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3.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(2): 85-91, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551502

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate community and health-care workers' perspectives on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and on early pandemic responses during the first 2 weeks of national lockdown in Zimbabwe. Methods: Rapid qualitative research was carried out between March and April 2020 via phone interviews with one representative from each of four community-based organizations and 16 health-care workers involved in a trial of community-based services for young people. In addition, information on COVID-19 was collected from social media platforms, news outlets and government announcements. Data were analysed thematically. Findings: Four themes emerged: (i) individuals were overloaded with information but lacked trusted sources, which resulted in widespread fear and unanswered questions; (ii) communities had limited ability to comply with prevention measures, such as social distancing, because access to long-term food supplies and water at home was limited and because income had to be earned daily; (iii) health-care workers perceived themselves to be vulnerable and undervalued because of a shortage of personal protective equipment and inadequate pay; and (iv) other health conditions were sidelined because resources were redirected, with potentially wide-reaching implications. Conclusion: It is important that prevention measures against COVID-19 are appropriate for the local context. In Zimbabwe, communities require support with basic needs and access to reliable information to enable them to follow prevention measures. In addition, health-care workers urgently need personal protective equipment and adequate salaries. Essential health-care services and medications for conditions other than COVID-19 must also continue to be provided to help reduce excess mortality and morbidity.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/organización & administración , Personal de Salud , Acceso a la Información , Humanos , Pandemias , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Investigación Cualitativa , Salarios y Beneficios , Zimbabwe
4.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(1)2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408099

RESUMEN

Patients admitted to the isolation ward during the COVID-19 outbreak face multiple psychosocial stressors including the disruptive experience of being in quarantine, anxiety over contracting a newly emerging infectious disease and limited access to their healthcare team. This quality improvement project aims to leverage on technology to improve patients' access to, and experience of, care while in isolation.Patients admitted to two isolation wards in Singapore General Hospital (SGH) between 28 February and 19 March 2020 were each provided an iPad loaded with the MyCare application (app), curated materials and mobile games. During this period, 83 of them accessed the device and the app. MyCare app is an app developed by the nursing team in SGH as part of an existing interprofessional collaboration to help patients navigate their care during their inpatient stay. In response to COVID-19, MyCare app was supplemented with materials to address affected patients' informational and psychosocial needs. These materials included an information sheet on COVID-19, interviews with previous severe acute respiratory syndrome survivors, psychosocial support materials, and uplifting literature, illustrated storybooks and artwork.This paper describes the process of planning for, and executing, the intervention and reports the initial results of its effect. Initial feedback indicated a positive response to the intervention. 9 out of 10 respondents (90%) rated their hospital experience with a maximum of five stars and all 10 respondents (100%) rated the psychosocial support materials with five stars. Doctors managing the patients also observed a reduction in the number of commonly asked questions following the deployment of the iPad.This quality improvement project is ongoing with plans for further research to determine how to better support the psychosocial needs of patients in isolation during a novel disease outbreak. This report is written based on the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Acceso a la Información , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Hospitalización , Aplicaciones Móviles , Cuarentena/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Brotes de Enfermedades , Empoderamiento , Femenino , Hospitales , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Singapur , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
5.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 109(1): 133-136, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33424475

RESUMEN

Internet and communication technologies enable the creation of tremendous amounts of textual, graphic, and pictorial information. User-generated content published through personal web pages, blogs, and social media platforms has not only increased the amount of information available, but also expanded its reach. However, this ubiquity of information and empowerment of its creators leads to potentially controversial, futile, and inaccurate content circulating throughout the world. In the case of the COVID-19 pandemic, this can create false hope, fear, anxiety, harm, and confusion amongst information stakeholders. The World Health Organization recently applied the term "infodemic" to the COVID-19 pandemic. This commentary briefly discusses the current infodemic, its potential consequences, and the role of libraries-specifically health sciences, biomedical, and medical libraries-to help counter the COVID-19 infodemic. The discussion also has relevance for infodemics relating to other health and non-health affairs.


