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1.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232431, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365066

RESUMEN

This study examined how trustworthiness impressions depend on vocal expressive and person characteristics and how their dependence may be explained by acoustical profiles. Sentences spoken in a range of emotional and conversational expressions by 20 speakers differing in age and sex were presented to 80 age and sex matched listeners who rated speaker trustworthiness. Positive speaker valence but not arousal consistently predicted greater perceived trustworthiness. Additionally, voices from younger as compared with older and female as compared with male speakers were judged more trustworthy. Acoustic analysis highlighted several parameters as relevant for being perceived as trustworthy (i.e., accelerated tempo, low harmonic-to-noise ratio, more shimmer, low fundamental frequency, more jitter, large intensity range) and showed that effects partially overlapped with those for perceived speaker affect, age, but not sex. Specifically, a fast speech rate and a lower harmonic-to-noise ratio differentiated trustworthy from untrustworthy, positive from negative, and younger from older voices. Male and female voices differed in other ways. Together, these results show that a speaker's expressive as well as person characteristics shape trustworthiness impressions and that their effect likely results from a combination of low-level perceptual and higher-order conceptual processes.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Ira , Confianza , Voz , Estimulación Acústica , Adulto , Afecto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicoacústica , Factores Sexuales , Singapur , Acústica del Lenguaje , Percepción del Habla , Adulto Joven
2.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190399, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348443

RESUMEN

Objectives To evaluate the acoustic properties of the /s/ sound in individuals with different occlusion types and to investigate relationships between these properties and cephalometric measurements. Methodology Sixty patients were divided into three groups based on malocclusion. Group 1 included 20 patients (mean age: 14.85±2.01 years) with Class I skeletal and dental relationships. Group 2 included 20 patients (mean age: 13.49±1.78 years) with Class II skeletal and dental relationships. Group 3 included 20 patients (mean age: 12.46±2.62 years) with Class III skeletal and dental relationships. Cephalometric tracings were obtained from cephalometric radiographs. All included patients were native speakers of Turkish. The /s/ sound was selected for center of gravity analysis. Correlations between cephalometric values and acoustic parameters were also investigated. Results The center of gravity of the /s/ sound had the lowest value in Group 2 (p<0.05). For the /s/ sound in Group 3, moderate positive correlations were found between center of gravity and Sella-Nasion to Gonion-Gnathion angle (p<0.05, r=0.444) Lower incisor to Nasion-B point (p<0.023, r=0.505), and Lower incisor to Nasion-B point angle (p<0.034; r=0.476). No correlation was found in other cephalometric measurements. Conclusions The /s/ sound was affected by malocclusion due to the changing place of articulation. Therefore, referral to an orthodontist for malocclusion treatment especially patients with class III in the early period is suggested for producing acoustically ideal sound.


Asunto(s)
Cefalometría , Maloclusión/fisiopatología , Acústica del Lenguaje , Trastornos del Habla/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Maloclusión/complicaciones , Maloclusión/diagnóstico por imagen , Mandíbula/anatomía & histología , Mandíbula/fisiopatología , Maxilar/anatomía & histología , Maxilar/fisiopatología , Estudios Prospectivos , Radiografía , Valores de Referencia , Trastornos del Habla/diagnóstico por imagen , Trastornos del Habla/etiología , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Lengua/anatomía & histología , Lengua/fisiopatología , Turquia
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(4): e1007755, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267836

