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1.
Ars pharm ; 62(1): 66-74, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-199701

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: vegetable ingredients are increasingly common in skin products. Avocado oil is an ingredient of natu¬ral sources with various properties on the skin. In this work, crude avocado oil-loaded nanocapsules were evaluated regarding its physicochemical stability to obtain a formulation of skin delivery with adequate quality: suitable physi¬cochemical stability, with low polydispersity and with a pH suitable for cutaneous application. METHOD: nanoparticle formulations with components variation were evaluated for 2 months. Nanoparticle formu¬lation considered the most stable was further evaluated for 6 months. Furthermore, the oxidative stability of crude avocado oil loaded in nanocapsules and standard avocado oil was also performed to detect any sign of oil oxidation. RESULTS: all formulations had negative zeta potential after 2 months of storage. pH values of nanoparticles remained stable throughout the test. Formulation with the lowest content of ingredients exhibited the highest stability after 2 months of storage. Nanoencapsulated avocado oil and crude avocado oil showed no evidence of oxidation. CONCLUSIONS: Aqueous dispersions with the lowest content of ingredients presented the best physicochemical sta¬bility. Therefore, we have demonstrated preliminary the feasibility of developing avocado-oil loaded nanocapsules


INTRODUCCIÓN: los ingredientes vegetales son cada vez más comunes en los productos para la piel. El aceite de aguacate es un ingrediente de origen natural con varias propiedades en la piel. En este trabajo se evaluó la estabilidad físico-química de las nanocápsulas cargadas con aceite de aguacate crudo para obtener una formulación de aplicación cutánea con calidad adecuada: estabilidad físico química adecuada, con baja polidispersidad y con pH adecuado para aplicación cutánea. MÉTODO: formulaciones de nanocápsulas con variación en la composición de los ingredientes fueron evaluadas durante 2 meses. La formulación de nanocápsulas considerada más estable se evaluó por 6 meses. Además, la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de aguacate de las nanocápsulas y del aceite de aguacate estándar también fue evaluada para detectar cualquier signo de oxidación. RESULTADOS: todas las formulaciones han tenido potencial zeta negativo después de 2 meses de almacenamiento. Los valores de pH de las nanopartículas se mantuvieron estables durante toda la prueba. La formulación con el contenido más bajo de ingredientes exhibió la mayor estabilidad después de 2 meses de almacenamiento. El análisis de aceite de aguacate crudo y del aceite de aguacate nanoencapsulado no mostró evidencia de oxidación. CONCLUSIONES: la dispersión acuosa con el contenido más bajo de ingredientes presentó la mejor estabilidad fisicoquímica. Además, el aceite de aguacate no ha mostrado evidencia de oxidación. Por lo tanto, hemos demostrado preliminarmente la viabilidad de desarrollar nanocápsulas cargadas de aceite de aguacate


Asunto(s)
Persea/química , Aceites Vegetales/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Fármacos Dermatológicos/química , Administración Cutánea , Tamaño de la Partícula , Factores de Tiempo , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Fármacos Dermatológicos/administración & dosificación , Aceites Vegetales/administración & dosificación
2.
Food Chem ; 352: 129371, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706139

RESUMEN

Astaxanthin Z-isomers potentially have greater bioavailability and biological activity than (all-E)-astaxanthin. However, the stability of the Z-isomers is lower than the all-E-isomer, which is a serious problem affecting its practical use. In this study, we investigated the impacts of different suspension media (oils and fats) and additives on astaxanthin isomer stability and identified suitable ones for astaxanthin stabilization. The evaluations showed that several vegetable oils and antioxidants significantly improved astaxanthin isomer stability, e.g., when soybean and sunflower oils were used as the suspension medium, astaxanthin isomers were hardly degraded; however the total Z-isomer ratio decreased from ~80% to ~50% during 6-week storage at 30 °C. Moreover, it was revealed that (9Z)-astaxanthin showed higher stability than the 13Z- and 15Z-isomers. Hence, to maintain astaxanthin concentration and the Z-isomer ratio over long periods, it is important to use suitable suspension mediums and antioxidants, and select a Z-isomerization method that increases (9Z)-astaxanthin ratio.


