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1.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(1): 64-83, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459220

RESUMEN

Protection Against Violence and Abuse in Medical Institutions - Reasons, Prevalence and Implications for Practice Reported cases of (sexual) abuse in institutions as well as the results of surveys show that violence against children and adolescents, but also against adults, occurs also in medical institutions. There are still few studies on the frequency of these cases. However, the cases that have come to public attention show that medical institutions bear systemic risk factors for such assaults. On the other hand, medical institutions also play an important role in child protection, since many children and adolescents affected by maltreatment including sexual abuse come into contact with the medical system. It is necessary that medical institutions deal with this problem and develop respective institutional protection concepts. A protection concept is a system of measures that ensure better protection against assaults within an organisation. Important steps are analysis of risk factors, structural changes, the creation of plan of procedures and the development of an institutional attitude that assaults are not tolerated. Although the development of protection concepts takes time and resources, it has many advantages for institutions, such as an increased sense of security for professionals, because they know how to proceed in such situation. Now that the obligation to draw up protection concepts is anchored in the quality management guideline of the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA), all hospitals and practices must set out to develop appropriate concepts.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones de Salud , Violencia/prevención & control , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/prevención & control , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
3.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(2): e20200206, 2021. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1142952

RESUMEN

RESUMO Objetivo caracterizar a violência notificada contra crianças no município de Porto Alegre. Método estudo retrospectivo, incluindo 5308 casos de violência contra crianças de zero a doze anos registrados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação no município de Porto Alegre. Resultados idade média foi de 5,95 ± 3,86 anos, com predomínio de crianças do sexo feminino (61%). A violência sexual foi a mais notificada (53%). A maioria dos agressores eram do sexo masculino (68%) e 72% dos casos ocorreram no domicílio da vítima. As meninas são mais suscetíveis à violência sexual. Crianças do sexo masculino sofrem mais violência física e negligência. Conclusão e implicações para a prática os resultados demonstram a importância do conhecimento do perfil das violências para intervenção e elaboração de políticas públicas intersetoriais, assim como para a capacitação da equipe multiprofissional para o reconhecimento do problema no momento da assistência e o devido encaminhamento.


RESUMEN Objetivo caracterizar la violencia notificada contra los niños en la ciudad de Porto Alegre. Método estudio retrospectivo, incluyendo 5308 casos de violencia contra niños de cero a doce años registrados en el Sistema de Información de Incidentes Notificables en el municipio de Porto Alegre. Resultados la edad media fue de 5,95 ± 3,86 años, con predominio de niños de sexo femenino (61%). La violencia sexual fue la más notificada (53%). La mayoría de los agresores eran del sexo masculino (68%) y el 72% de los casos ocurrieron en el domicilio de la víctima. Las niñas son más susceptibles a la violencia sexual. Los niños varones sufren más violencia física y negligencia. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica los resultados demuestran la importancia de conocer el perfil de la violencia para intervenir y elaborar políticas públicas intersectoriales, así como para disponer la capacitación del equipo multiprofesional a fin de reconocer el problema al momento de prestar la asistencia y la derivación adecuada.


ABSTRACT Objective to characterize violence against children notified in the city of Porto Alegre. Method a retrospective study, including 5,308 cases of violence against children from zero to twelve years of age registered in the Notifiable Diseases Information System in the city of Porto Alegre. Results the mean age was 5.95 ± 3.86 years old, with predominance of female children (61%). Sexual violence was the most reported (53%). Most of the perpetrators were male (68%) and 72% of the cases occurred at the victim's home. Girls are more susceptible to sexual violence. Male children suffer more physical violence and neglect. Conclusion and implications for the practice the results demonstrate the importance of knowing the profile of violence for intervention and for the elaboration of inter-sectoral public policies, as well as for the training of the multi-professional team to recognize the problem at the time of assistance and the proper referral.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Notificación Obligatoria , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Retrospectivos
4.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 134, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331528