RESUMEN

Analyzing the rhythm of animals' acoustic signals is of interest to a growing number of researchers: evolutionary biologists want to disentangle how these structures evolved and what patterns can be found, and ecologists and conservation biologists aim to discriminate cryptic species on the basis of parameters of acoustic signals such as temporal structures. Temporal structures are also relevant for research on vocal production learning, a part of which is for the animal to learn a temporal structure. These structures, in other words, these rhythms, are the topic of this paper. How can they be investigated in a meaningful, comparable and universal way? Several approaches exist. Here we used five methods to compare their suitability and interpretability for different questions and datasets and test how they support the reproducibility of results and bypass biases. Three very different datasets with regards to recording situation, length and context were analyzed: two social vocalizations of Neotropical bats (multisyllabic, medium long isolation calls of Saccopteryx bilineata, and monosyllabic, very short isolation calls of Carollia perspicillata) and click trains of sperm whales, Physeter macrocephalus. Techniques to be compared included Fourier analysis with a newly developed goodness-of-fit value, a generate-and-test approach where data was overlaid with varying artificial beats, and the analysis of inter-onset-intervals and calculations of a normalized Pairwise Variability Index (nPVI). We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the methods and we also show suggestions on how to best visualize rhythm analysis results. Furthermore, we developed a decision tree that will enable researchers to select a suitable and comparable method on the basis of their data.


Asunto(s)
Biología Computacional/métodos , Acústica del Lenguaje , Vocalización Animal/clasificación , Acústica , Comunicación Animal , Animales , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Vocalización Animal/fisiología
4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231484, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287289

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the role of motor control immaturity in the speech production characteristics of 4-year-old children, compared to adults. Specifically, two indices were examined: trial-to-trial variability, which is assumed to be linked to motor control accuracy, and anticipatory extra-syllabic vowel-to-vowel coarticulation, which is assumed to be linked to the comprehensiveness, maturity and efficiency of sensorimotor representations in the central nervous system. METHOD: Acoustic and articulatory (ultrasound) data were recorded for 20 children and 10 adults, all native speakers of Canadian French, during the production of isolated vowels and vowel-consonant-vowel (V1-C-V2) sequences. Trial-to-trial variability was measured in isolated vowels. Extra-syllabic anticipatory coarticulation was assessed in V1-C-V2 sequences by measuring the patterns of variability of V1 associated with variations in V2. Acoustic data were reported for all subjects and articulatory data, for a subset of 6 children and 2 adults. RESULTS: Trial-to-trial variability was significantly larger in children. Systematic and significant anticipation of V2 in V1 was always found in adults, but was rare in children. Significant anticipation was observed in children only when V1 was /a/, and only along the antero-posterior dimension, with a much smaller magnitude than in adults. A closer analysis of individual speakers revealed that some children showed adult-like anticipation along this dimension, whereas the majority did not. CONCLUSION: The larger trial-to-trial variability and the lack of anticipatory behavior in most children-two phenomena that have been observed in several non-speech motor tasks-support the hypothesis that motor control immaturity may explain a large part of the differences observed between speech production in adults and 4-year-old children, apart from other causes that may be linked with language development.


Asunto(s)
Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Habla/fisiología , Acústica , Adulto , Anticipación Psicológica/fisiología , Canadá , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Masculino , Fonética , Espectrografía del Sonido/métodos , Acústica del Lenguaje , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla/métodos , Medición de la Producción del Habla/métodos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230233, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196513

RESUMEN

In spite of its acoustic diversity, the speech signal presents statistical regularities that can be exploited by biological or artificial systems for efficient coding. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) revealed that on small time scales (∼ 10 ms), the overall structure of speech is well captured by a time-frequency representation whose frequency selectivity follows the same power law in the high frequency range 1-8 kHz as cochlear frequency selectivity in mammals. Variations in the power-law exponent, i.e. different time-frequency trade-offs, have been shown to provide additional adaptation to phonetic categories. Here, we adopt a parametric approach to investigate the variations of the exponent at a finer level of speech. The estimation procedure is based on a measure that reflects the sparsity of decompositions in a set of Gabor dictionaries whose atoms are Gaussian-modulated sinusoids. We examine the variations of the exponent associated with the best decomposition, first at the level of phonemes, then at an intra-phonemic level. We show that this analysis offers a rich interpretation of the fine-grained statistical structure of speech, and that the exponent values can be related to key acoustic properties. Two main results are: i) for plosives, the exponent is lowered by the release bursts, concealing higher values during the opening phases; ii) for vowels, the exponent is bound to formant bandwidths and decreases with the degree of acoustic radiation at the lips. This work further suggests that an efficient coding strategy is to reduce frequency selectivity with sound intensity level, congruent with the nonlinear behavior of cochlear filtering.