Asunto(s)
Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Aceites Vegetales/química , Antioxidantes/análisis , Isomerismo , Xantófilas/química
3.
Food Chem ; 352: 129422, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714164

RESUMEN

The fatty acid, squalene, and phytosterols, coupled to chemometrics were utilized to detect the adulteration of camellia oil (CAO) with palm superolein (PAO), refined olive oil (ROO), high oleic- sunflower oil (HO-SUO), sunflower oil (SUO), corn oil (COO), rice bran oil (RBO), rice oil (RIO), peanut oil (PEO), sesame oil (SEO), soybean oil (SOO), and rapeseed oil (RAO). CAO was characterized with higher triterpene alcohols, thus differentiated from other vegetable oils in principle component analysis (PCA). Using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), CAO adulterated with PAO, ROO, HO-SUO, SUO, COO, RBO, RIO, PEO, SEO, SOO, RAO (5%-100%, w/w), could be classified, especially higher than 92.31% of the total discrimination accuracy, at an adulterated ratio above 30%. With less than 22 potential key markers selected by the variable importance in projection (VIP), the optimized PLS models were confirmed to be accurate for the adulterated level prediction in CAO.


Asunto(s)
Camellia/química , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Fraude/prevención & control , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Informática , Fitosteroles/análisis , Aceites Vegetales/química , Análisis Discriminante , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Análisis de Componente Principal
4.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672019

RESUMEN

Putrajeevak (Putranjiva roxburghii Wall.; synonym Drypetes roxburghii (Wall.) Hurus) seeds have been used since ancient times in the treatment of infertility in the Ayurvedic system of medicine in India. In this study, the oil component of Putrajeevak seeds (PJSO) was extracted using the supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) method using liquid CO2 and the constituents were analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionized detectorand high-performance thin-layer chromatography. PJSO contained trace amounts of ß-sitosterol with oleic and linoleic acids as the major fatty acid constituents. Male and female zebrafish were mutagenized with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and fish that produced less than 20 viable embryos were selected for the study. SCFE oil extracts from the P. roxburghii seeds were used in this study to reverse fertility impairment. The mutant fish were fed with PJSO for a period of 14 days and the rates of fertility, conception, and fecundity were determined with wild-type healthy fish as a breeding partner. Treatment with PJSO increased the ovarian follicle count as well as the number of mature eggs, while reducing the number of ovarian cysts. Sperm count as well as sperm motility were greatly enhanced in the ENU-mutagenized male zebrafish when treated with PJSO. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the effectiveness of P. roxburghii seed oil in reversing impaired fertility in both male and female zebrafish models.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía con Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Euphorbiaceae/química , Fertilidad/fisiología , Semillas/química , Pez Cebra/fisiología , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Ácidos Grasos/química , Femenino , Fertilidad/efectos de los fármacos , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Inflamación/patología , Masculino , Ovario/fisiología , Óvulo/fisiología , Pelvis/patología , Aceites Vegetales/química , Aceites Vegetales/farmacología , Aceites Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Sitoesteroles/análisis , Sitoesteroles/química , Testículo/efectos de los fármacos , Testículo/patología
5.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669774