Asunto(s)
Acceso a la Información , Exactitud de los Datos , Guías como Asunto , Bibliotecas Médicas/normas , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Rol Profesional , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios de Casos Organizacionales , Tennessee
6.
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(15): 19260-19271, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394406

RESUMEN

Globally, urban has been the major contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and thus plays an increasingly important role in its efforts to reduce CO2 emissions. However, quantifying city-level CO2 emissions is generally a difficult task due to lacking or lower quality of energy-related statistics data, especially for some underdeveloped areas. To address this issue, this study used a set of open access data and machine learning methods to estimate and predict city-level CO2 emissions across China. Two feature selection technologies including Recursive Feature Elimination and Boruta were used to extract the important critical variables and input parameters for modeling CO2 emissions. Finally, 18 out of 31 predictor variables were selected to establish prediction models of CO2 emissions. We found that the statistical indicators of urban environment pollution (such as industrial SO2 and dust emissions per capita) are the most important variables for predicting the city-level CO2 emissions in China. The XGBoost models obtained the highest estimation accuracy with R2 > 0.98 and lower relative error (about 0.8%) than other methods. The CO2 emissions predictive accuracy can be improved modestly by combing geospatial and meteorological interpolation predictor variables (e.g., DEM, annual average precipitation, and air temperature). We also observed an S-shape relationship between urban CO2 emissions per capita and urban economic growth when the rest variables were held constant, rather than a U-shaped one. The findings presented herein provide a first proof of concept that easily available socioeconomic statistical records and geospatial data at urban areas have the potential to accurately predict city-level CO2 emissions with the aid of machine learning algorithms. Our approach can be used to generate carbon footprint maps frequently for the undeveloped regions with scarce detailed energy-related statistical data, to assist policy-makers in designing specific measures of reducing and allocating carbon emissions reduction goal.


Asunto(s)
Acceso a la Información , Dióxido de Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Ciudades , Aprendizaje Automático
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1098-1109, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493429

RESUMEN

A key component of outbreak control is monitoring public perceptions and public response. To determine public perceptions and public responses during the first 3 months of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in the Netherlands, we conducted 6 repeated surveys of ≈3,000 persons. Generalized estimating equations analyses revealed changes over time as well as differences between groups at low and high risk. Overall, respondents perceived the risks associated with COVID-19 to be considerable, were positive about the mitigation measures, trusted the information and the measures from authorities, and adopted protective measures. Substantial increases were observed in risk perceptions and self-reported protective behavior in the first weeks of the outbreak. Individual differences were based mainly on participants' age and health condition. We recommend that authorities constantly adjust their COVID-19 communication and mitigation strategies to fit public perceptions and public responses and that they tailor the information for different groups.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Medición de Riesgo , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Percepción Social , Acceso a la Información/psicología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Actitud Frente a la Salud , /prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Salud Pública/métodos , Salud Pública/normas , Opinión Pública , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Confianza
9.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(1): 15-18, 2021 01.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512353

RESUMEN

It was a very dark year for EBM. One of the side effects of the Covid-19 pandemic is a severe compression of the evidences. Here are some worrying events. May 2020: the saga of hydroxychloroquine. October 2020: the nitazoxanide case. November 2020: Trump Administration Interferes on Expert Opinion. December 2020: the results of the trials on the first two vaccines were announced in press releases, leaving many scientific uncertainties. Peter Piot, head of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine noted that none of the CoViD-19 vaccines have offered much data to date. «It is frustrating that all of these announcements are delivered via press release, and not give us a chance to review the actual data. We desperately need total transparency on evidence and data¼, says Piot. Better now to relaunch the spread of EBM. In the issue, we have included the best EBM-based readings from the Club for Evidence-Based in Gastroenterology & Hepatology (ebgh.it).


Asunto(s)
Acceso a la Información , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/tendencias , Pandemias , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Brasil , /epidemiología , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Revelación , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Italia , Política , Propaganda , Tiazoles/uso terapéutico , Estados Unidos
11.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 12 10.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332059

RESUMEN

The answer to the question whether COVID-19 is a hype or not depends on how we define a hype. The article loosely builds on philosophical discussions about hypes in knowledge work and information sciences. The central idea is to make clear that hypes always imply a certain overload of information and that the paradoxical outcome of this that it is not just information that is piling up but also disinformation. It is argued that it is in this sense (and only in this sense) that COVID-19 is a hype. How we respond to this hype depends very strongly on subjective sensitivities towards both information and desinformation.


