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1.
J Appl Microbiol ; 130(1): 302-312, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639595

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of our study was to assess the presence and risk of waterborne pathogens in the drinking water of outdoor facilities in New Zealand and track potential sources of microbial contamination in water sources. METHODS AND RESULTS: A serial cross-sectional study with a risk-based sample collection strategy was conducted at 15 public campgrounds over two summer seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013). Drinking water supplied to these campgrounds was not compliant with national standards, based on Escherichia coli as an indicator organism, in more than half of the sampling occasions. Campylobacter contamination of drinking water at the campgrounds was likely to be of wild bird origin. Faecal samples from rails (pukeko and weka) were 35 times more likely to return a Campylobacter-positive result compared to passerines. Water treatment using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation or a combination of filtration and UV irradiation or chemicals was more likely to result in water that was compliant with the national standards than water from a tap without any treatment. The use of filters alone was not associated with the likelihood of compliance. CONCLUSIONS: Providing microbiologically safe drinking water at outdoor recreational facilities is imperative to avoid gastroenteritis outbreaks. This requires an in-depth understanding of potential sources of contamination in drinking water sources and the installation of adequate water treatment facilities. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Our study provides evidence that drinking water without treatment or filter-only treatment in public campgrounds is unlikely to comply with national standards for human consumption and extra water treatment measures such as UV irradiation or chemical treatment are needed.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/microbiología , Recreación , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Animales , Aves , Campylobacter/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Transversales , Agua Potable/normas , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/microbiología , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/microbiología , Gastroenteritis/prevención & control , Humanos , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(42): 26145-26150, 2020 10 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020284

RESUMEN

Irrigated agriculture contributes 40% of total global food production. In the US High Plains, which produces more than 50 million tons per year of grain, as much as 90% of irrigation originates from groundwater resources, including the Ogallala aquifer. In parts of the High Plains, groundwater resources are being depleted so rapidly that they are considered nonrenewable, compromising food security. When groundwater becomes scarce, groundwater withdrawals peak, causing a subsequent peak in crop production. Previous descriptions of finite natural resource depletion have utilized the Hubbert curve. By coupling the dynamics of groundwater pumping, recharge, and crop production, Hubbert-like curves emerge, responding to the linked variations in groundwater pumping and grain production. On a state level, this approach predicted when groundwater withdrawal and grain production peaked and the lag between them. The lags increased with the adoption of efficient irrigation practices and higher recharge rates. Results indicate that, in Texas, withdrawals peaked in 1966, followed by a peak in grain production 9 y later. After better irrigation technologies were adopted, the lag increased to 15 y from 1997 to 2012. In Kansas, where these technologies were employed concurrently with the rise of irrigated grain production, this lag was predicted to be 24 y starting in 1994. In Nebraska, grain production is projected to continue rising through 2050 because of high recharge rates. While Texas and Nebraska had equal irrigated output in 1975, by 2050, it is projected that Nebraska will have almost 10 times the groundwater-based production of Texas.


Asunto(s)
Riego Agrícola/normas , Conservación de los Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Grano Comestible/crecimiento & desarrollo , Agua Subterránea/análisis , Modelos Teóricos , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas , Recursos Hídricos/provisión & distribución
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872130

RESUMEN

The slow decrease in child stunting rates in East Africa warrants further research to identify the influence of contributing factors such as water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). This study investigated the association between child length and WASH conditions using the recently revised WHO and UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) indicators. Data from households with infants and young children aged 6-23 months from the Demographic and Health Surveys in Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia were used. Associations for each country between WASH conditions and length-for-age z-scores (LAZ) were analyzed using linear regression. Stunting rates were high (>20%) reaching 45% in Burundi. At the time of the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), more than half of the households in most countries did not have basic or safely managed WASH indicators. Models predicted significantly higher LAZ for children living in households with safely managed drinking water compared to those living in households drinking from surface water in Kenya (ß = 0.13, p < 0.01) and Tanzania (ß = 0.08, p < 0.05) after adjustment with child, maternal, and household covariates. Children living in households with improved sanitation facilities not shared with other households were also taller than children living in households practicing open defecation in Ethiopia (ß = 0.07, p < 0.01) and Tanzania (ß = 0.08, p < 0.01) in the adjusted models. All countries need improved WASH conditions to reduce pathogen and helminth contamination. Targeting adherence to the highest JMP indicators would support efforts to reduce child stunting in East Africa.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Higiene/normas , Saneamiento/normas , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas , África Oriental/epidemiología , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Naciones Unidas , Organización Mundial de la Salud
4.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 124, 2020 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867851

