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2.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 110239, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059842

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The water footprint provided a full methodology to operationalise the virtual water concept (the volume of water used along a supply chain to produce products and services). A key theme in the water footprint literature is the efficient allocation of water resources at the global scale given the feasibility of trading water intensive commodities from water rich to water poor areas: this is an economic problem of resource allocation between alternative and competing demands, albeit with a novel international component. Moreover, given that price signals indicating relative scarcity are usually either absent or distorted for water, it is also a problem that can be seen through the lens of environmental (or non-market) valuation. However, to date environmental valuation has not been used to inform the efficient use and allocation of water within and between the different locations encompassed by international supply chains. METHODS: Drawing on an agri-food supply chain framework that we propose in this paper, we begin by conceptualising the economic values that accrue to water consumption (blue and green water) and degradation (grey water) at different points along a supply chain. Based on this conceptualisation, we assess the extent to which it is possible to approximate these economic values by relying on existing secondary data on the shadow value of water in different contexts. The use of secondary data in this way is known as benefit (or value) transfer. To achieve this, 706 unit estimates of the economic value of water are collected, standardised and reviewed encompassing off-stream water applications (agriculture, industry and municipal) and in-stream ecosystem services (waste assimilation, wildlife habitat, recreation, hydrological functions and passive uses). From this, a proposed methodology for valuing virtual water is presented and illustrated using the case study of global durum wheat pasta production. RESULTS: The case study shows the total value of the virtual water used to produce one tonne of durum wheat pasta ($212). More importantly, the case study also highlights how variations in economic value between multiple locations where durum wheat is cultivated (Saskatchewan $0.10 m3, Arizona $0.08 m3 and Baja California $0.24 m3) indicate relative water scarcity and thus impact, as well as the potential for a more efficient allocation of virtual water. CONCLUSIONS: The main conclusion from this research is that when geographical disparities in the economic value of water use within a supply chain are accounted for, what was perhaps considered sustainable in volume terms, might not, in fact, represent the optimal allocation. However, future research opportunities highlight the need for additional data collection on the economic value of water in several contexts. This additional data would help the environmental valuation community to undertake a more comprehensive and robust approach to virtual water valuation. This paper is accompanied by the Data in Brief article entitled "Dataset on the in-stream and off-stream economic value of water."


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Agua , Agua , Arizona , Ecosistema , México
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4099-4120, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027347

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has been most severe in the poorest regions of Brazil, such as the states of the Northeast Region. The lack of national policies for pandemic control forced state and municipal authorities to implement public health measures. The aim of this study is to show the effect of these measures on the epidemic. The highest incidence of COVID-19 among the nine states in the Northeast was recorded in Sergipe, Paraíba and Ceará. Piauí, Paraíba and Ceará were the states that most tested. Factors associated with transmission included the high proportion of people in informal work. States with international airports played an important role in the entry of the virus and the initial spread, especially Ceará. All states applied social distancing measures, banned public events and closed schools. The response was a significant increase in social distancing, especially in Ceará and Pernambuco, a decline in the reproduction rate (Rt), and a separation of the curve of observed cases versus expected cases if the non-pharmacological interventions had not been implemented in all states. Poverty, inequality, and the high rates of informal work provide clues to the intensity of COVID-19 in the region. On the other hand, the measures taken early by the governments mitigated the effects of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Política Pública , Brasil/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuarentena , Gobierno Estatal , Abastecimiento de Agua
4.
J Environ Qual ; 49(3): 582-592, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016386

RESUMEN

We developed a GIS-based tool that values, in a spatially explicit way, the ecosystem services generated by water quality improvements resulting from adoption of agricultural best management practices (BMPs). The tool is calibrated for watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay drainage and includes the benefits from water quality improvements within targeted watersheds, water quality improvements downstream from targeted watersheds, and reductions in pollutant loadings to Chesapeake Bay. The tool is used to investigate specific BMP scenarios adopted within specific watersheds. The results show that (i) BMP adoption generates large positive net benefits to society, with benefit/cost ratios ranging from 22 to 276; (ii) by selecting cost effective BMPs and placing them in the most appropriate places, the cost of meeting pollutant reduction targets would be reduced by 34-71%; and (iii) net benefits from BMP adoption are higher when they are implemented close to or upstream from population centers.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Calidad del Agua , Agricultura , Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238385, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936810