Asunto(s)
Acceso a la Información/psicología , Informática Médica/ética , Informática en Salud Pública/ética , Mala Conducta Científica , /epidemiología , Defensa del Consumidor , Humanos , Difusión de la Información , Salud Pública , Mala Conducta Científica/ética , Mala Conducta Científica/psicología
12.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(12): 1446-1455, 2020 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355383

RESUMEN

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has accentuated the need for speedy access to information. Digital divide and socio-demographic disparity create an information hiatus and therefore unhealthy practices with regard to dealing with COVID-19, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Aims: We assessed knowledge, attitudes, practices and their determinants regarding COVID-19 in Pakistan during March-April 2020. Methods: 905 adults ≥18 years (males and females) participated: 403 from a web-based survey; 365 from an urban survey; and 137 from a rural survey. Frequency of adequate knowledge, attitudes and practices for the three populations was determined based on available global guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression analysis determined factors of adequacy of knowledge, attitudes, practices, and association of knowledge with attitudes and practices. Results: Mean age of the participants was 33.5 (+ SD 11.1) years, 51% were females. More females and young adults (18-30 years) participated in the web-based survey. The urban survey and web-based survey participants had significantly higher adequate knowledge (2-7 times) and practices (4-5 times) towards COVID-19. Adequate knowledge had a significant influence on healthy attitudes and practices for COVID-19, after adjustment for covariates. Overall, two-thirds of the population had high levels of fear about COVID-19, which was highest among the rural survey population. Conclusion: Substantial gaps exist in adequate knowledge, attitudes and practices, particularly among rural populations, and underscores the variation in access to information according to level of education and access to the internet. Thus, a comprehensive, contextually congruent awareness raising strategy is urgently needed to confront COVID-19 among these populations.


Asunto(s)
Acceso a la Información , /psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Alfabetización en Salud , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pakistán/epidemiología , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-12-04. (OPS/CMU/PA/COVID-19/20-004).
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53094

RESUMEN

El brote diseminado de enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) en la provincia de Hubei, en China, y la introducción del virus en la Región de las Américas ponen de relieve la urgente necesidad de una comunicación clara, honesta, concisa y coherente. La comunicación de riesgos abarca todas las cuestiones básicas de la comunicación para la salud, pero difiere en la necesidad de velocidad y la dependencia de la confianza. En los momentos de crisis, se insta a los líderes a que den una respuesta rápida, sentida y confiable. El público quiere saber qué se conoce, qué se está haciendo al respecto y lo que ellos pueden o deben hacer. COVID-19, una afección similar a otros coronavirus ya conocidos como el MERS y el SARS y a la gripe, es motivo de preocupación mundial y ha sido declarada una emergencia de salud pública de importancia internacional por el Director General de la OMS. Hay muchas incógnitas, y esto provoca temor, principalmente acerca de lo que podría suceder. Por ello, la comunicación de riesgos resulta un recurso estratégico que puede contribuir a la respuesta de salud pública de las autoridades de los países de la Región. En un escenario ideal, se contaría con tiempo para hacer planes, establecer una estrategia de comunicación y una guía de acción. Pero situaciones como estas, requieren aptitudes inmediatas para comunicarse con el público. La comunicación de riesgos es un componente integral de la gestión de riesgos para la salud pública y una capacidad básica en el marco del Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (RSI). A continuación, se presentan algunas sugerencias, principios y plantillas para orientarlos. Proteger la salud y prevenir muertes que podemos evitar es la misión que nos convoca a todos. Una comunicación oportuna y transparente, con información correcta y basada en evidencias, pero también honesta y franca, con empatía y comprensión por las preocupaciones del público, será fundamental para que las personas conozcan los riesgos de la COVID-19 y sigan las recomendaciones de las autoridades para proteger su salud y la de sus seres queridos.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Comunicación en Salud , Acceso a la Información , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Américas
16.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(4): 983-995, out.-dez. 2020. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145576

RESUMEN

Este artigo traz o estudo realizado com o objetivo de identificar as publicações sobre como os cuidados paliativos são abordados nas mídias sociais. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura, com pesquisa de artigos nas bases Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs) e Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), em português, inglês e espanhol. Foram selecionados quinze artigos que atendiam aos critérios de seleção propostos, e são aqui apresentados por meio da construção de um quadro sinóptico, contendo título do estudo, periódico, ano de publicação e abordagem dos cuidados paliativos nas mídias sociais. Os resultados dos estudos demonstram que os cuidados paliativos necessitam ser melhor difundidos nas mídias sociais. Entretanto, tal evolução deve ocorrer com cautela, de modo a evitar riscos de comprometer a qualidade das informações e a respeitar questões éticas que envolvem pacientes e profissionais de saúde. Cabe destacar o papel do enfermeiro em ações de educação em saúde relacionadas com cuidados paliativos.