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was confirmed in Brazil in February 2020. Since then, the disease has spread throughout the country, reaching the poorest areas. This study analyzes the relationship between COVID-19 and the population's living conditions. We aimed to identify social determinants related to the incidence, mortality, and case fatality rate of COVID-19 in Brazil, in 2020. METHODS: This is an ecological study evaluating the relationship between COVID-19 incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates and 49 social indicators of human development and social vulnerability. For the analysis, bivariate spatial correlation and multivariate and spatial regression models (spatial lag model and spatial error models) were used, considering a 95% confidence interval and a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: A total of 44.8% of municipalities registered confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 14.7% had deaths. We observed that 56.2% of municipalities with confirmed cases had very low human development (COVID-19 incidence rate: 59.00/100 000; mortality rate: 36.75/1 000 000), and 52.8% had very high vulnerability (COVID-19 incidence rate: 41.68/100 000; mortality rate: 27.46/1 000 000). The regression model showed 17 indicators associated with transmission of COVID-19 in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Although COVID-19 first arrived in the most developed and least vulnerable municipalities in Brazil, it has already reached locations that are farther from large urban centers, whose populations are exposed to a context of intense social vulnerability. Based on these findings, it is necessary to adopt measures that take local social aspects into account in order to contain the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Intervalos de Confianza , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Educación , Empleo , Humanos , Incidencia , Renta , Longevidad , Análisis Multivariante , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Pobreza , Análisis de Regresión , Saneamiento , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Condiciones Sociales , Análisis Espacial , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas , Adulto Joven
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238832, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970701

RESUMEN

Monitoring of cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems is a complex task, which is time consuming and expensive due to the chaotic population dynamics and highly heterogeneous distribution of cyanobacteria populations in water bodies. The financial cost constitutes a strong limitation for the implementation of long-term monitoring programs in developing countries, particularly in Africa. The work presented here was performed in the framework of an international project addressing the sustainable monitoring and management of surface water resources used for the production of drinking water in three African countries. We tested the potential of a citizen approach for monitoring cyanobacterial blooms, which are a growing threat to the drinking water supply. This pilot study was designed, implemented and evaluated in close interaction with the Pasteur Institute of the Ivory Coast and with the populations of three villages located on the shoreline of a freshwater lagoon located near Abidjan city. Based on the use of a smartphone application, the citizens of the three villages were invited to report water color changes, as these changes could reflect cyanobacteria proliferations. A two-year experimentation period has shown that it is possible to mobilize the local populations to monitor cyanobacterial blooms. The data collected by citizens were consistent with the data obtained by a classical monitoring of cyanobacteria performed over seven months, but it appeared that new approaches were needed to validate the citizen data. This participatory approach also provided great improvements to the understanding and awareness of local populations regarding water quality and cyanobacterial bloom issues. Finally, we discuss some of the difficulties and limitations of our participatory monitoring approach that should be considered by further implementations. Despite these difficulties, our work suggests that citizen monitoring is a promising approach that may complement the classical approach to sustainable monitoring of cyanobacteria in developing countries.


