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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 331-340, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791506

RESUMEN

This study profiled the bacterial community variations of water from four water treatment systems, including coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, ozonation-biological activated carbon filtration (O3-BAC), disinfection, and the tap water after the distribution process in eastern China. The results showed that different water treatment processes affected the bacterial community structure in different ways. The traditional treatment processes, including coagulation, sedimentation and sand filtration, reduced the total bacterial count, while they had little effect on the bacterial community structure in the treated water (before disinfection). Compared to the traditional treatment process, O3-BAC reduced the relative abundance of Sphingomonas in the finished water. In addition, ozonation may play a role in reducing the relative abundance of Mycobacterium. NaClO and ClO2 had different effects on the bacterial community in the finished water. The relative abundance of some bacteria (e.g. Flavobacterium, Phreatobacter and Porphyrobacter) increased in the finished water after ClO2 disinfection. The relative abundance of Mycobacterium and Legionella, which have been widely reported as waterborne opportunistic pathogens, increased after NaClO disinfection. In addition, some microorganisms proliferated and grew in the distribution system, which could lead to turbidity increases in the tap water. Compared to those in the finished water, the relative abundance of Sphingomonas, Hyphomicrobium, Phreatobacter, Rheinheimera, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter increased in the tap water disinfected with NaClO, while the relative abundance of Mycobacterium increased in the tap water disinfected with ClO2. Overall, this study provided the detailed variation in the bacterial community in the drinking water system.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/microbiología , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , China , Desinfección , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Purificación del Agua/métodos
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 734, 2019 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707592

RESUMEN

The quality of drinking water source remains as a major concern in areas of developing and underdeveloped countries worldwide. The treatment and supply of drinking water in Rwanda are carried out by Water and Sanitation Corporation, a state-owned public company. However, it is not able to supply water to all households. Consequently, the non-serviced households depend on natural water sources, like springs, to meet their water requirements. Nevertheless, the water quality in these springs is scarcely known. Therefore, this study assessed and compared metal elements in drinking water sources in the dry and rainy seasons in 2017 using the contamination degree, metal index, and geographic information systems to reveal the spatial distribution of water quality within the considered water sources of springs in Rwanda. The samples were collected monthly from nine water sources of springs and the measured elements are aluminium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. The metal index indicated that during the dry season and rainy season, the sites of Kibungo (1.10 and 1.26) and Kinigi (1.01 and 1.54) have assessed a metal index which is higher than 1. Thus, the water quality of those sites was getting the threshold of warning. The analysis indicated that pollutants are easily transported into water bodies during the rainy season in urban and rural areas to a greater extent than during the dry season .


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Cadmio/análisis , Cobre/análisis , Hierro/análisis , Metales/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos/análisis , Lluvia , Rwanda , Estaciones del Año , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/normas , Calidad del Agua , Zinc/análisis
3.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 691-700, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638021

RESUMEN

A survey was conducted in the Czech Republic to determine whether serological responses to the 15/17-kDa and 27-kDa Cryptosporidium antigens had changed since the end of the communist era and if these responses were associated with drinking water sources. Sera from 301 blood donors residing in six areas served by various sources of drinking water were analysed by Western Blot (mini-immunoblots) to measure the IgG response. The intensity of response and percentage of persons with a strong response to the 27-kDa, but not the 15/17-kDa, antigen were higher than found 20 years earlier. A strong response to both the 15/17- and 27-kDa-antigens was higher than reported in other countries, and the probability of persons having a strong response was greater in areas with surface water sources than river-bank infiltration. Few cases of cryptosporidiosis were reported in spite of these high responses to Cryptosporidium antigens. These responses suggest a chronic low-level exposure from several sources that may be affording protection against symptoms and illness. Although strong serological responses were associated with surface water sources, drinking water is not likely to be the most important exposure for Cryptosporidium in the Czech Republic.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Agua Potable/microbiología , Microbiología del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Animales , República Checa , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
4.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 717-727, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638023