RESUMEN

A lack of replicable test systems that realistically simulate hot water premise plumbing conditions at the laboratory-scale is an obstacle to identifying key factors that support growth of opportunistic pathogens (OPs) and opportunities to stem disease transmission. Here we developed the convectively-mixed pipe reactor (CMPR) as a simple reproducible system, consisting of off-the-shelf plumbing materials, that self-mixes through natural convective currents and enables testing of multiple, replicated, and realistic premise plumbing conditions in parallel. A 10-week validation study was conducted, comparing three pipe materials (PVC, PVC-copper, and PVC-iron; n = 18 each) to stagnant control pipes without convective mixing (n = 3 each). Replicate CMPRs were found to yield consistent water chemistry as a function of pipe material, with differences becoming less discernable by week 9. Temperature, an overarching factor known to control OP growth, was consistently maintained across all 54 CMPRs, with a coefficient of variation <2%. Dissolved oxygen (DO) remained lower in PVC-iron (1.96 ± 0.29 mg/L) than in PVC (5.71 ± 0.22 mg/L) or PVC-copper (5.90 ± 0.38 mg/L) CMPRs as expected due to corrosion. Further, DO in PVC-iron CMPRs was 33% of that observed in corresponding stagnant pipes (6.03 ± 0.33 mg/L), demonstrating the important role of internal convective mixing in stimulating corrosion and microbiological respiration. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing indicated that both bulk water (Padonis = 0.001, R2 = 0.222, Pbetadis = 0.785) and biofilm (Padonis = 0.001, R2 = 0.119, Pbetadis = 0.827) microbial communities differed between CMPR versus stagnant pipes, consistent with creation of a distinct ecological niche. Overall, CMPRs can provide a more realistic simulation of certain aspects of premise plumbing than reactors commonly applied in prior research, at a fraction of the cost, space, and water demand of large pilot-scale rigs.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/efectos adversos , Agua Potable/microbiología , Ingeniería Sanitaria/instrumentación , Microbiología del Agua , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fenómenos Químicos , Cobre/química , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos , Hierro/química , Microbiota/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Infecciones Oportunistas/etiología , Infecciones Oportunistas/microbiología , Cloruro de Polivinilo/química , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Temperatura , Abastecimiento de Agua
6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 2020 09 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924345

RESUMEN

The advent of the global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) necessitates a thorough study of the stability and transmissibility in the environment. We characterized the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in three water matrices: fresh, tap, and seawater. The minimum infective dose of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells was confirmed to be 10³ PFU/mL. The stability of SARS-CoV-2 varied according to the water matrix: infective SARS-CoV-2 was undetectable after treatment with fresh water and seawater, but remained detectable for 2 days in tap water, when starting with an initial concentration of 104 PFU/mL. When the starting concentration was increased to 105 PFU/mL, a similar trend was observed. In addition, viral RNA persisted longer than infectious virus in all water matrices. This study was conducted in stagnant water containing a significantly high titer of virus, thus, human-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through the actual aquatic environment is expected to be rare.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Agua Potable/virología , Agua Dulce/virología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Agua de Mar/virología , Microbiología del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua , Animales , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Células Vero , Carga Viral , Cultivo de Virus , Inactivación de Virus
7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 124, 2020 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867851