The study presented in this article aims to identify publications which reveal how palliative care is approached on social media. It is an integrative literature review, using search of articles in the bases Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (Lilacs) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), in Portuguese, English and Spanish languages. Fifteen articles that met the proposed selection criteria were selected, and they are presented here through the construction of a synoptic table, containing the title of the study, the journal in which it was published, its publication date and the specific approaches to palliative care in social media. The results of the studies demonstrate that the palliative care needs to be better disseminated on social media. However, caution should be taken while such dissemination occuring, in order to prevent risks damaging the quality of information and to follow ethical issues involving patients and health professionals. The role of nurses in health education actions regarding the palliative care should be highlighted.


El estudio presentado en este artículo tiene el objetivo de identificar publicaciones sobre cómo se aborda el cuidado paliativo en las redes sociales. Es una revisión literaria integrativa, haciendo una búsqueda de artículos en las bases del Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (Lilacs) y Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), en portugués, inglés y español. Se seleccionaron quince artículos que cumplían los criterios de selección propuestos, y ellos son presentados aquí a través de la construcción de un cuadro sinóptico, que contiene el título del estudio, la revista en la cual ha sido publicado, el año de publicación y el abordaje de los cuidados paliativos en las redes sociales. Los resultados de los estudios demuestran que los cuidados paliativos deben ser mejor difundidos en las redes sociales. Sin embargo, dicha difusión debe ocurrir con precaución para evitar riesgos de perjudicar la calidad de la información y para cumplir las cuestiones éticas que involucran pacientes y profesionales de la salud. El papel de los enfermeros y de las enfermeras en las acciones de educación en salud relacionadas con cuidados paliativos debe ser destacado.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Acceso a la Información , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Redes Sociales en Línea , Personal de Salud , Difusión de la Información/métodos
18.
Science ; 370(6523): 1381, 2020 12 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335037
19.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 408, 2020 11 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219227

RESUMEN

Portfolio analysis is a fundamental practice of organizational leadership and is a necessary precursor of strategic planning. Successful application requires a highly detailed model of research options. We have constructed a model, the first of its kind, that accurately characterizes these options for the biomedical literature. The model comprises over 18 million PubMed documents from 1996-2019. Document relatedness was measured using a hybrid citation analysis + text similarity approach. The resulting 606.6 million document-to-document links were used to create 28,743 document clusters and an associated visual map. Clusters are characterized using metadata (e.g., phrases, MeSH) and over 20 indicators (e.g., funding, patent activity). The map and cluster-level data are embedded in Tableau to provide an interactive model enabling in-depth exploration of a research portfolio. Two example usage cases are provided, one to identify specific research opportunities related to coronavirus, and the second to identify research strengths of a large cohort of African American and Native American researchers at the University of Michigan Medical School.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/tendencias , PubMed , Acceso a la Información , Metadatos
20.
Elife ; 92020 11 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143847

RESUMEN

Scientific conferences have an important role in the exchange of ideas and knowledge within the scientific community. Conferences also provide early-career researchers with opportunities to make themselves known within their field of research. Although the COVID-19 pandemic has brought traditional in-person conferences to a halt for the foreseeable future, the growth of virtual conferences has highlighted many of the disadvantages associated with the in-person format and demonstrated the advantages of moving these events online. Here, based on data from in-person and virtual conferences in a range of subjects, we describe how virtual conferences are more inclusive, more affordable, less time-consuming and more accessible worldwide, especially for early-career researchers. Making conferences more open and inclusive will provide both immediate and long-term benefits to the scientific community.


Asunto(s)
Acceso a la Información , Congresos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Difusión de la Información , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Aislamiento Social , Realidad Virtual , Congresos como Asunto/economía , Conducta Cooperativa , Difusión de Innovaciones , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional
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