RESUMEN

This study aimed to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in different water resources of Zahedan, southeast of Iran, and also systematically reviewed all publications regarding Acanthamoeba in Iran (2005-2018). Fifty water samples were collected from different water resources in Zahedan. The positive samples were identified morphologically and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fragments of 18S rRNA. In the systematic review, data collection using particular terms was carried out using the following electronic databases including Science Direct, ISI Web of Science, MEDLINE, EBSCO, Scopus, and Google Scholar. A total of 17 (34%) samples were positive for Acanthamoeba spp., and nucleotide sequencing indicated that 15 samples (88.23%) belonged to the T4 genotype and the rest belonged to the T5 genotype. A total of 39 studies reported genotyping of Acanthamoeba spp. from various geographical areas of Iran and revealed that T4 (35 studies), T5 (19 studies), T3 (11 studies), T11 (8 studies), and T2 (6 studies) genotypes were the most prevalent in Iran. The T4 genotype of Acanthamoeba is a prevalent free-living amoeba and widely distributed not only in Zahedan but also in other provinces of Iran. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that A. castellanii and A. griffini predominantly colocalize with the T4 genotype.


Asunto(s)
Acanthamoeba/genética , Agua Dulce/parasitología , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Genotipo , Irán , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 18S
5.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 737-748, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638025

RESUMEN

Groundwater is an important source of water for coastal communities in Pacific Island Countries. This study assessed the prevalence and predictors of faecal contamination in groundwater sources across 11 islands in Vanuatu. Escherichia coli was detected in 49% of sources and E. coli concentration exceeded 10 MPN (most probable number)/100 mL for 23% of sources. When adjusting for other variables, the detection of E. coli was significantly associated with severe pump stand corrosion, suggestive of contaminated run-off directly entering boreholes. E. coli concentration >10 MPN/100 mL was also significantly associated with: (i) hand-dug wells (as compared to drilled boreholes); (ii) severe pump stand corrosion; (iii) water points underlain by volcanic rocks (as compared to coral limestone); and (iv) rainfall in the previous 24 h. Encasing pump stands in concrete - as some communities had done - was found to have a significant protective effect. While baseline statistics for Sustainable Development Goal target 6.1 suggest that 87% of Vanuatu's rural population have access to at least a basic (improved) water source, the results from this study point to extensive microbial water quality concerns linked to degraded water supply infrastructure in need of rehabilitation.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea/microbiología , Población Rural , Microbiología del Agua , Contaminación del Agua/análisis , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Escherichia coli , Heces , Humanos , Prevalencia , Vanuatu , Contaminación del Agua/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(4): 321-333, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603522

RESUMEN

The West Virginia water contamination crisis began on the morning of January 9, 2014, and left approximately 300,000 customers of the West Virginia American Water Company unable to use the water in their homes for any purpose other than flushing their toilets. Given the lack of appropriate response from the established organizations involved, many emergent organizations formed to help fill unmet informational and physical needs of the affected population. Crisis researchers have observed these ephemeral organizations for decades, but the recent proliferation of information communication technologies have made their activities more widespread and observable. In West Virginia, their activities were indispensable to the affected population and helped restore a sense of normalcy. This article analyzes four emergent organizations that formed in response to the West Virginia water contamination and the functions they performed in different phases of this crisis.


Asunto(s)
Liberación de Peligros Químicos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Planificación en Desastres , Organizaciones , Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , West Virginia
7.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(9): 589-594, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542902

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a major threat to water supplies worldwide. Various biases and obstacles in case identification are recognized. In Israel, Cryptosporidiosis was included among notifiable diseases in 2001 in order to determine the burden of parasite-inflicted morbidity and to justify budgeting a central drinking water filtration plant. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the epidemiologic features of 14 years of Cryptosporidium surveillance and to assess the effects of advanced water purification treatment on the burden of disease. METHODS: From 2001 to 2014, a passive surveillance system was used. Cases were identified based on microscopic detection in stool samples. Confirmed cases were reported electronically to the Israeli Ministry of Health. Overall rates as well as age, gender, ethnicity and specific annual incidence were calculated per 100,000 population in five age groups: 0-4, 5-14, 15-44, 45-64, > 65 years. RESULTS: A total of 522 Cryptosporidium cases were reported in all six public health districts. More cases were detected among Jews and among males, and mainly in young children, with a seasonal peak during summer. The Haifa sub-district reported 69% of the cases. Most were linked to an outbreak from the summer of 2008, which was attributed to recreational swimming pool activity. Cases decreased after installation of a central filtration plant in 2007. CONCLUSIONS: As drinking water in Israel is treated to maximal international standards, the rationale for further inclusion of Cryptosporidium among mandatory notifiable diseases should be reconsidered. Future surveillance efforts should focus on timely detection of outbreaks using molecular high-throughput testing.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Política de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Costo de Enfermedad , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Israel/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Estaciones del Año , Factores Sexuales , Purificación del Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 1304-1321, 2019 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539962