Asunto(s)
Habla/fisiología , Estimulación Acústica/métodos , Cóclea/fisiología , Implantes Cocleares , Humanos , Fonética , Acústica del Lenguaje , Percepción del Habla/fisiología
6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229902, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160213

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate whether early-English education benefits the perception of English phonetic contrasts that are known to be perceptually confusable for Dutch native speakers, comparing Dutch pupils who were enrolled in an early-English programme at school from the age of four with pupils in a mainstream programme with English instruction from the age of 11, and English-Dutch early bilingual children. Children were 4-5-year-olds (start of primary school), 8-9-year-olds, or 11-12-year-olds (end of primary school). Children were tested on four contrasts that varied in difficulty: /b/-/s/ (easy), /k/-/É¡/ (intermediate), /f/-/θ/ (difficult), /ɛ/-/æ/ (very difficult). Bilingual children outperformed the two other groups on all contrasts except /b/-/s/. Early-English pupils did not outperform mainstream pupils on any of the contrasts. This shows that early-English education as it is currently implemented is not beneficial for pupils' perception of non-native contrasts.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Multilingüismo , Percepción del Habla/fisiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Fonética , Acústica del Lenguaje
7.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229960, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160255

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: It is widely believed that 'creaky voice' ('creak', 'vocal fry', 'glottal fry') is increasingly prevalent among some English speakers, particularly among young American women. Motivated by the widespread and cross-disciplinary interest in the phenomenon, this paper offers a systematic review of peer-reviewed research (up to January 2019) on the prevalence of creaky voice in varieties of English. The review aimed to understand whose and what speech has been studied, how creaky voice prevalence has been measured, and what the findings collectively reveal. METHOD: Literature was located by searching four electronic databases (ProQuest, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science) and the proceedings of two recurrent conferences ('ICPhS' and 'SST'). Studies were included if they reported the prevalence of creaky voice in naturalistic samples of English spoken by vocally-healthy speakers. Reference lists of included studies were cross-checked. RESULTS: Only ten studies meeting inclusion criteria were identified. All studies sampled a small number of speakers and/or short durations of speech. Nine were recent studies of American-English speakers, and many of these sampled young, female, college students. Across the ten studies, creaky voice was detected using three types of methods, and prevalence was calculated using five different formulae. The findings show that prevalence varies across groups, individuals, and contexts. However, the precise nature of this variability remains unclear due to the scarcity and methodological heterogeneity of the research. CONCLUSIONS: This paper illustrated the application of systematic literature review methods in sociophonetic research-a field in which such methods are not common. The review found that creaky voice prevalence in English is not well understood, and that widespread claims of its recent increase among young American women have not been empirically confirmed. A number of specific limitations in the existing research are highlighted, which may serve as a guide for future research design.


Asunto(s)
Percepción del Habla/fisiología , Habla/fisiología , Voz/fisiología , Factores de Edad , Humanos , Lenguaje , Fonación/fisiología , Factores Sexuales , Acústica del Lenguaje , Medición de la Producción del Habla , Factores de Tiempo , Calidad de la Voz/fisiología
8.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 63(1): 24-30, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040084

RESUMEN

The significance of phonetically representative texts in the study of the individuality of voice and speech of speakers in the analysis of the acoustic parameters of the timbre of the voice from experimental speech phonograms in order to search for signs that individualize the speaker's personality is considered. The results of the study of the most common texts from the position of phonetic representativeness and balance, the naturalness of the functioning of the speech apparatus and the temporary load on it in the process of voicing texts are presented. To implement the planned scientific research on the analysis of the acoustic parameters of the voice timbre, a corpus of phonetically representative texts has been compiled, consisting of well-known lexical materials and a special text including phonetic units missing in the original material.