Asunto(s)
Cianobacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Lagos/microbiología , Costa de Marfil , Países en Desarrollo , Proyectos Piloto , Calidad del Agua/normas , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
6.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 547-579, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943304

RESUMEN

Water is the most important nutrient for rangeland livestock. However, competition with municipalities, industry, and other water users often results in grazing livestock being forced to use water supplies that are less than perfect. Surface water in western rangleands are often contaminated by mineral extraction, irrigation runoff and other human activities. Mineral contaminants in drinking water are additive with similar contaminants in feedstuffs. The goal of this and the subsequent article is to provide producers and veterinarians with the basic background to make informed decisions about whether a given water supply is "safe" for livestock.


Asunto(s)
Ganado/metabolismo , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas , Animales , Sustancias Peligrosas/envenenamiento , Envenenamiento/prevención & control , Envenenamiento/veterinaria , Calidad del Agua
7.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 581-620, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948413

RESUMEN

Water is the most important nutrient for rangeland livestock. However, competition with municipalities, industry, and other water users often results in grazing livestock being forced to use water supplies that are less than perfect. Surface water in western rangleands are often contaminated by mineral extraction, irrigation runoff and other human activities. Mineral contaminants in drinking water are additive with similar contaminants in feedstuffs. The goal of this article is to provide producers and veterinarians with the basic background to make informed decisions about whether a given water supply is "safe" for livestock.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Metales/análisis , Metales/envenenamiento , Calidad del Agua , Agua/normas , Animales , Arsénico/análisis , Intoxicación por Arsénico/prevención & control , Intoxicación por Arsénico/veterinaria , Bovinos , Intoxicación por Flúor/prevención & control , Intoxicación por Flúor/veterinaria , Fluoruros/análisis , Humanos , Agua/análisis , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239313, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960921

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Poor access to water, sanitation, and handwashing (WASH) facilities frequently contribute to child growth failure. The role of access to WASH facilities on child growth outcomes in Ethiopia is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine individual and combined effects of access to WASH facilities on child growth outcomes. METHODS: Data for this analysis was sourced from the recent Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2016. A multivariable logistic regression model was applied to identify the separate and combined association of access to WASH facilities with child growth outcomes. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. Statistical significance was declared at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Included in the analyses were data for children 0-59 months of age, which amounted to valid data for 9588 children with a height-for-age z-score (HAZ), 9752 children with a weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) and 9607 children with a weight-for-height z-score (WHZ). Children with access to improved combined sanitation with handwashing facilities had 29% lower odds of linear growth failure (stunting) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.51-0.99) compared with those with unimproved. Children with access to combined improved WASH facilities were 33% less likely to have linear growth failure (AOR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.45-0.98). Access to improved handwashing alone reduced the odds of being underweight by 17% (AOR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71-0.98) compared with unimproved. Improved water and sanitation separately as well as combined WASH were not associated with decreased odds of underweight and wasting. CONCLUSIONS: Combined access to improved water, sanitation and handwashing was associated with reduced child linear growth failure. Further research with robust methods is needed to examine whether combined WASH practices have synergistic effect on child growth outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Desinfección de las Manos/normas , Saneamiento/normas , Delgadez/epidemiología , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas , Peso Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Higiene , Lactante , Masculino , Población Rural , Delgadez/prevención & control , Agua
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1762-1764, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996453

RESUMEN

The highly infectious nature of the SARS-CoV-2 virus requires rigorous infection prevention and control (IPC) to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 within healthcare facilities, but in low-resource settings, the lack of water access creates a perfect storm for low-handwashing adherence, ineffective surface decontamination, and other environmental cleaning functions that are critical for IPC compliance. Data from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme show that one in four healthcare facilities globally lacks a functional water source on premises (i.e., basic water service); in sub-Saharan Africa, half of all healthcare facilities have no basic water services. But even these data do not tell the whole story, other water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) assessments in low-resource healthcare facilities have shown the detrimental effects of seasonal or temporary water shortages, nonfunctional water infrastructure, and fluctuating water quality. The rapid spread of COVID-19 forces us to reexamine prevailing norms within national health systems around the importance of WASH for quality of health care, the prioritization of WASH in healthcare facility investments, and the need for focused, cross-sector leadership and collaboration between WASH and health professionals. What COVID-19 reveals about infection prevention in low-resource healthcare facilities is that we can no longer afford to "work around" WASH deficiencies. Basic WASH services are a fundamental prerequisite to compliance with the principles of IPC that are necessary to protect patients and healthcare workers in every setting.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Instituciones de Salud , Control de Infecciones/normas , África , Desinfección de las Manos/normas , Instituciones de Salud/economía , Instituciones de Salud/normas , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/economía , Saneamiento/normas , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
10.
Am J Public Health ; 110(10): 1567-1572, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816545