RESUMEN

Demands on global water supplies are increasing in response to the need to provide more food, water, and energy for a rapidly growing population. These water stressors are exacerbated by climate change, as well as the growth and urbanisation of industry and commerce. Consequently, urban water authorities around the globe are exploring alternative water sources to meet ever-increasing demands. These alternative sources are primarily treated sewage, stormwater, and groundwater. Stormwater including roof-harvested rainwater has been considered as an alternative water source for both potable and non-potable uses. One of the most significant issues concerning alternative water reuse is the public health risk associated with chemical and microbial contaminants. Several studies to date have quantified fecal indicators and pathogens in stormwater. Microbial source tracking (MST) approaches have also been used to determine the sources of fecal contamination in stormwater and receiving waters. This review paper summarizes occurrence and concentrations of fecal indicators, pathogens, and MST marker genes in urban stormwater. A section of the review highlights the removal of fecal indicators and pathogens through water sensitive urban design (WSUD) or Best Management Practices (BMPs). We also discuss approaches for assessing and mitigating health risks associated with stormwater, including a summary of existing quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) models for potable and non-potable reuse of stormwater. Finally, the most critical research gaps are identified for formulating risk management strategies.


Asunto(s)
Drenaje de Agua , Lluvia , Aguas del Alcantarillado/microbiología , Microbiología del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 1068-1088, 2019 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470472

RESUMEN

Existence of anthropogenic contaminants (ACs) in different environmental matrices is a serious and unresolved concern. For instance, ACs from different sectors, such as industrial, agricultural, and pharmaceutical, are found in water bodies with considerable endocrine disruptors potency and can damage the biotic components of the environment. The continuous ACs exposure can cause cellular toxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, and alterations in sex ratios in human beings. Whereas, aquatic organisms show bioaccumulation, trophic chains, and biomagnification of ACs through different entry route. These problems have been found in many countries around the globe, making them a worldwide concern. ACs have been found in different environmental matrices, such as water reservoirs for human consumption, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), groundwaters, surface waters, rivers, and seas, which demonstrate their free movement within the environment in an uncontrolled manner. This work provides a detailed overview of ACs occurrence in water bodies along with their toxicological effect on living organisms. The literature data reported between 2017 and 2018 is compiled following inclusion-exclusion criteria, and the obtained information was mapped as per type and source of ACs. The most important ACs are pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, ofloxacin, acetaminophen, progesterone ranitidine, and testosterone), agricultural products or pesticides (atrazine, carbendazim, fipronil), narcotics and illegal drugs (amphetamines, cocaine, and benzoylecgonine), food industry derivatives (bisphenol A, and caffeine), and personal care products (triclosan, and other related surfactants). Considering this threatening issue, robust detection and removal strategies must be considered in the design of WWTPs and DWTPs.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Organismos Acuáticos , Compuestos de Bencidrilo , Diclofenaco , Disruptores Endocrinos , Plaguicidas , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Fenoles , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Recursos Hídricos
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 557, 2019 Aug 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402397

RESUMEN

This report describes the available drinking water quality monitoring data on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network). This surveillance summary serves to identify the degree to which ten drinking water contaminants are present in finished water delivered to populations served by community water systems (CWS) in 24 states from 2000 to 2010. For each state, data were collected from every CWS. CWS are sampled on a monitoring schedule established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for each contaminant monitored. Annual mean and maximum concentrations by CWS for ten water contaminants were summarized from 2000 to 2010 for 24 states. For each contaminant, we calculated the number and percent of CWS with mean and maximum concentrations above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) and the number and percent of population served by CWS with mean and maximum concentrations above the MCL by year and then calculated the median number of those exceedances for the 11-year period. We also summarized these measures by CWS size and by state and identified the source water used by those CWS with exceedances of the MCL. The contaminants that occur more frequently in CWS with annual mean and annual maximum concentrations greater than the MCL include the disinfection byproducts, total trihalomethanes (TTHM), and haloacetic acids (HAA5); arsenic; nitrate; radium and uranium. A very high proportion of exceedances based on MCLs occurred mostly in very small and small CWS, which serve a year-round population of 3,300 or less. Arsenic in New Mexico and disinfection byproducts HAA5 and TTHM, represent the greatest health risk in terms of exposure to regulated drinking water contaminants. Very small and small CWS are the systems' greatest difficulty in achieving compliance.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Arsénico , Desinfección , Humanos , Nitratos , Salud Pública , Trihalometanos/análisis , Estados Unidos , Contaminación del Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Calidad del Agua
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 696: 133713, 2019 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461691