Asunto(s)
Fonética , Habla , Voz , Acústica , Acústica del Lenguaje
9.
Codas ; 32(2): e20180141, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049096

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Describe the self-referred personal behavior profiles of university professors and verify the association of these profiles with the self-assessment of communicative aspects and vocal symptoms. METHODS: Study conducted with 334 professors at a public university who responded to an online questionnaire regarding voice use in teaching practice. Personal behavior profile classification was the response variable, which was divided into four types: pragmatic, analytical, expressive and affable. Explanatory variables were vocal self-perception, vocal resources, and communicative aspects. Descriptive data analysis was performed with application of the Pearson's Chi-squared and Fisher's Exact tests. RESULTS: University professors identified themselves more with the affable and expressive personal behavior profiles. Overall, professors presented good self-perception about vocal and communicative aspects, in addition to having reported few vocal symptoms. Profiles differed for some of the assessed variables, namely, pragmatic professors reported high speech velocity and sporadic eye contact; expressive professors demonstrated self-perception about their voice and strong voice intensity; those in the analytical profile self-reported negative perception about vocal quality, weak voice intensity, poor articulation and rapid speaking rate; the other professors mostly reported voice tiredness symptoms and difficulty projecting the voice. CONCLUSION: University professors identify themselves mostly with the affable and expressive profiles. Self-perception analysis of the personal behavior profile in university professors showed the influence of self-reported personality characteristics on communicative skills in the classroom.


Asunto(s)
Autoimagen , Autoevaluación , Medición de la Producción del Habla/psicología , Calidad de la Voz/fisiología , Estudios Transversales , Docentes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Acústica del Lenguaje , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Conducta Verbal/fisiología , Trastornos de la Voz/clasificación , Trastornos de la Voz/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Voz/psicología
10.
Codas ; 32(4): e20190074, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049106

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To verify and compare the immediate effects of the voiced oral high-frequency oscillation (VOHFO) technique and the phonation into a silicone resonance tube in the elderly self-perception of vocal and laryngeal symptoms and in their voice quality. METHODS: 14 elderly women, over 60 years old, performed the VOHFO and phonation into a resonance tube technique (35cm in length and 9mm in diameter) with one-week interval between both to avoid carry-over effect. Initially, all participants answered questions regarding the frequency and intensity of their vocal/laryngeal symptoms. Recordings of the sustained vowel /a/ and counting numbers were performed for posterior perceptual and acoustic analyses of the voice quality. The maximum phonation time (MPT) for /a/, /s/, /z/ and counting numbers were also obtained. After that, a draw lot established which technique (VOHFO or resonance tube) would be initially applied for three minutes. After the exercise performance the same procedures were carried out and the elderly women answered a self-assessment questionnaire about the effect of the techniques in her voice, larynx, breathing and articulation. Comparison pre and post each technique were analyzed using ANOVA, Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests. The sensations after the techniques were assessed using the Chi-square test (p<0.05). RESULTS: The comparison of both techniques showed decrease in roughness and improvement in resonance for counting numbers after the resonance tube and same outcomes post VOHFO. There were no significant differences for the other analyzed variables between groups. CONCLUSION: The phonation into a resonance tube exercise improves the vocal quality of elderly women. In addition, both exercises are similar regarding self-perception of vocal / laryngeal symptoms and sensations post three minutes of the technique, suggesting that VOHFO can be safely applied in voice therapy for this population.


Asunto(s)
Laringe/fisiopatología , Fonación/fisiología , Acústica del Lenguaje , Calidad de la Voz/fisiología , Entrenamiento de la Voz , Anciano , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Femenino , Ventilación de Alta Frecuencia/métodos , Humanos , Juicio , Enfermedades de la Laringe/complicaciones , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoimagen , Autoinforme , Patología del Habla y Lenguaje/métodos , Trastornos de la Voz/fisiopatología , Trastornos de la Voz/psicología
11.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227699, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986165