RESUMEN

Objectives. To estimate the population lacking at least basic water and sanitation access in the urban United States.Methods. We compared national estimates of water and sanitation access from the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program with estimates from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development on homelessness and the American Community Survey on household water and sanitation facilities.Results. We estimated that at least 930 000 persons in US cities lacked sustained access to at least basic sanitation and 610 000 to at least basic water access, as defined by the United Nations.Conclusions. After accounting for those experiencing homelessness and substandard housing, our estimate of people lacking at least basic water equaled current estimates (n = 610 000)-without considering water quality-and greatly exceeded estimates of sanitation access (n = 28 000).Public Health Implications. Methods to estimate water and sanitation access in the United States should include people experiencing homelessness and other low-income groups, and specific policies are needed to reduce disparities in urban sanitation. We recommend similar estimation efforts for other high-income countries currently reported as having near universal sanitation access.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Agua Potable , Humanos , Pobreza , Saneamiento/normas , Estados Unidos , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
11.
Braz J Microbiol ; 51(3): 1109-1115, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809115

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has killed more than 500,000 people worldwide and more than 60,000 in Brazil. Since there are no specific drugs or vaccines, the available tools against COVID-19 are preventive, such as the use of personal protective equipment, social distancing, lockdowns, and mass testing. Such measures are hindered in Brazil due to a restrict budget, low educational level of the population, and misleading attitudes from the federal authorities. Predictions for COVID-19 are of pivotal importance to subsidize and mobilize health authorities' efforts in applying the necessary preventive strategies. The Weibull distribution was used to model the forecast prediction of COVID-19, in four scenarios, based on the curve of daily new deaths as a function of time. The date in which the number of daily new deaths will fall below the rate of 3 deaths per million - the average level in which some countries start to relax the stay-at-home measures - was estimated. If the daily new deaths curve was bending today (i.e., about 1250 deaths per day), the predicted date would be on July 5. Forecast predictions allowed the estimation of overall death toll at the end of the outbreak. Our results suggest that each additional day that lasts to bend the daily new deaths curve may correspond to additional 1685 deaths at the end of COVID-19 outbreak in Brazil (R2 = 0.9890). Predictions of the outbreak can be used to guide Brazilian health authorities in the decision-making to properly fight COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Predicción/métodos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Algoritmos , Brasil/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Detergentes/provisión & distribución , Educación/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Dinámicas no Lineales , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Política , Densidad de Población , Pobreza , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estadística como Asunto , Factores de Tiempo , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233679, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667923

RESUMEN

Continuous, safely managed water is critical to health and development, but rural service delivery faces complex challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We report the first application of continuous quality improvement (CQI) methods to improve the microbial quality of household water for consumption (HWC) and the functionality of water sources in four rural districts of northern Ghana. We further report on the impacts of interventions developed through these methods. A local CQI team was formed and trained in CQI methods. Baseline data were collected and analyzed to identify determinants of service delivery problems and microbial safety. The CQI team randomized communities, developed an improvement package, iteratively piloted it in intervention communities, and used uptake survey data to refine the package. The final improvement package comprised safe water storage containers, refresher training for community WaSH committees and replacement of missing maintenance tools. This package significantly reduced contamination of HWC (p<0.01), and significant reduction in contamination persisted two years after implementation. Repair times in both intervention and control arms decreased relative to baseline (p<0.05), but differences between intervention and control arms were not significant at endline. Further work is needed to build on the gains in household water quality observed in this work, sustain and scale these improvements, and explore applications of CQI to other aspects of water supply and sanitation.