RESUMEN

The aim of this research was to conduct an empirical assessment of the risks of N-loss to groundwater associated with land use (LU), based on annual data on the net N-balance surplus in Spanish crops. These data were used to generate a detailed risk rating system reflecting the potential risks of N-loss from agriculture. The new LU ratings were used to assess the specific vulnerability of groundwater to nitrate pollution, by using the LU-IV procedure (Arauzo 2017). The study area included the catchment areas of 12 alluvial aquifers associated to tributaries of the Ebro River (Spain). Most of the alluvial aquifers were chronically polluted by nitrate, with only a few remaining unaffected by pollution. The LU maps from two different base maps (MCAE 2000-09; SIOSE 2011) were used to generate the respective versions of the map of vulnerability to nitrate pollution using the LU-IV procedure. Potential nitrate vulnerable zones (NVZ) were extracted from different models of vulnerability for comparison with the map of groundwater nitrate content. The models compared were the following: model A (LU-IV procedure, based on MCAE 2000-09 and using LU ratings from N-surpluses in Spanish crops), model B (LU-IV procedure, based on SIOSE 2011 and using LU ratings from N-surpluses in Spanish crops), model C (LU-IV procedure, based on MCAE 2000-09 and using LU ratings from bibliographical references; Arauzo, 2017), model D (IV index), model E (DRASTIC index), and model F (GOD index). Results confirmed, as expected, that models A and B proved to be the best risk predictors, both for polluted groundwater areas and for areas at risk of being polluted. These results support the high level of reliability of the LU-IV procedure, when applying the LU ratings obtained empirically from the N-surpluses.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agua Subterránea/química , Nitrógeno/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Nitratos/análisis , España , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 696: 133830, 2019 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454599

RESUMEN

Nationally representative household surveys are the main source of data for tracking drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) coverage. However, all survey point estimates have a certain degree of error that must be considered when interpreting survey results for policy and decision making. In this article, we develop an approach to characterize and quantify uncertainty around WASH estimates. We apply it to four countries - Bolivia, Gambia, Morocco and India - representing different regions, number of data points available and types of trajectories, in order to illustrate the importance of communicating uncertainty for temporal estimates, as well as taking into account both the compositional nature and non-linearity of JMP data. The approach is found to be versatile and particularly useful in the WASH sector, where the dissemination and analysis of standard errors lag behind. While it only considers the uncertainty arising from sampling, the proposed approach can help improve the interpretation of WASH data when evaluating trends in coverage and informing decision making.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Saneamiento , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Bolivia , Toma de Decisiones , Composición Familiar , Gambia , Humanos , Higiene , India , Marruecos , Políticas , Incertidumbre
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 687: 1261-1273, 2019 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412460

RESUMEN

Domestic wells provide drinking water supply for approximately 40 million people in the United States. Knowing the location of these wells, and the populations they serve, is important for identifying heavily used aquifers, locations susceptible to contamination, and populations potentially impacted by poor-quality groundwater. The 1990 census was the last nationally consistent survey of a home's source of water, and has not been surveyed since. This paper presents a method for projecting the population dependent on domestic wells for years after 1990, using information from the 1990 census along with population data from subsequent censuses. The method is based on the "domestic ratio" at the census block-group level, defined here as the number of households dependent on domestic wells divided by the total population. Analysis of 1990 data (>220,000 block-groups) indicates that the domestic ratio is a function of the household density. As household density increases, the domestic ratio decreases, once a household density threshold is met. The 1990 data were used to develop a relationship between household density and the domestic ratio. The fitted model, along with household density data from 2000 and 2010, was used to estimate domestic ratios for each decadal year. In turn, the number of households dependent on domestic wells was estimated at the block-group level for 2000 and 2010. High-resolution census-block population data were used to refine the spatial distribution of domestic-well usage and to convert the data into population numbers. The results are presented in two downloadable raster datasets for each decadal year. It is estimated that the total population using domestic-well water in the contiguous U.S. increased 1.5% from 1990 to 2000 to a total of 37.25 million people and increased slightly from 2000 to 2010 to 37.29 million people.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Pozos de Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Composición Familiar , Agua Subterránea , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443532