RESUMEN

Previously, we demonstrated a strong correlation between the amplitude of human speech and the emission rate of micron-scale expiratory aerosol particles, which are believed to play a role in respiratory disease transmission. To further those findings, here we systematically investigate the effect of different 'phones' (the basic sound units of speech) on the emission of particles from the human respiratory tract during speech. We measured the respiratory particle emission rates of 56 healthy human volunteers voicing specific phones, both in isolation and in the context of a standard spoken text. We found that certain phones are associated with significantly higher particle production; for example, the vowel /i/ ("need," "sea") produces more particles than /ɑ/ ("saw," "hot") or /u/ ("blue," "mood"), while disyllabic words including voiced plosive consonants (e.g., /d/, /b/, /g/) yield more particles than words with voiceless fricatives (e.g., /s/, /h/, /f/). These trends for discrete phones and words were corroborated by the time-resolved particle emission rates as volunteers read aloud from a standard text passage that incorporates a broad range of the phones present in spoken English. Our measurements showed that particle emission rates were positively correlated with the vowel content of a phrase; conversely, particle emission decreased during phrases with a high fraction of voiceless fricatives. Our particle emission data is broadly consistent with prior measurements of the egressive airflow rate associated with the vocalization of various phones that differ in voicing and articulation. These results suggest that airborne transmission of respiratory pathogens via speech aerosol particles could be modulated by specific phonetic characteristics of the language spoken by a given human population, along with other, more frequently considered epidemiological variables.


Asunto(s)
Espiración/fisiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/transmisión , Habla/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Aerosoles , Microbiología del Aire , Tos/microbiología , Tos/fisiopatología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fonética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Acústica del Lenguaje , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla , Voz/fisiología , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227686, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917818

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Speech intelligibility is fundamental to social interactions and a critical surgical outcome in patients with cleft palate. Online crowdsourcing is a burgeoning technology, with potential to mitigate the burden of limited accessibility to speech-language-pathologists (SLPs). This pilot study investigates the concordance of online crowdsourced evaluations of hypernasality with SLP ratings of children with cleft palate. METHODS: Six audio-phrases each from children with cleft palate were assessed by online crowdsourcing using Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), and compared to SLP's gold-standard hypernasality score on the Pittsburgh Weighted Speech Score (PWSS). Phrases were presented to MTurk crowdsourced lay-raters to assess hypernasality on a Likert scale analogous to the PWSS. The survey included clickable reference audio samples for different levels of hypernasality. RESULTS: 1,088 unique online crowdsourced speech ratings were collected on 16 sentences of 3 children with cleft palate aged 4-8 years, with audio averaging 6.5 years follow-up after cleft palate surgery. Patient 1 crowd-mean was 2.62 (SLP rated 2-3); Patient 2 crowd-mean 2.66 (SLP rated 3); and Patient 3 crowd-mean 1.76 (SLP rated 2). Rounded for consistency with PWSS scale, all patients matched SLP ratings. Different sentences had different accuracies compared to the SLP gold standard scores. CONCLUSION: Online crowdsourced ratings of hypernasal speech in children with cleft palate were concordant with SLP ratings, predicting SLP scores in all 3 patients. This novel technology has potential for translation in clinical speech assessments, and may serve as a valuable screening tool for non-experts to identify children requiring further assessment and intervention by a qualified speech language pathology expert.


Asunto(s)
Fisura del Paladar/fisiopatología , Fisura del Paladar/cirugía , Colaboración de las Masas , Inteligibilidad del Habla , Medición de la Producción del Habla/métodos , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Acústica del Lenguaje , Patología del Habla y Lenguaje , Resultado del Tratamiento
13.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci ; 11(1): e1517, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453667