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the prevalence of adolescents and young adults who were victims of sexual violence at some point in their lives and to compare the presence of depressive and anxious symptoms, quality of life, and use of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs among this population and those who were not abused. METHODS: Validated questionnaires and instruments were applied in a group of university students to assess: sexual profile and behavior, socioeconomic status, presence or not of sexual violence (Questionnaire on Exposure to Traumatizing Events), depressive (Beck Depression Inventory) and anxious symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory), quality of life (World Health Organization's Quality of Life Assessment) and the use or abuse of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs (Smoking, Alcohol, and Substance Involvement Screening Test). RESULTS: Out of the 858 students who participated, 71 (8.3%) were victims of sexual violence, 52 girls (73.2%). In the victims of violence group there were more students who already had the first sexual intercourse (p = 0.029), students who already had become pregnant (p = 0.001), students with higher scores for depressive (p < 0.001) and anxious symptoms (p = 0.001), students with worse quality of life (p < 0.001), and who used more tobacco (p = 0.008) and marijuana (p = 0.025) as well as abused hypnotics or sedatives (p = 0.048) than in the non-victim group. CONCLUSION: The abuses are presented in several forms and affect, even in long term, the survivors' life. The sexual violence theme should be addressed and widely discussed in all spheres of society in order to mobilize, to sensitize, and provide society with knowledge, demystifying this subject and drawing attention to this important social issue.


Asunto(s)
Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Fumar Tabaco/psicología , Adolescente , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/epidemiología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas , Masculino , Embarazo , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 349-352, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030451

RESUMEN

Sexual abuse in childhood is associated with many adverse consequences for survival during their lifetime. Numerous research studies clearly show the link between sexual abuse of children and the spectrum of unfavorable mental, social, sexual, interpersonal and behavioral as well as physical health consequences. Current research shows the strongest link between sexual abuse of children and the presence of depression, alcohol and abuse of other psychoactive substances and nutritional disorders in surviving women and anxiety-related disorders in male survivors. There is also an increased risk of re-victimization, especially for girls. Negative effects of mental health in children with sexual abuse include posttraumatic symptoms, depression, helplessness, negative evaluation, aggressive behavior and behavioral problems. Recent research links sexual assault on children with psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia and dysfunctional disorders, as well as personality disorders. Sexual abuse of children involving penetration is specifically identified as a risk factor for the development of psychotic and schizophrenic symptoms. Many studies have shown that sexual victimization in childhood is a significant risk factor for suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Niño , Humanos , Trastornos Psicóticos/epidemiología , Conducta Sexual
6.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 88(6): 374-378, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557465

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Organised child sexual abuse is characterised by commercial exploitation of children and adolescents by networking perpetrator groups. Ritual abuse is further characterised by ideological frameworks (e.g., cults). METHODS: Forty-one confidential hearings and written reports, gathered by the German Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse from individuals as well as contemporary witnesses subjected to organised and ritual abuse (ORA) were analysed by means of a quantitative content analysis. RESULTS: Right-wing extremist, Satanist and religious ideologies were most frequently described. The perpetrators were, next to unknown offenders, mostly described as fathers, and in half of the reports, besides also mothers of the victims. Dissociative identity disorders resulting from such traumatic violence present a challenge to psychosocial and psychiatric professionals. DISCUSSION: It is necessary to educate professionals in psychosocial care settings about ORA and the psychological consequences of extreme violence.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Conducta Ceremonial , Niño , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Violencia/psicología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(2): 111-125, 2020.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191217

RESUMEN

In the review I discuss the historical, social aspects of childhood and adolescent sexual abuse of males and the factors influencing trauma research and obstructing its exploration. In the light of the literature, I present the prevalence and the characteristics of the abuse, the risk factors, the short and long-term effects of sexual trauma and the consequential psychiatric disorders.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiología , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Trauma Psicológico/psicología
8.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 22(3): 10, 2020 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025821