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was confirmed in Brazil in February 2020. Since then, the disease has spread throughout the country, reaching the poorest areas. This study analyzes the relationship between COVID-19 and the population's living conditions. We aimed to identify social determinants related to the incidence, mortality, and case fatality rate of COVID-19 in Brazil, in 2020. METHODS: This is an ecological study evaluating the relationship between COVID-19 incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates and 49 social indicators of human development and social vulnerability. For the analysis, bivariate spatial correlation and multivariate and spatial regression models (spatial lag model and spatial error models) were used, considering a 95% confidence interval and a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: A total of 44.8% of municipalities registered confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 14.7% had deaths. We observed that 56.2% of municipalities with confirmed cases had very low human development (COVID-19 incidence rate: 59.00/100 000; mortality rate: 36.75/1 000 000), and 52.8% had very high vulnerability (COVID-19 incidence rate: 41.68/100 000; mortality rate: 27.46/1 000 000). The regression model showed 17 indicators associated with transmission of COVID-19 in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Although COVID-19 first arrived in the most developed and least vulnerable municipalities in Brazil, it has already reached locations that are farther from large urban centers, whose populations are exposed to a context of intense social vulnerability. Based on these findings, it is necessary to adopt measures that take local social aspects into account in order to contain the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Intervalos de Confianza , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Educación , Empleo , Humanos , Incidencia , Renta , Longevidad , Análisis Multivariante , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Pobreza , Análisis de Regresión , Saneamiento , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Condiciones Sociales , Análisis Espacial , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas , Adulto Joven
8.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(4): 540-545, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928345

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To understand the rural sanitary conditions in different geographical areas of Shaanxi Province. METHODS: According to the stratified random sampling method, 30 agriculture-related counties were selected(The central area includes 13 counties in Xi'an, Tongchuan, Weinan, Xianyang and Baoji cities. The southern area includes 10 counties in Hanzhong, Ankang, Shangluo cities. The northern area includes 7 counties in Yulin, Yan'an cities. ). Five townships were selected randomly in each county(excluding Chengguan Town), and 4 administrative villages were selected randomly in each township as survey villages, which were collected the soil samples for testing lead, cadmium and chromium in each subject village, and 5 households were randomly selected in each villages as survey households. The data was obtained through data reading, interviews, on-site observations, and laboratory testing, etc. The detection of soil lead and cadmium was carried out according to the Measurement of Soil Quality Lead and Cadmium by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry(GB/T 17141-1997), and the detection of chromium was carried out according to the Determination of Total Chromium in Soil by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry(HJ 491). The data was statistically analyzed and evaluated according to the central, southern and northern regions. RESULTS: The population coverage of rural centralized water supply in the three regions(central、southern and northern area) was 92. 86%, 75. 49% and 70. 41%, respectively. The penetration rate of sanitary toilets was 28. 18%, 45. 38% and 9. 90%, respectively. The proportion of villages where domestic garbage was randomly stacked was 0. 38%, 4. 00% and 32. 86%, respectively. The proportion of villages where domestic sewage was randomly discharged was 30. 38%, 40. 00% and 60. 00%, respectively. The heavy metals exceeding the standard in the soil were mainly cadmium. The over-standard rates were 4. 62%, 21. 50% and 0. 71%, respectively. The three regional differences of the above result were statistically significant(χ~2=57 676. 74, 18 143. 94, 124. 86, 33. 15 and 54. 12, P<0. 01). CONCLUSION: There was still some decentralized water supply population in the province. The coverage rate of the centralized water supply population and the proportion of drinking water after complete treatment projects were both higher in the central area than in the southern area and northern area. Sanitation toilets have a low penetration rate in the province, which was higher in the southern area than in the central area and the northern area. The domestic garbage was randomly discarded, and domestic sewage was randomly discharged, which was more in the northern area than in the central area and the southern area. Soil cadmium pollution was relatively heavy, mainly in the southern area.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Metales Pesados , Ciudades , Humanos , Saneamiento , Abastecimiento de Agua
9.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 547-579, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943304

RESUMEN

Water is the most important nutrient for rangeland livestock. However, competition with municipalities, industry, and other water users often results in grazing livestock being forced to use water supplies that are less than perfect. Surface water in western rangleands are often contaminated by mineral extraction, irrigation runoff and other human activities. Mineral contaminants in drinking water are additive with similar contaminants in feedstuffs. The goal of this and the subsequent article is to provide producers and veterinarians with the basic background to make informed decisions about whether a given water supply is "safe" for livestock.