RESUMEN

The extreme acoustic variability of speech is well established, which makes the proficiency of human speech perception all the more impressive. Speech perception, like perception in any modality, is relative to context, and this provides a means to normalize the acoustic variability in the speech signal. Acoustic context effects in speech perception have been widely documented, but a clear understanding of how these effects relate to each other across stimuli, timescales, and acoustic domains is lacking. Here we review the influences that spectral context, temporal context, and spectrotemporal context have on speech perception. Studies are organized in terms of whether the context precedes the target (forward effects) or follows it (backward effects), and whether the context is adjacent to the target (proximal) or temporally removed from it (distal). Special cases where proximal and distal contexts have competing influences on perception are also considered. Across studies, a common theme emerges: acoustic differences between contexts and targets are perceptually magnified, producing contrast effects that facilitate perception of target sounds and words. This indicates enhanced sensitivity to changes in the acoustic environment, which maximizes the amount of potential information that can be transmitted to the perceiver. This article is categorized under: Linguistics > Language in Mind and Brain Psychology > Perception and Psychophysics.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Acústica del Lenguaje , Percepción del Habla/fisiología , Humanos
14.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 73(1): 55-79, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293191

RESUMEN

Our decision to believe what another person says can be influenced by vocally expressed confidence in speech and by whether the speaker-listener are members of the same social group. The dynamic effects of these two information sources on neurocognitive processes that promote believability impressions from vocal cues are unclear. Here, English Canadian listeners were presented personal statements (She has access to the building) produced in a confident or doubtful voice by speakers of their own dialect (in-group) or speakers from two different "out-groups" (regional or foreign-accented English). Participants rated how believable the speaker is for each statement and event-related potentials (ERPs) were analysed from utterance onset. Believability decisions were modulated by both the speaker's vocal confidence level and their perceived in-group status. For in-group speakers, ERP effects revealed an early differentiation of vocally expressed confidence (i.e., N100, P200), highlighting the motivational significance of doubtful voices for drawing believability inferences. These early effects on vocal confidence perception were qualitatively different or absent when speakers had an accent; evaluating out-group voices was associated with increased demands on contextual integration and re-analysis of a non-native representation of believability (i.e., increased N400, late negativity response). Accent intelligibility and experience with particular out-group accents each influenced how vocal confidence was processed for out-group speakers. The N100 amplitude was sensitive to out-group attitudes and predicted actual believability decisions for certain out-group speakers. We propose a neurocognitive model in which vocal identity information (social categorization) dynamically influences how vocal expressions are decoded and used to derive social inferences during person perception.


Asunto(s)
Identificación Social , Habla , Confianza/psicología , Voz , Adolescente , Adulto , Electroencefalografía , Potenciales Evocados , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prejuicio/psicología , Percepción Social , Acústica del Lenguaje , Inteligibilidad del Habla , Adulto Joven
15.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0221498, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830045

RESUMEN

Sleep-mediated overnight consolidation has been found to facilitate perceptual learning by promoting learners' generalization across talkers in their perception of novel segmental categories. Lexical tone is characterized by high variability across talkers, and displays dynamic change over time. For this reason, it remains unclear whether a similar effect of overnight consolidation would be found for perceptual learning of novel tonal contrasts. Thus, this study aims to examine whether overnight consolidation facilitates talker-independent learning of lexical tones in the identification and discrimination of novel Cantonese level tones by Mandarin listeners. Two groups of Mandarin listeners were perceptually trained either in the morning or in the evening. Listeners were trained in a tone identification (ID) task with feedback using stimuli produced by a trained talker. Their post-training changes and generalization to a novel talker were then tested in the ID and AX discrimination tasks using stimuli produced by trained and untrained talkers in three posttests following training: immediately after training, 12-hour delay, and 24-hour delay. While the evening group slept between the first and second posttests, the morning group did not. The accuracy rates in the ID task showed that the evening group showed an improved trend, predicted by their individual sleep time, in identifying the level tones produced by both the trained and untrained talkers; in contrast, the morning group showed a declining trend. The d-prime scores in the AX discrimination task did not show different patterns between the two groups. The finding of sleep-related identification changes over time suggests that overnight consolidation might have facilitated tone learning of stimuli produced by the novel talker and eventually facilitated the formation of a more talker-independent representation of novel tone categories in long-term memory. The results are discussed in light of the features of lexical tones to shed light on the mechanism of phonetic learning.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Aprendizaje , Consolidación de la Memoria/fisiología , Fonética , Acústica del Lenguaje , Percepción del Habla/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Percepción Auditiva , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
16.
J Laryngol Otol ; 133(12): 1097-1102, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791428