RESUMEN

With the supply of water, energy and food facing severe challenges, there has been an increased recognition of the importance of studying the regional water-energy-food nexus. In this paper, Inner Mongolia, including 12 cities in China, was selected as a research case. A super-efficiency slack based measure (SBM) model that considered the undesirable outputs was adopted to calculate the regional total factor productivity (TFP) and the Malmquist-Luenberger index was used to investigate the change trend of the TFP from 2007 to 2016 based on understanding the water-energy-food nexus. Finally, influential factors of the TFP were explored by Tobit regression. The results show that the 12 Inner Mongolia cities are divided into higher, moderate and lower efficiency zones. The higher efficiency zone includes Ordos, Hohhot, Xing'an, and Tongliao, and the lower efficiency zone includes Chifeng, Xilin Gol, Baynnur, Wuhai and Alxa. There is a serious difference in TFP between Inner Mongolia cities. During the study period, the TFP of the water-energy-food nexus in Inner Mongolia cities shows a rising trend, which is mainly driven by the growth of technical progress change. However, the average ML values of the lower and moderate efficiency zones were inferior to the higher efficiency zone in six of the ten years, so the difference between Inner Mongolia cities is growing. According to the Tobit regression, the mechanization level and degree of opening up have positive effects on the TFP, while enterprise scale and the output of the third industry have negative effects on the TFP. Government support does not have any significant impact on the TFP. Finally, suggestions were put forward to improve the TFP of the water-energy-food nexus in Inner Mongolia cities.


Asunto(s)
Eficiencia , Fuentes Generadoras de Energía/estadística & datos numéricos , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , China
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1188, 2019 Aug 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464621

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Water advisories, especially those concerning boiling drinking water, are widely used to reduce risks of infection from contaminants in the water supply. Since the effectiveness of boil water advisories (BWAs) depends on public compliance, monitoring the public response to such advisories is essential for protecting human health. However, assessments of public compliance with BWAs remain sparse. Thus, this study was aimed at investigating awareness and compliance among residents who had received BWAs in Baerum municipality in Norway. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 2764 residents who had received water advisories by SMS in the municipality of Baerum between January and September 2017. We analysed data from two focus group discussions and an online survey sent to all residents who had received an advisory. We conducted descriptive analyses and calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression to identify associations of compliance and awareness with demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 611 respondents, 67% reported that they had received a water advisory notification. Effective compliance rate with safe drinking water practices, either by storing clean drinking water or boiling tap water, after a water outage was 72% among those who remembered receiving a notification. Compliance with safe drinking water advisories was lower among men than women (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.29-0.96), but was independent of age, education and household type. The main reason for respondents' non-compliance with safe water practices was that they perceived the water to be safe to drink after letting it flush through the tap until it became clear. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of advisories was suboptimal among residents who had received notifications, but compliance was high. The present study highlights the need to improve the distribution, phrasing and content of water advisory notifications to achieve greater awareness and compliance. Future studies should include hard-to-reach groups with adequate data collection approaches and examine the use of BWAs in a national context to inform future policies on BWAs.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/normas , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Purificación del Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Concienciación , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Noruega , Embarazo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Adulto Joven
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 1019-1029, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390693

RESUMEN

Extreme weather events (EWEs) are increasing in frequency, posing a greater risk of adverse human health effects. As such, developing sociological and psychological based interventions is paramount to empowering individuals and communities to actively protect their own health. Accordingly, this study compared the efficacy of two established social-cognitive models, namely the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) and Risks-Attitudes-Norms-Abilities-Self-regulation (RANAS) framework, in predicting health behaviours following EWEs. Surface water flooding was used as the exemplar EWE in the current study, due to the increasing incidence of these events in the Republic of Ireland over the past decade. Levels of prior experience with flooding were considered for analyses and comparative tools included a number of variables predicting health behaviours and intervention potential scores (i.e. measure of impact of targeting each model element). Results suggest that the RANAS model provides a robust foundation for designing interventions for any level of experience with an extreme weather event, however, use of the simpler HBM may be more cost-effective among participants unacquainted with an EWE and in relatively infrequent health threat scenarios. Results provide an evidence base for researchers and policymakers to appropriately engage with populations about such threats and successfully promote spatiotemporally appropriate health behaviours in a changing climate.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Modelos Teóricos , Contaminación del Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por el Agua/epidemiología , Agua Subterránea , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiología , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 584-595, 2019 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301499