Asunto(s)
Ganado/metabolismo , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas , Animales , Sustancias Peligrosas/envenenamiento , Envenenamiento/prevención & control , Envenenamiento/veterinaria , Calidad del Agua
10.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 581-620, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948413

RESUMEN

Water is the most important nutrient for rangeland livestock. However, competition with municipalities, industry, and other water users often results in grazing livestock being forced to use water supplies that are less than perfect. Surface water in western rangleands are often contaminated by mineral extraction, irrigation runoff and other human activities. Mineral contaminants in drinking water are additive with similar contaminants in feedstuffs. The goal of this article is to provide producers and veterinarians with the basic background to make informed decisions about whether a given water supply is "safe" for livestock.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Metales/análisis , Metales/envenenamiento , Calidad del Agua , Agua/normas , Animales , Arsénico/análisis , Intoxicación por Arsénico/prevención & control , Intoxicación por Arsénico/veterinaria , Bovinos , Intoxicación por Flúor/prevención & control , Intoxicación por Flúor/veterinaria , Fluoruros/análisis , Humanos , Agua/análisis , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
11.
Environ Res ; 189: 109936, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980018

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is an active pandemic that likely poses an existential threat to humanity. Frequent handwashing, social distancing, and partial or total lockdowns are among the suite of measures prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and being implemented across the world to contain the pandemic. However, existing inequalities in access to certain basic necessities of life (water, sanitation facility, and food storage) create layered vulnerabilities to COVID-19 and can render the preventive measures ineffective or simply counterproductive. We hypothesized that individuals in households without any of the named basic necessities of life are more likely to violate the preventive (especially lockdown) measures and thereby increase the risk of infection or aid the spread of COVID-19. Based on nationally-representative data for 25 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, multivariate statistical and geospatial analyses were used to investigate whether, and to what extent, household family structure is associated with in-house access to basic needs which, in turn, could reflect on a higher risk of COVID-19 infection. The results indicate that approximately 46% of the sampled households in these countries (except South Africa) did not have in-house access to any of the three basic needs and about 8% had access to all the three basic needs. Five countries had less than 2% of their households with in-house access to all three basic needs. Ten countries had over 50% of their households with no in-house access to all the three basic needs. There is a social gradient in in-house access between the rich and the poor, urban and rural richest, male- and female-headed households, among others. We conclude that SSA governments would need to infuse innovative gender- and age-sensitive support services (such as water supply, portable sanitation) to augment the preventive measures prescribed by the WHO. Short-, medium- and long-term interventions within and across countries should necessarily address the upstream, midstream and downstream determinants of in-house access and the full spectrum of layers of inequalities including individual, interpersonal, institutional, and population levels.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Saneamiento , Abastecimiento de Agua , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Sudáfrica , Agua
12.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 237-249, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879188

RESUMEN

Access to water and sanitation remain a challenge in many developing countries, especially in pro-poor urban informal settlements where socioeconomic livelihoods are generally low. The aim of this study was to characterise the water and sanitation facilities in the informal settlements of Kisumu City and to evaluate their effect on community hygiene and health. The study focussed on the five urban informal settlements of Nyalenda A, Nyalenda B, Manyatta A, Manyatta B and Obunga, and the three Peri-urban informal settlements of Kogony, Usoma and Otonglo. Using descriptive techniques, the researcher surveyed 114 water sources and all sanitation facilities within 0-15 m and 15-30 m radii of the water sources. The findings revealed dominance of shallow wells and traditional pit latrines as the primary water sources and sanitation facilities, respectively. Out of the water sources studied, 87.7% (100) were shallow wells (mean depth 1.5 m), 9.6% (11) springs and 2.6% (3) boreholes. Most of these shallow wells (83%) were within the urban informal settlements where uses range from washing and cleaning, cooking, and even drinking (13.5%), despite the majority being unprotected. The analysis of the density of sanitation facilities near the water points showed that 32.3% existed within a 15 m radius of the nearest water sources, in violation of the recommended safe distance of 30 m. With an increased density of toilets near critical water sources and other sanitary practices, public health is highly compromised.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Salud , Pobreza , Saneamiento , Clase Social , Cuartos de Baño , Salud Urbana , Abastecimiento de Agua , Humanos , Kenia
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008511, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976499