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Disorders of voice can limit an individual's participation and impair social interaction, thus affecting overall quality of life. Perceptual and objective evaluations can provide the clinician with detailed information regarding voice disorders. METHODS: This study comprised 40 subjects aged 34-46 years, 20 of whom (10 male, 10 female) had unilateral vocal fold palsy. Data were obtained for all participants from: the Voice Handicap Index, the grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia and strain ('GRBAS') scale, acoustic voice analysis, electroglottography, and voice range profiles. RESULTS: The voice evaluations revealed statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences between the controls and study group, both in males and females, pre- and post-therapy. CONCLUSION: Despite the normalisation of vocal parameters, acoustic, perceptual and self-rated assessments revealed statistically significant differences after therapy. Hence, acoustic measures, namely electroglottographic perturbation, and voice frequency and intensity range, are recommended prior to termination of therapy.


Asunto(s)
Parálisis de los Pliegues Vocales/fisiopatología , Trastornos de la Voz/fisiopatología , Adulto , Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida , Recuperación de la Función , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Acústica del Lenguaje , Resultado del Tratamiento , Parálisis de los Pliegues Vocales/complicaciones , Parálisis de los Pliegues Vocales/psicología , Voz , Trastornos de la Voz/etiología , Trastornos de la Voz/psicología , Calidad de la Voz , Entrenamiento de la Voz
17.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(4): 384-388, Out.-Dez. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024143

RESUMEN

Introduction: The understanding of normal vocal production is essential to guide any voice professional as it is fundamental to understand the effects of the posterior glottal gap on the vocal quality. Objective: The aim of the present study was to verify the association between glottic closure, acoustic parameters, and some characteristics of the videolaryngostroboscopy of young women without vocal complaints nor laryngeal disorders. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with 56 women between 20 and 30 years old who underwent videolaryngostroboscopy. The acoustic parameters of the vowel /a:/ were analyzed using the Praat software, Release 4.6.10 (Paul Boersman and David Weenik, Amsterdam, Netherlands). Statistical Analysis: The chi-squared, Fischer, and Kruskall-Wallis tests were applied, with 5% significance. Results: Significant occurrence of posterior glottal gap (85.71%, p < 0.001), of normal vocal folds vibration amplitude (82.14%, p < 0.001), and of absence of significant constriction of the laryngeal vestibule (98.21%, p < 0.001); no significant association of the glottic closure with the vocal acoustic parameters; no significant association of glottic closure, vocal folds vibration amplitude, and constriction of the laryngeal vestibule. Conclusion: There was a predominance of posterior glottal gap, normal vocal folds vibration amplitude, and absence of laryngeal vestibule constriction, and no relation with the acoustic parameters, suggesting that the posterior glottal gap did not generate impact on the vocal production of the young adult women studied (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Voz/fisiología , Glotis/fisiología , Acústica del Lenguaje , Pliegues Vocales/fisiología , Calidad de la Voz/fisiología , Estudios Transversales , Laringoscopía/métodos , Laringe/fisiología
18.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(4): 396-402, Out.-Dez. 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024168