Asunto(s)
Gestión de la Calidad Total/métodos , Microbiología del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas , Ghana , Embalaje de Productos , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Distribución Aleatoria , Ingeniería Sanitaria/educación , Ingeniería Sanitaria/instrumentación
13.
Int Marit Health ; 71(2): 123-128, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604456

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ships are supplied with water from various sources: directly from the public utility system at the port, from water supply vessels or barges, bottled water, ice or, if water production on board is possible,through processes such as desalination and reverse osmosis. All elements of a ship's water supply chain are exposed to the influence of different factors that may have a negative impact on water safety on board or on human health. Potable water standards are the same for vessels and for land-based facilities. In recognition of the importance of drinking water and the impact it can have on human health, stringent quality standards have been laid down in national and global regulations. The aim of the study was to describe the water supply system on ships and its weak points, as well as the health risks that the use of npolluted drinking water can entail. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Medline Database has been searched using the following key words: ship, water supply, waterborne infections. Other available literature has also been used, as well as national and international regulations on drinking-water safety. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Drinking water on ships is managed in line with the hygienic and health standards applied along the entire supply chain, from the source to the point of consumption. Regardless of the sanitary control system used by the authorised institutions on the ground, ship officers must oversee the entire water supply and distribution system on board, as well the water production systems if these exist. That means that they must be well aware of all of the fundamental facts of the supervision system, as well as the weaknesses of the water supply system. Maritime studies students, future deck officers and engine officers, must all receive training on the weak points of the system and on water contamination prevention.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/normas , Navíos , Abastecimiento de Agua/métodos , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas , Medicina Naval , Microbiología del Agua , Calidad del Agua
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1128, 2020 Jul 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680495

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Water is the most abundant resource on earth, however water scarcity affects more than 40% of people worldwide. Access to safe drinking water is a basic human right and is a United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6. Globally, waterborne diseases such as cholera are responsible for over two million deaths annually. Cholera is a major cause of ill-health in Africa and Uganda. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the surface and spring water in cholera endemic communities of Uganda in order to promote access to safe drinking water. METHODS: A longitudinal study was carried out between February 2015 and January 2016 in cholera prone communities of Uganda. Surface and spring water used for domestic purposes including drinking from 27 sites (lakes, rivers, irrigation canal, springs and ponds) were tested monthly to determine the vital physicochemical parameters, namely pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and turbidity. RESULTS: Overall, 318 water samples were tested. Twenty-six percent (36/135) of the tested samples had mean test results that were outside the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended drinking water range. All sites (100%, 27/27) had mean water turbidity values greater than the WHO drinking water recommended standards and the temperature of above 17 °C. In addition, 27% (3/11) of the lake sites and 2/5 of the ponds had pH and dissolved oxygen respectively outside the WHO recommended range of 6.5-8.5 for pH and less than 5 mg/L for dissolved oxygen. These physicochemical conditions were ideal for survival of Vibrio. cholerae. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that surface water and springs in the study area were unsafe for drinking and had favourable physicochemical parameters for propagation of waterborne diseases including cholera. Therefore, for Uganda to attain the SDG 6 targets and to eliminate cholera by 2030, more efforts are needed to promote access to safe drinking water. Also, since this study only established the vital water physicochemical parameters, further studies are recommended to determine the other water physicochemical parameters such as the nitrates and copper. Studies are also needed to establish the causal-effect relationship between V. cholerae and the physicochemical parameters.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/análisis , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Cólera/epidemiología , Agua Potable/microbiología , Agua Potable/normas , Humanos , Lagos/química , Lagos/microbiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Manantiales Naturales/química , Manantiales Naturales/microbiología , Estanques/química , Estanques/microbiología , Ríos/química , Ríos/microbiología , Temperatura , Uganda/epidemiología , Vibrio cholerae , Microbiología del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
15.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 56(5-6): 402-417, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700642