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is endemic in Fiji but its prevalence is not known and likely to have changed after a decade of mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF). By linking with LF transmission assessment surveys (LF-TAS), we undertook the first nation-wide assessment of STH in Fijian primary schools, as well as an analysis of factors associated with STH infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional assessment for STH was conducted in all four Divisions of Fiji from 2014 to 2015. In the Western, Central, and Northern Divisions, schools were sub-sampled after LF-TAS, while, in the Eastern Division, schools were selected via simple random sampling. For the diagnosis of STH, stool samples were examined by coproscopy with a single Kato-Katz thick smear (KK) and the formol-ether-acetate concentration technique, except for the samples from the Eastern Division where only KK was used. Mean prevalence of any STH among class 1-2 students at the national level was 10.5% (95% CI: 6.9-15.5). Across the three Divisions via LF-TAS, the prevalence levels for ascariasis were 8.7% (95% CI: 4.3-16.6), hookworm 3.9% (95% CI: 2.3-6.6) and trichuriasis 0%. In the Eastern Division, ascariasis prevalence was 13.3% (95% CI: 6.4-25.6), and hookworm 0.7% (95% CI: 0.2-2.5), with one case of trichuriasis. Among class 3-8 students, ascariasis prevalence was lower. Lower risk of any STH was associated with wearing shoes (adjusted OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32-0.90) and having piped water from the Fiji Water Authority at home (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.25-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: After a decade of community-based LF-MDA, STH in school-age children in Fiji is now close to 10%, but localities of endemicity remain. Preventive chemotherapy should be maintained in areas with elevated STH prevalence alongside targeted delivery of integrated WASH interventions. LF-TAS has provided an opportunity to develop future public health surveillance platforms.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Filariasis Linfática/epidemiología , Femenino , Fiji/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Prevalencia , Zapatos , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Abastecimiento de Agua
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237668, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877434

RESUMEN

Water hyacinth has been progressively advanced in Lake Tana since 2011 and covered vast areas of the lakeshore. The aim of this study was to assess how the lakeshore covered by the weed mats affected the socioeconomic of the local community. The study was based on a survey of 405 households, 8 group discussions and interviews of 15 key informants conducted from January to March 2018. The results revealed that crop production, livestock feed supply, water supply, fishing, the health of local people and livestock were impacted negatively by the infestation of water hyacinth. The range of socioeconomic problems caused by the weed generally implied the real impacts on the lives of local communities and national economic development. The efforts made to control water hyacinth has costed huge labor and financial resources. The results revealed that close to 800,000 human labor dedicated to manual removal of the weed from 2012 to 2018 and above one million USD spent for procurement of harvester machines and bioagent experiments. In spite of the devotion of huge labor and spending of a lot of money, the expansion of the weed has not controlled. Poor coordination of controlling efforts, dumping of harvested dense mats of the weed in the lakeshore, lack of genuine participation of the local people are principal factors for the failure of the controlling efforts A coordination of various stakeholders thus is needed to make eradicating methods more effective. Other alternative options should also be considered to control the weed expansion.