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights recent literature regarding online sexual offending, including the prevalence, characteristics, a brief review of recent typology literature, victimization risk factors, risk factors of being a "crossover" offender, rates and risk factors for recidivism, and a discussion of prevention efforts. RECENT FINDINGS: Online sexual offenders are overwhelmingly White men with relationship problems who were rarely previously arrested for felonies. They score lower on measures of antisocial behavior, compared to offenders who commit contact sexual offenses against children. Individuals who commit pornography offenses are at lower risk to commit contact offenses and their risk factors include having sexual interest in children and antisocial attitudes. Online offenders are different from contact sexual offenders and from offenders who commit both types of offenses. Recidivism in online noncontact offenders is difficult to assess due to the lack of empirically supported tools and the inappropriateness of using popular actuarial tools that lack norms on these offenders, but a new measure (CPORT) is being studied for use with this population.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Literatura Erótica , Internet , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo
9.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 34(1): 41-48, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035588

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of substance use and the associations between adverse early life experiences, sexual behaviour and violence in sexual minority (SM) individuals. METHODS: The Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey is a probabilistic household survey performed in 2012, collecting data from 4067 Brazilians aged 14 years and older. RESULTS: 3.4% of the sample declared themselves as sexual minorities, 53.8% female, 66.5% single, mean age of 29.5 years (standard deviation 16.0 years). A high prevalence of alcohol dependence (15.2%) and binge drinking (22.2%) was identified in the SM group. Respondents were more likely to use crack cocaine and hallucinogens, to have been involved in child prostitution, child sexual abuse and to report suicidal ideation in the previous year. Respondents were also more likely to engage in unprotected sex compared to non-sexual minorities. Nearly one-third referred to having suffered homophobic discrimination in their lives. Respondents also reported higher rates of domestic violence (18.9%) and urban violence (18%) among the SM. CONCLUSION: The findings reinforce that violence directed at individuals in the Brazilian SM community begins early in life and persists into adulthood when compared to non-sexual minorities. This population is also more exposed to substance use disorders.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sexual , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Ideación Suicida , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
J Pediatr Surg ; 55(1): 135-139, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757508

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Child abuse is a national, often hidden, epidemic. The study objective was to determine at-risk populations that have been previously hospitalized prior to their admission for child abuse. METHODS: The Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) was queried for all children hospitalized for abuse. Outcomes were previous admissions and diagnoses. χ2 analysis was used; significance equals p < 0.05. RESULTS: 31,153 children were hospitalized for abuse (half owing to physical abuse) during the study period. 11% (n = 3487) of these children had previous admissions (one in three to a different hospital), while 3% (n = 1069) had multiple hospitalizations. 60% of prior admissions had chronic conditions, and 12% had traumatic injuries. Children with chronic conditions were more likely to have sexual abuse (89% vs. 57%, p < 0. 001) and emotional abuse (75% vs. 60%, p < 0. 01). 25% of chronic diagnoses were psychiatric, who were also more likely to have sexual and emotional abuse (47% vs. 5.5% and 10% vs. 1%, all p < 0. 001). CONCLUSION: This study uncovers a hidden population of children with past admissions for chronic conditions, especially psychiatric diagnoses that are significantly associated with certain types of abuse. Improved measures to accurately identify at-risk children must be developed to prevent future childhood abuse and trauma. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III. TYPE OF STUDY: Retrospective comparative study.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Readmisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas y Traumatismos/epidemiología , Adolescente , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/diagnóstico , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Preescolar , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol ; 33(3): 260-263, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726095