RESUMEN

Introduction: Frequency-following response with speech stimulus (FFR-speech) is a subcortical potential that satisfactorily evaluates the processing of verbal information. However, there still are differences in the literature regarding its analysis and stimulation protocol. Objective: To compare two stimulation protocols for the capture of FFR-speech, to identify the percentage of occurrence of the waves among them and to compare it with the specialized literature, as well as to describe the interpeaks of its waves. Method: Considering the eligibility criteria, the sample consisted of 30 normal-hearing adults, with no complaints of speech comprehension. All of them were submitted to a basic audiological evaluation, to brainstem auditory evoked potential with click stimulus, and to FFR-speech. In the latter, 2 types of stimulation were performed, 3 series of 1,000 sweeps, and 2 series of 3,000 sweeps, for subsequent analysis of the resulting wave, in which we tried to mark the peak V followed by valleys A, C, D, E, F, and O. Results: Differences in latency and interpeaks were not found between the protocols. In general, a higher occurrence of waves in the stimulation of 2 series of 3,000 sweeps was observed, but only the A valley presented a significant difference. When the values of the waves were compared with the literature, the V and A waves showed fewer occurrences in the present study. Conclusion: The protocol of 2 series of 3,000 sweeps was better for FFR-speech in the studied equipment, considering the higher occurrence of waves, even though it is inferior to the specialized literature. Furthermore, it was possible to describe interpeak values and to observe no difference between the studied protocols (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Audiometría del Habla , Potenciales Evocados Auditivos , Acústica del Lenguaje , Estudio Comparativo , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Pruebas Auditivas
19.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 45(4): 463-469, 2019 Dec 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868693

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dysphagia and dysarthria tend to coexist in stroke patients. Dysphagia can reduce patients' quality of life, cause aspiration pneumonia and increased mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate correlations among swallowing function parameters and acoustic vowel space values in patients with stroke. METHODS: Data from stroke patients with dysarthria and dysphagia were collected. The formant parameter representing the resonance frequency of the vocal tract as a two-dimensional coordinate point was measured for the /a/, /ae/, /i/, and /u/vowels, and the quadrilateral vowel space area (VSA) and formant centralization ratio (FCR) were measured. Swallowing function was evaluated by a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) using the videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) and penetration aspiration scale (PAS). Pearson's correlation and linear regression analyses were used to assess the correlation of VSA and FCR to VDS and PAS scores. RESULTS: Thirty-one stroke patients with dysphagia and dysarthria were analyzed. VSA showed a negative correlation to VDS and PAS scores, while FCR showed a positive correlation to VDS score, but not to PAS score. VSA and FCR were significant factors for assessing dysphagia severity. CONCLUSIONS: VSA and FCR values were correlated with swallowing function and may be helpful in predicting dysphagia severity associated with stroke.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Deglución/fisiopatología , Deglución , Disartria/fisiopatología , Acústica del Lenguaje , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Trastornos de Deglución/epidemiología , Disartria/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Accidente Cerebrovascular/fisiopatología
20.
Otolaryngol Pol ; 73(5): 25-30, 2019 Aug 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701899

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The process of ageing begins after 60 years of age and is referred to as presbyphonia (Vox senium). The causes include functional or organic voice disorders, often coexisting with dry upper respiratory tract infection. INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study is the use of high-speed camera and acoustic voice analysis in diagnostics of the clinical form of presbyphonia. M aterials and methods: The study included a group of 50 men, non-smokers, age from 51 to 72, who do not use their voice professionally. High-Speed Digital Imaging and HS camera have been used, allowing evaluation of real vibrations of vocal folds, along with acoustic voice analysis using a software by DiagNova Technologies. RESULTS: VHI questionnaire has been used for self-assessment of voice disability. Visualizations of the larynx enabled recognition of hypofunctional dysphonia or atrophy of vocal folds that cause voice disorders. This was confirmed by parameters of voice acoustic evaluation: F0, NHR, narrowband spectrography. The pathological value of NHR and the presence of nonharmonic components in the range of high frequency levels indicated glottal insufficiency, recorded with the visualization technique of the larynx by HS camera. A significant shortening of maximum phonation time in relation to the control group has also been recorded. DISCUSSION: The objective examination of voice pathology is crucial in diagnosis and rehabilitation, however, subjective assessment of the patient is important in the scope of the procedure used. The patient's subjective self-rating assessment (VHI) confirmed the sense of voice disorders in elderly men, indicating the need for rapid and accurate clinical diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Acústica del Lenguaje , Grabación de Cinta de Video/métodos , Trastornos de la Voz/diagnóstico , Calidad de la Voz/fisiología , Anciano , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
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