RESUMEN

Water use efficiency (WUE) is a central parameter for linking carbon and water exchange processes in terrestrial ecosystems. The Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Region (BTSSR) in China has undergone tremendous vegetation restoration and climate change. Understanding the WUE responses to climate change and human activity and their relative contributions to the trends and inter-annual variations (IAVs) in WUE is necessary to improve water use efficiency and strengthen water resource management. The evapotranspiration (ET) dataset based on the model tree ensemble (MTE) algorithm which was a machine learning approach using flux-tower ET measurements and the GLASS GPP dataset, as well as the variance decomposition method, were used to analyze the spatiotemporal changes in water use efficiency and inherent water use efficiency (IWUE) and the impacts of climate change and human activities. The results showed that the annual WUE and IWUE exhibited significantly increase in most regions of the BTSSR. The trend of human activity played the most important role in the increases of WUE and IWUE, with relative contributions of 88.2% and 85.9%, respectively, followed by the IAV of human activity for WUE (6.1%) and the trend of climate change (8.7%) for IWUE. The contribution of IAV to climate change was relatively small. Moreover, WUE and IWUE were all positively correlated with precipitation and temperature in most regions. Our results indicated that ecological restoration projects had significantly improved water use efficiency in BTSSR and may decrease the water burden in the BTSSR.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , China , Actividades Humanas , Humanos , Recursos Hídricos/provisión & distribución
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(24): 25275-25285, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256400

RESUMEN

In this study, a sampling campaign was conducted for 29 buildings on the National Taiwan University (NTU) campus where lead pipes were present in 4 buildings. Total lead, soluble lead, and water quality parameters including pH, temperature, residual free chlorine, and total organic carbon were measured. Results from the first-round sequential sampling (10 × 100 mL) showed that the presence of lead pipe did not necessarily cause elevated lead levels. However, the highest lead concentration and the highest frequency of exceeding 10 µg/L were detected in a building with lead pipe. Faucet was identified to be a major lead source in at least 8 buildings. No significant correlations between lead levels and water parameters were found. The building showing the highest lead level in the first round was sampled for a second round using four different methods, namely, first draw sampling, random daytime sampling, sequential sampling (5 × 1 L), and flushing sampling. Lead levels in samples collected using the four sampling methods all exceeded 10 µg/L. The first draw sampling showed the highest lead level, followed by comparable levels for random daytime sampling and sequential sampling. Flush sampling yielded the lowest lead concentration. Particles collected from the faucet aerators in 14 buildings were also characterized for their compositions and lead contents.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/química , Plomo/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Taiwán , Universidades , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 89, 2019 07 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277634

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) practices may affect the growth and nutritional status among adolescents. Therefore, this paper assesses WASH practices and its association with nutritional status among adolescent girls. METHODS: As a part of an intervention programme, this study is based on baseline cross-sectional data. It was conducted between May 2016-April 2017 in three Indian states (Bihar, Odisha, and Chhattisgarh). From a sample of 6352 adolescent girls, information on WASH practices, accessibility to health services and anthropometric measurements (height, weight and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC)) was collected. Descriptive statistics were used to examine WASH practices, and nutritional status among adolescent girls. Determinants of open defecation and menstrual hygiene were assessed using logistic regression. Association between WASH and nutritional status of adolescent girls was determined using linear regression. RESULTS: Findings showed 82% of the adolescent girls were practicing open defecation and 76% were not using sanitary napkins. Significant predictors of open defecation and non use of sanitary napkin during menstruation were non Hindu households, households with poorer wealth, non availability of water within household premise, non visit to Anganwadi Centre, and non attendance in Kishori group meetings. One-third of adolescent girls were stunted, 17% were thin and 20% had MUAC < 19 cm. Poor WASH practices like water facility outside the household premise, unimproved sanitation facility, non use of soap after defecation had significant association with poor nutritional status of adolescent girls. CONCLUSIONS: Concerted convergent actions focusing on the provision of clean water within the household premise, measures to stop open defecation, promotion of hand washing, accessibility of sanitary napkins, poverty alleviation and behavior change are needed. Health, nutrition and livelihood programmes must be interspersed, and adolescents must be encouraged to take part in these programmes.


Asunto(s)
Higiene , Estado Nutricional , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , India , Modelos Logísticos , Productos para la Higiene Menstrual/estadística & datos numéricos , Áreas de Pobreza
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