Asunto(s)
Eichhornia/fisiología , Lagos , Animales , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Etiopía , Composición Familiar , Geografía , Humanos , Ganado , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Abastecimiento de Agua
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 631, 2020 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902699

RESUMEN

In recent years, it has been difficult to establish a supply-demand balance between urban growth, increasing population, and existing water resources in many countries. In this study, the Bodrum Peninsula, which is an important tourism center for Turkey, was examined in terms of the relationship between the urban growth of the peninsula, population projections, the need for drinking and potable water, and the availability of the existing water resources. Using the Geographic Information System, it has been determined that the urban growth of the peninsula increased by 11.36% between 1985 and 2010. Urban growth is mostly concentrated in the coastal areas where 2 houses are densely built. The population is expected to increase approximately six times between 2010 and 2060. The amount of drinking and potable water required according to the population projection is 12.38, 26.50, 69.12, and 109.50 hm3/year for 2010, 2030, 2050, and 2060 respectively. The existing water resources of the peninsula will be able to meet the requirements until 2030. In order to meet the water needs of the peninsula until 2055, the Bozalan and Gökçeler dams located nearby as well as the Namnam dam located at mid-range to the peninsular should be built. It is not possible to meet the water needs of the peninsula in 2060 with just the near and medium distance water resources. However, by supplying water from the Akköprü dam located at a further distance, it is possible that 2060 water needs can be met.


Asunto(s)
Crecimiento Demográfico , Recursos Hídricos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Turquia , Población Urbana , Abastecimiento de Agua
16.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(1): 81-96, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910794

RESUMEN

Allocating effluent of wastewater treatment plants to users of economic sectors and satisfying their requirements has created a challenging debate and a need for prioritization. This study assesses the importance of sectors that utilize treated wastewater (TWW) using risk and social acceptability indexes based on expert-oriented approaches. Considered sectors are agriculture, industry, urban green space and natural resources and the study area is located in Iran, around the Isfahan North Wastewater Treatment Plant. The risk index is calculated using Frank and Morgan model and consequently TWW use in the industrial sector is less dangerous than other sectors. Moreover, the social acceptability index, which was determined using Mamdani fuzzy inference set, indicates higher acceptability of TWW use in natural resources sector compared with other sectors. By constructing the conceptual model, generating the decision matrix and using the results of gray relational analysis decision-making model for the four sectors, the allocation priorities of TWW became industry, natural resource, green space, and agriculture respectively. It is suggested that Water and Wastewater Company grant permission for TWW use to water-consuming industries and man-made forests development, which result in increasing employment, reduction of harmful effects of dust, and water consumption decrease.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Aguas Residuales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Irán , Abastecimiento de Agua
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1385, 2020 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912177

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In El Salvador, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes transmitting Zika and other arboviruses use water storage containers as important oviposition sites. Promotion of water storage container cleaning is a key element of prevention programs. We explored community perceptions surrounding cleaning practices among pregnant women, male partners of pregnant women, and women likely to become pregnant. METHODS: Researchers conducted 11 focus groups and 12 in-depth interviews which included individual elicitations of Zika prevention measures practiced in the community. Focus group participants rated 18 images depicting Zika-related behaviors according to effectiveness and feasibility in the community context, discussed influencing determinants, voted on community intentions to perform prevention behaviors, and performed washbasin cleaning simulations. In-depth interviews with male partners of pregnant women used projective techniques with images to explore their perceptions on a subset of Zika prevention behaviors. RESULTS: General cleaning of the home, to ensure a healthy environment, was a strong community norm. In this context, participants gave water storage container cleaning a high rating, for both its effectiveness and feasibility. Participants were convinced that they cleaned their water storage containers effectively against Zika, but their actual skills were inadequate to destroy Aedes aegypti eggs. A further constraint was the schedule of water availability. Even during pregnancy, male partners rarely cleaned water storage containers because water became available in homes when they were at work. Furthermore, prevailing gender norms did not foster male participation in domestic cleaning activities. Despite these factors, many men were willing to provide substantial support with cleaning when their partners were pregnant, in order to protect their family. CONCLUSIONS: Behavior change programs for the prevention of Zika and other arboviruses need to improve community members' mosquito egg destruction skills rather than perpetuate the promotion of non-specific cleaning in and around the home as effective. Egg elimination must be clearly identified as the objective of water storage container maintenance and programs should highlight the effective techniques to achieve this goal. In addition, programs must build the skills of family members who support pregnant women to maintain the frequency of effective egg destruction in all water storage containers of the home.