RESUMEN

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To provide an objective quantification of the demographic characteristics and clinical findings related to female child and adolescent sexual abuse cases reported at the Geneva University Hospitals. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Obstetrics and gynecology emergency unit. PARTICIPANTS: Female children (0-12 years old) and adolescents (13-20 years old) seeking primary care after sexual assault. INTERVENTIONS: None, observational study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Delay from assault to time of presentation to primary care presentation, type of perpetrators, and the presence gynecological and bodily lesions. RESULTS: Compared with children, a significantly higher proportion of adolescents presented to the hospital within 24 hours (134/289 (46.4%) vs 7/33 (21.2%); P = .006). Perpetrators were family members in 15/36 (41.7%) of children and in only 14/304 (4.6%) of adolescent patients (P < .00001); perpetrators were unfamiliar/nonrelated people in 8/36 (22.2%) of children and in 166/304 (54.6%) of adolescent patients (P < .0003). We did not find a significant difference between the 2 age groups with regard to the presence of gynecological lesions (15/35 (42.9%) of children and 91/298 (30.5%) of adolescent patients). However, we found a significant difference in the proportion of patients with bodily lesions such that 11/36 (30.6%) of children and 175/300 (58.3%) of adolescents (P = .002) were afflicted with bodily lesions. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first study to evaluate child and adolescent sexual abuse cases on the basis of real-life data collected in Switzerland. Our results highlight important differences in child and adolescent sexual assault in terms of delay in presentation to primary care, perpetrator's relation to the victim, and presence of bodily lesions. This study confirms that gynecological findings alone are not consistently present in the patients who seek primary care after sexual assault.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Examen Ginecologíco/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/diagnóstico , Preescolar , Femenino , Hospitales Universitarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Suiza , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
12.
J Child Sex Abus ; 29(3): 263-277, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751188

RESUMEN

Research on female-perpetrated child sexual abuse, especially maternal sexual abuse, is scarce. Prevalences are assumed to be lower compared to male-perpetrated abuse; however, representative studies including female perpetrators are rare. Experiences of male- and female-perpetrated child sexual abuse were examined in a representative German sample. Questions included experiences of hands-on and penetrative sexual abuse. The perpetrator-victim relationship was assessed to calculate prevalences of maternal sexual abuse. A total of 2516 participants (54.53% female, 14-91 years) were questioned and prevalences, as well as group differences between victims of male perpetrators compared to female perpetrators, were calculated. Overall, 10.5% of all participants reported experiences of child sexual abuse. Female perpetrators were involved in 9.9% of the cases, i.e. 1.0% of all participants. Victims of female perpetrators were significantly more often male. A quarter of the adult female perpetrators were the mother figure of the child. The findings suggest that the share of female perpetrators in cases of child sexual abuse is rather small; concurrently, female perpetration is insufficiently recognized. Especially male victims seem to be at risk for sexual abuse by female perpetrators. Contacts for children especially within the professional support system need to be aware of the existence of female perpetrators.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
13.
Sex Abuse ; 32(1): 55-78, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191769

RESUMEN

Previous empirical inquiries into the etiology of juvenile sex offending have been largely atheoretical. Consequently, a call for studies conducted utilizing developmental and life-course (DLC) criminological theory has been made to better understand the onset, development, risk, and protective factors of juvenile sex offending. Therefore, this study contributes to the discussion by testing key predictions proposed by the DLC framework regarding the theoretical correlates of early onset offending, as applied to juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) and juvenile nonsex offenders (JNSOs). Drawing on a data set of more than 64,000 youth referred to the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, results indicate that although the number and severity of risk factors for early age of onset differ between the JSOs and JNSOs, the specific type of risk factors that emerged align with DLC theory predictions. The implications of these findings and contributions for DLC theory are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Delincuencia Juvenil/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia/estadística & datos numéricos , Edad de Inicio , Ira , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Hijo de Padres Discapacitados/estadística & datos numéricos , Crimen/psicología , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicología Criminal , Empatía , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Florida/epidemiología , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Genio Irritable , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales , Responsabilidad Parental , Grupo Paritario , Teoría Psicológica , Trastornos Psicóticos , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Delitos Sexuales/psicología
14.
Sex Abuse ; 32(1): 101-124, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238826

RESUMEN

Sex offenders who cross over in victims' age, gender and relationship usually have a greater number of victims, which is associated with sexual recidivism. This investigation aimed to examine the prevalence of crossover index offending in Portugal, and to explore the predictive ability of sociodemographic and criminological variables on this outcome. A retrospective sample of 247 male individuals incarcerated for sex offenses in a Portuguese prison was drawn from official records. From those offenders with multiple victims (n = 94), 48% had victims of different age categories, 10% had both gendered victims, and 12% had intrafamilial and extrafamilial victims. Comparative statistics and logistic regressions were able to identify variables that distinguished noncrossover and crossover offenders and that predicted crossover, respectively. While likely underestimates of the prevalence of victim crossover, these findings are compared to previous international studies and provide a better understanding of the phenomenon.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Literatura Erótica , Violación/estadística & datos numéricos , Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Niño , Familia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Portugal , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
15.
Scand J Public Health ; 48(5): 511-518, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068105

