently used for finding optimal mitigation designs and supporting water managers with information for planning mitigation measures.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Algoritmos , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua , Pozos de Agua
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151342, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728204

RESUMEN

The co-contamination with cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) in the paddy soil is the most seriously combined pollution of toxic elements in China, and it is rather difficult to decrease bioavailable Cd and As levels in soil because of the opposite ionic forms of bioavailable Cd (cation) and As (anion). This study explored the optimal conditions of Eh and pH in different soils for simultaneous decrease of Cd and As bioavailabilities in the soil-rice system through soil culture and rice pot experiments under water management strategies. The results showed that near neutral soil pH (7.0) were eventually observed under long-term flooding conditions. Under unflooded conditions, soil pH is the dominant factor influencing bioavailabilities of Cd and As, while under flooded conditions, Eh becomes the most important factor. Pot experiments showed that flooding significantly reduced the Cd concentration in rice grains from 54.5% to 95.5%, but concomitantly increased rice As concentration substantially (214%-302%). By evaluating the trade-off value between the bioavailabilities of Cd and As in the soil, the minimal trade-off value was obtained when the soil Eh was -130 mV and the pH was 6.8.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Oryza , Contaminantes del Suelo , Arsénico/análisis , Cadmio/análisis , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Agua , Contaminación del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
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