RESUMEN

The objective of this work is to enhance the conceptual hydrogeological model in the Río Cuarto River basin by using isotope and hydrochemical techniques. The precipitation pattern, as reflected in the average values of δ 2H and δ 18O in stations located in the plains and in the mountains, showed an isotope depletion from the East to the West, attributed to continental and altitude effects. Groundwater quality is mainly the result of two controlling factors: lithology and flow distances from recharge. The aquifers show fresh calcium/sodium bicarbonate water in the upper and medium basin (coarse fluvial sediments) which evolve to sodium sulphate and chloride waters in the low basin (mainly loess and fine alluvial sediments). The confined aquifer systems in the lower basin (C and D systems) averaged more negative stable isotope values, indicating that groundwater recharged during colder climatic conditions (Pleistocene period). Groundwater dating with 14C confirmed that groundwater ages range from modern to 45,000 years BP showing that as the water flows towards deeper layers and farther from the mountainous recharge area, groundwater age increases. The confined aquifers can potentially be exploited in order to partly cover different water needs but they should be managed in a sustainable way.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Agua Subterránea/química , Isótopos/análisis , Modelos Teóricos , Argentina , Fenómenos Geológicos , Agua Subterránea/normas , Ríos/química , Factores de Tiempo , Movimientos del Agua , Recursos Hídricos/provisión & distribución , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567990

RESUMEN

Surface and groundwater resources in the Seridó Region (Brazilian semiarid) were investigated to evaluate their current quality conditions and suitability for domestic use. The water was characterized in terms of physical, chemical, and radiological parameters; including those required by the Brazilian Drinking Water Quality Standard (DWQS). Information about major and trace elements and radiological aspects of the water are reported for the first time. Salinization was confirmed as a key problem in the region, driven natural and anthropogenic. Overall, water has poor organoleptic characteristics. The concentration of most trace elements was below the recommended level, except for uranium and selenium in groundwater. Gross alpha and beta activities higher than the recommended levels were also recorded in several water samples, mostly from the investigated aquifers. In these samples, a detailed radionuclide analysis is required to estimate the effective dose received by the local population. Overall, the results show that water from the investigated region is not suitable for human consumption unless proper treatment is applied. Water requires proper treatment to decrease the content of dissolved salts, toxic elements, and radionuclides responsible for the high gross alpha and beta activities.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua/métodos , Brasil , Agua Potable/química , Agua Potable/normas , Agua Dulce/química , Agua Subterránea/química , Humanos , Radioisótopos/análisis , Selenio/análisis , Oligoelementos/análisis , Uranio/análisis , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525728

RESUMEN

Groundwater is a major source of drinking water for millions of people around the world. Over 400 million people in Africa depend solely on it as their main source of water supply. Fluoride is a common contaminant in groundwater. In low concentration (0.5-1.0 mg/L), fluoride is needed by humans for healthy development of bones and teeth, however, a concentration >1.5 mg/L has been linked with several fluorosis and non-fluorosis diseases. Dental and skeletal fluorosis are the major fluorosis diseases commonly reported with the consumption of fluoride-rich water. Although fluoride intake through other pathways such as the drinking of tea and eating of vegetables have been reported, the drinking of fluoride-rich water remains the major pathway of fluoride into humans. Cases of high fluoride levels in groundwater have been reported in almost all the sub-Saharan Africa region but it is more prevalent in East African countries, Sudan and South Africa. Although fluoride is present in surface water mostly in the East African Rift Valley across different countries in East Africa, its significant or high levels are usually associated with groundwater. Geogenic sources such as fluorite, apatite, biotite, amphibole, micas, topaz, cryolite, muscovite and fluorspar have been identified as the major sources of fluoride in groundwater. High fluoride levels have been reported across sub Saharan Africa, with generally higher levels in East Africa resulting from the volcanic activities in the rift system. Dental fluorosis has been reported in many sub-Saharan African countries including South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Niger, Nigeria, Benin, Ghana and Malawi. Geothermal temperature has been regarded as one of the driving forces for high fluoride levels recorded in groundwater from deep aquifers and geothermal springs. The most affected people with the consumption of fluoride-rich water are the poor with low socioeconomic status who live in rural areas. Some of the proposed alternative sources include rainwater and fog water harvesting and blending of water from various sources. Low-cost and sustainable deflouridation technique remains one of the best ways to treat fluoride contaminated water either at communal level or at the point-of-use.