RESUMEN

Aims: To investigate whether adolescents and young adults with a history of child abuse had more physical health complaints compared to their unexposed peers. We also aimed to estimate associations between different child abuse types with physical health complaints and associations between the number of child abuse types and physical health complaints. Methods: This population-based telephone survey over two waves included 506 adolescents and young adults exposed to child abuse and 504 non-abused peers aged 16-33 years. We applied linear regression analyses to investigate associations between child abuse types and physical health complaints, unadjusted and mutually adjusted for co-occurring abuse, and to investigate how the number of child abuse types associated with physical health complaints. Results: Participants exposed to child abuse reported significantly more physical health complaints. The child abuse types strongly co-occurred. When adjusting for co-occurring child abuse, only sexual and emotional abuse were significantly associated with physical health complaints. Physical health complaints increased with the higher number of child abuse types experienced. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that exposure to abuse, particularly sexual and emotional, during childhood predicts physical health complaints in adolescence and early adulthood. In a public health perspective, early identification of child abuse may be beneficial in preventing physical health complaints later in life.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Adolescente/estadística & datos numéricos , Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
16.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 29(1): e2018438, 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090250

RESUMEN

Objetivo: descrever os casos de violência contra crianças e adolescentes e a completude das fichas de notificação registradas no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Sinan), Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil, 2009-2016. Métodos: foi realizado estudo descritivo, considerando-se 38 campos da ficha de notificação no sistema; a análise da completude embasou-se nos critérios propostos pelo Ministério da Saúde. Resultados: dos 10.333 casos registrados, 69,3% ocorreram entre crianças do sexo feminino, e em 43,0% o agressor tinha relação parental com a vítima; entre os adolescentes, aproximadamente » (24,9%) dos agressores foram amigos/conhecidos; a violência sexual foi a mais notificada em ambos os grupos; a completude dos campos variou de 15,1% (ocupação) a 100,0% (vários campos). Conclusão: diferentemente do cenário nacional, a violência sexual foi a mais notificada no município, indicando subestimação dos demais tipos de violência; a qualidade dos dados aponta para a necessidade de aprimoramento do Sinan em Manaus.


Objetivo: describir los casos de violencia contra niños y adolescentes y la integridad de los formularios de notificación registrados en el Sistema de Información de Enfermedades de Notificación (Sinan), Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil, 2009-2016. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de 38 campos del formulario de notificación del sistema; el análisis de integridad se basó en los criterios propuestos por el Ministerio de Salud. Resultados: el 69,3% de los 10.333 casos reportados ocurrieron entre niñas, con padres y padrastros como los principales agresores (43,0%); entre los adolescentes, aproximadamente » (24,9%) fue cometido por amigos/conocidos; la violencia sexual fue la más reportada en ambos grupos; la integridad del campo varió de 15,1% (ocupación) a 100,0% (campos múltiples). Conclusión: en contraste con el escenario nacional, la violencia sexual fue la más reportada en la ciudad, lo que indica que también se necesita capacitación para detectar otros tipos de violencia; la calidad de los datos apunta a la necesidad de mejorar el Sinan en Manaus.