Asunto(s)
Aedes/virología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Control de Mosquitos/métodos , Abastecimiento de Agua , Agua , Infección por el Virus Zika/prevención & control , Virus Zika , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , El Salvador , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa , Características de la Residencia , Adulto Joven , Virus Zika/crecimiento & desarrollo , Infección por el Virus Zika/transmisión , Infección por el Virus Zika/virología
18.
J Water Health ; 18(4): 439-463, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833673

RESUMEN

In many parts of the world, drinking water storage takes place in near-house or in-house tanks. This can impact drinking water quality considerably. International and numerous national standards and guidelines addressing the construction, installation and operation of domestic drinking water storage tanks are reviewed on their consideration of water quality aspects and the minimisation of health risks associated with drinking water storage. Several national and international standards and guidelines are reviewed in terms of drinking water quality requirements. Factors that have an impact on water quality in relation to the use of domestic drinking water storage tanks are summarised comprehensively. The impact of the domestic storage of drinking water on water quality, the points and locations of use, their positioning, the materials they are made of, their design and operation, as well as aspects of how they are operated and maintained is outlined and discussed in detail. Finally, the incorporation of aspects regarding water quality in drinking water storage tanks in standards and guidelines is presented and assessed. To make the use of domestic drinking water storage tanks safer and more efficient, recommendations for modifications, improvements and extensions of respective standards are made.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua , Guías como Asunto
19.
J Water Health ; 18(4): 464-476, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833674

RESUMEN

In the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, locals depend on multiple water sources due to the limited access to safe water, which is a great global concern regarding its impact on human health. This study aimed to compare the infection risk of diarrhoea from multiple water sources with different concentrations of Escherichia coli among water supply areas and evaluate the impact of changing water sources due to the Gorkha earthquake on the infection risk. The concentration of enteropathogenic E. coli was estimated in samples of piped water, jar water, groundwater, and tanker water, which were collected in the Valley. The volume of each water ingestion was determined based on a questionnaire survey and considering drinking and bathing sources. The highest estimated risk was observed for households drinking groundwater from shallow dug wells, followed by tanker water. The estimated risk implied the regional disparity due to various water sources with different quality. After the earthquake, the ratio of households drinking only jar water increased, and the estimated risk decreased. The damage on piped water supply, the decrease of tanker water availability and the decrease of residents' trust in groundwater quality presumably enhanced the consumption of jar water despite its high price.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea/epidemiología , Agua Potable , Terremotos , Microbiología del Agua , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Infecciones , Nepal , Abastecimiento de Agua
20.
J Water Health ; 18(4): 522-532, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833678

RESUMEN

While the Safe Drinking Water Act mandates testing of public water supplies in the USA, private well owners are responsible for testing and treating their own water. A small percentage of well owners perform annual testing as recommended and many never test at all for common and potentially harmful groundwater contaminants. Finding effective ways to inform residents of the risks associated with their private well drinking water and promote the testing and treatment for common contaminants is a challenge faced by federal, state, and local agencies concerned with public health. Targeting residents whose wells are most at risk for having levels of regulated contaminants above the drinking water standard is a potential way to efficiently reach individuals. Results of this study show that individuals who receive specific letters that a contaminant in a neighbor's well had exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for one of five common well water contaminants (arsenic, radon, Gross Alpha, Escherichia coli, and nitrates) were more likely to test their well than were individuals who received a general letter about common contaminants in the region. Outreach that reports more localized, specific information on contaminants in well water results in an increased chance of testing when compared with more regional and generalized contaminant information.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Comunidad-Institución , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/prevención & control , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua , Agua Subterránea , Humanos , Agua , Pozos de Agua
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