Asunto(s)
Fluoruros/toxicidad , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Agua Subterránea/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Abastecimiento de Agua/métodos , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Fluoruros/análisis , Fluorosis Dental/epidemiología , Fluorosis Dental/etiología , Agua Subterránea/normas , Humanos , Prevalencia , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(5): 308, 2020 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328812

RESUMEN

The continuous deterioration of drinking water quality supplies by several anthropogenic activities is a serious global challenge in recent times. In this current study, the drinking water quality of Ikem rural agricultural area (southeastern Nigeria) was assessed using chemometrics and multiple indexical methods. Twenty-five groundwater samples were collected from hand-dug wells and analyzed for physicochemical parameters such as pH, major ions, and heavy metals. The pH of the samples (which ranged between 5.2 and 6.7) indicated that waters were slightly acidic. Cations and anions (except for phosphate) were within their respective standard limits. Except for Mn, heavy metals were also found to be below their maximum allowable limits. Factor analysis identified both geogenic processes and anthropogenic inputs as possible origins of the analyzed physicochemical parameters. Modified heavy metal index, geoaccumulation index, and overall index of pollution revealed that all the hand-dug wells were in excellent condition, and hence safe for drinking purposes. However, pollution load index, water quality index (WQI), and entropy-weighted water quality index (EWQI) revealed that some wells (about 8-12%) were slightly contaminated, and hence are placed in good water category. A hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was performed based on the integration of the WQI and EWQI results. The HCA revealed two major quality categories of the samples. While the first cluster comprises of samples classified as excellent drinking water by both WQI and EWQI models, the second cluster comprises of about 12% samples which were identified as good water by either the WQI or EWQI.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Calidad del Agua , Agua Potable/química , Agua Potable/normas , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Agua Subterránea/química , Nigeria , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua/normas , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
19.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 5460168, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256616

RESUMEN

Background: Poor hygienic practices, inadequate water supply, and poor sanitary conditions play a major role in the spread of infectious diseases. Lack of knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) on WASH is one of the most imperative causes for transmission of infectious diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of rural residents on water, sanitation, and hygiene in Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June to July 2018. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to collect data from 759 households in Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data on knowledge, attitude, and practice on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Descriptive data analysis was done to present the study findings. Results: The response rate was 99.6%, and 574 (75.9%) of the respondents were females. Good knowledge, favorable attitude, and good practice on WASH were observed in 42.2% (95% CI: 38.7%, 45.7%), 48.5% (95% CI: 44.9%, 52.0%), and 49.2% (95% CI: 45.6%, 52.7%) of the respondents, respectively. Conclusions: Poor knowledge, unfavorable attitude, and poor practice on WASH were common amongst the residents in rural Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Therefore, the health extension programs at primary health care should be revitalized in a way that can enhance the interventional measures to improve knowledge, attitude, and practice on WASH.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Higiene/normas , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Saneamiento/normas , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Brasília; Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde; abr. 1, 2020.
No convencional en Español, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096208

RESUMEN

Boas práticas com água, saneamento e higiene, em particular lavagem de mãos com sabão e água limpa, devem ser estritamente aplicadas e mantidas, pois são importantes barreiras adicionais para a transmissão do o vírus causador da doença COVID-19 e outras doenças infecciosas em geral (OMS, 2002).


Las mejores prácticas de agua, saneamiento e higiene, en particular el lavado de manos con jabón y agua limpia, deben aplicarse y mantenerse estrictamente, ya que constituyen una barrera adicional importante para la transmisión de COVID-19 y para la transmisión de enfermedades infecciosas en general (OMS, 2002).


Asunto(s)
Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas , Saneamiento/instrumentación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus
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