Objective: to describe cases of violence against children and adolescents and completeness of notification forms registered on the Notifiable Health Conditions Information System (Sinan), Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, 2009-2016. Methods: this was a descriptive study based on 38 fields of the notification form held on the information system; analysis of completeness was based on the criteria proposed by the Ministry of Health. Results: 69.3% of the 10,333 reported cases occurred among female children, and parents and step-parents were the perpetrators in 43.0% of cases; among adolescents, about » (24.9%) of cases were committed by friends/acquaintances; sexual violence was the most reported type of violence in both groups; field completeness ranged from 15.1% (occupation) to 100.0% (several fields). Conclusion: in contrast to the national scenario, sexual violence was the most reported form of violence in Manaus, indicating that other types of violence are underestimated; data quality points to the need for Sinan improvement in Manaus.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Maltrato a los Niños , Violencia Doméstica/estadística & datos numéricos , Exactitud de los Datos , Brasil/epidemiología , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Notificación , Sistemas de Información en Salud
17.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e78, 2019 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839014

RESUMEN

AIMS: Associations between childhood abuse and various psychotic illnesses in adulthood are commonly reported. We aim to examine associations between several reported childhood adverse events (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and interpersonal loss) among adults with diagnosed psychotic disorders and clinical and psychosocial outcomes. METHODS: Within a large epidemiological study, the 2010 Australian National Survey of Psychosis (Survey of High Impact Psychosis, SHIP), we used logistic regression to model childhood adverse events (any and specific types) on 18 clinical and psychosocial outcomes. RESULTS: Eighty percent of SHIP participants (1466/1825) reported experiencing adverse events in childhood (sexual abuse, other types of abuse and interpersonal loss). Participants reporting any form of childhood adversity had higher odds for 12/18 outcomes we examined. Significant associations were observed with all psychosocial outcomes (social dysfunction, victimisation, offending and homelessness within the previous 12 months, and definite psychosocial stressor within 12 months of illness onset), with the strongest association for homelessness (odds ratio (OR) = 2.82). Common across all adverse event types was an association with lifetime depression, anxiety and a definite psychosocial stressor within 12 months of illness onset. When adverse event types were non-hierarchically coded, sexual abuse was associated with 11/18 outcomes, other types of abuse 13/18 and, interpersonal loss occurring in the absence of other forms of abuse was associated with fewer of the clinical and psychosocial outcomes, 4/18. When adverse events types were coded hierarchically (to isolate the effect of interpersonal loss in the absence of abuse), interpersonal loss was associated with lower odds of self-reproach (OR = 0.70), negative syndrome (OR = 0.75) and victimisation (OR = 0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Adverse childhood experiences among people with psychosis are common, as are subsequent psychosocial stressors. Mental health professionals should routinely enquire about all types of adversities in this group and provide effective service responses. Childhood abuse, including sexual abuse, may contribute to subsequent adversity, poor psychosocial functioning and complex needs among people with psychosis. Longitudinal research to better understand these relationships is needed, as are studies which evaluate the effectiveness of preventative interventions in high-risk groups.


Asunto(s)
Adultos Sobrevivientes de Eventos Adversos Infantiles/psicología , Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Trastornos Psicóticos/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Adultos Sobrevivientes de Eventos Adversos Infantiles/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Australia/epidemiología , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Trastornos Psicóticos/psicología , Clase Social , Estrés Psicológico , Adulto Joven
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703331

RESUMEN

Child sexual exploitation (CSE) is a major risk factor for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STI), violence and other health concerns, yet few studies have examined these associations in Russia until now. This study examines the prevalence of CSE (those entering the sex trade as a minor) among women in the sex trade in Russia and how exposures and behaviors related to violence and HIV/STI structural risks differ from those who entered the sex trade as an adult. Women in the sex trade (N = 896) in St. Petersburg and Orenburg, Russia were recruited via time-location sampling and completed structured surveys. Adjusted logistic regression analyses assessed associations between CSE victimization and HIV risk-related exposures. Of the 654 participants who provided their age at first sexual exploitation, 11% reported CSE prior to age 18. Those who reported CSE were more likely to be organized by others and to be prohibited from leaving a room or house and from using condoms; three-quarters experienced rape when trading sex; a third were involved in pornography before age 18 and they had less education if they entered the sex trade as a minor. In adjusted analyses, those entering the sex trade as a minor were significantly more likely than those entering the sex trade as an adult to report drug use prior to age 18 (AOR = 5.75, 95% CI = 2.53-13.09) to have ≥5 clients/day (past 12 months; AOR = 3.55, 95% CI = 1.56-8.08), to report receiving police assistance (AOR: 3.10, 95% CI = 1.26-7.54), and to have fewer experiences of police extortion (AOR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.10-1.24). They were four times more likely to participate in pornography before the age of 18 (AOR = 4.08, 95% CI = 1.32, 12.60) and three times more likely to have been sexually abused as child (AOR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.27, 7.54). Overall, entry as a minor was related to greater risk for victimization and an inability to protect oneself from STI/HIV.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Trabajo Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Condones/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Federación de Rusia , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
19.
LGBT Health ; 6(8): 386-392, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657657

RESUMEN

Purpose: Psychosocial syndemic indicators (e.g., internalizing symptoms, alcohol/substance use, and violence exposure) have been associated with increased risk for HIV among older adolescent sexual minority males and adult sexual minority men. No studies have examined these concerns among early adolescents (<16 years old). The purpose of this study was to examine syndemic indicators among early adolescent sexual minority males and their associations with sexual behavior. Methods: Sexual minority males (N = 207; ages 14-17; drawn from 40 U.S. states) completed a cross-sectional online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to document profiles of syndemic indicators. Firth logistic regressions tested the associations between count of syndemic indicators and sexual behavior with male and female partners. Results: Psychosocial syndemic indicators were highly prevalent and co-occurring, with diverse psychosocial profiles. After controlling for age, race, and ethnicity, having more syndemic indicators was significantly positively associated with condomless anal sex with male partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.84) and vaginal and/or anal sex with females (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.25-2.47). Conclusions: This study documents the psychosocial profiles of syndemic indicators with a sample of early adolescent sexual minority males and the association of syndemic indicators with sexual behavior. Among early adolescent sexual minority males, psychosocial concerns were prevalent, similar to rates seen among adult sexual minority males, and conferred vulnerability to HIV transmission. Behavioral and psychosocial interventions must reach sexual minority males in early adolescence to address mental health and substance use concerns and to help reduce the risk of HIV acquisition.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Sindémico , Adolescente , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Masculino , Asunción de Riesgos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Estados Unidos
20.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 393, 2019 10 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664953

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting Prevention Program (CHIRPP) is a sentinel surveillance program that collects and analyzes data on injuries and poisonings of people presenting to emergency departments (EDs) at 11 pediatric and eight general hospitals (currently) across Canada. To date, CHIRPP is an understudied source of child maltreatment (CM) surveillance data. This study: (1) describes CM cases identified in the CHIRPP database between1997/98 to 2010/11; (2) assesses the level of CM case capture over the 14-year period and; (3) uses content analysis to identify additional information captured in text fields. METHODS: We reviewed cases of children under 16 whose injuries were reported as resulting from CM from 1997/98 to 2010/11. A time trend analysis of cases to assess capture was conducted and content analysis was applied to develop a codebook to assess information from text fields in CHIRPP. The frequency of types of CM and other variables identified from text fields were calculated. Finally, the frequency of types of CM were presented by age and gender. RESULTS: A total of 2200 CM cases were identified. There was a significant decrease in the capture of CM cases between 1999 and 2005. Physical abuse was the most prevalent type (57%), followed by sexual assault (31%), unspecified maltreatment (7%), injury as the result of exposure to family violence (3%) and neglect (2%). Text fields provided additional information including perpetrator characteristics, the use of drugs and/or alcohol during the injury event, information regarding the involvement of non-health care professionals, whether maltreatment occurred during a visitation period with a parent and, whether the child was removed from their home. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this initial study indicate that CHIRPP could be a complimentary source of CM data. As an injury surveillance system, physical abuse and sexual assault were better captured than other types of CM. Text field data provided unique information on a number of additional details surrounding the injury event, including risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Vigilancia de Guardia , Adolescente , Distribución por Edad , Canadá/epidemiología , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Bases de Datos Factuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a la Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Análisis de Regresión , Distribución por Sexo , Heridas y Traumatismos/epidemiología
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