RESUMEN

Lipid oxidation and the resulting volatile organic compounds are the main reasons for a loss of food quality. In addition to typical compounds, such as alkanes, aldehydes and alcohols, methyl ketones like heptan-2-one, are repeatedly described as aroma-active substances in various foods. However, it is not yet clear from which precursors methyl ketones are formed and what influence amino compounds have on the formation mechanism. In this study, the formation of methyl ketones in selected food-relevant fats and oils, as well as in model systems with linoleic acid or pure secondary degradation products (alka-2,4-dienals, alken-2-als, hexanal, and 2-butyloct-2-enal), has been investigated. Elevated temperatures were chosen for simulating processing conditions such as baking, frying, or deep-frying. Up to seven methyl ketones in milk fat, vegetable oils, and selected model systems have been determined using static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This study showed that methyl ketones are tertiary lipid oxidation products, as they are derived from secondary degradation products such as deca-2,4-dienal and oct-2-enal. The study further showed that the position of the double bond in the precursor compound determines the chain length of the methyl ketone and that amino compounds promote the formation of methyl ketones to a different degree. These compounds influence the profile of the products formed. As food naturally contains lipids as well as amino compounds, the proposed pathways are relevant for the formation of aroma-active methyl ketones in food.


Asunto(s)
Calor , Cetonas/química , Lípidos/química , Aminas/química , Grasas/química , Metilación , Oxidación-Reducción , Aceites Vegetales/química
6.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670315

RESUMEN

Arabian flora is a rich source of bioactive compounds. In this study, we investigated three aromatic plant species with the aim of finding valuable sources of antimicrobial agents against common pathogenic microorganisms. We focused especially on microorganisms, which cause outbreaks of infectious disease during mass gatherings and pilgrimages season in Saudi Arabia. The essential oils of three aromatic plant species were hydrodistilled from flowering aerial parts of Lavandula pubescens Decne. and Pulicaria incisa subsp. candolleana E.Gamal-Eldin, and from leaves, stems, ripe and unripe fruits of Juniperus procera Hochst. Ex Endl. They were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of L. pubescens were found to be carvacrol (55.7%), methyl carvacrol (13.4%), and ß-bisabolene (9.1%). P. incisa subsp. Candolleana essential oil was rich in linalool (33.0%), chrysanthenone (10.3%), eugenol (8.9%), and cis-chrysanthenol (8.0%); the major components of J. procera essential oil were α-pinene (31.3-62.5%) and δ-3-carene (7.3-30.3%). These essential oils were tested against thirteen American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the agar diffusion assay. The only effective essential oil was that of L. pubescens and the most sensitive strains were Acinetobacter baumannii, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella sonnei, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Carvacrol, the major constituent of L. pubescens, was tested on these strains and was compared with vancomycin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays of L. pubescens essential oil and carvacrol revealed that Gram-negative strains were more susceptible than the Gram-positive ones.


Asunto(s)
Juniperus/química , Lavandula/química , Aceites Volátiles/química , Aceites Vegetales/química , Pulicaria/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Cimenos/química , Cimenos/farmacología , Enterococcus faecalis/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Grampositivas/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Componentes Aéreos de las Plantas/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Aceites Vegetales/farmacología , Arabia Saudita , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos
7.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673039

RESUMEN

Psidium (Myrtaceae) comprises approximately 266 species, distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Psidium taxa have great ecological, economic, and medicinal relevance due to their essential oils' chemical diversity and biological potential. This review reports 18 Psidium species growing around the world and the chemical and biological properties of their essential oils. Chemically, 110 oil records are reported with significant variability of volatile constituents, according to their seasonality and collection sites. Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes with acyclic (C10 and C15), p-menthane, pinane, bisabolane, germacrane, caryophyllane, cadinane, and aromadendrane skeleton-types, were the primary constituents. The essential oils showed various biological activities, including antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, phytotoxic, larvicidal, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic properties. This review contributes to the Psidium species rational and economic exploration as natural sources to produce new drugs.


Asunto(s)
Monoterpenos/química , Aceites Volátiles/química , Psidium/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antiinflamatorios/química , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Monoterpenos/uso terapéutico , Aceites Volátiles/uso terapéutico , Aceites Vegetales/química , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapéutico
8.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573272

RESUMEN

Pears (Pyrus communis L.) cv. Packham's Triumph are very traditional for human consumption, but pear is a highly perishable climacteric fruit with a short shelf-life affected by several diseases with a microbial origin. In this study, a protective effect on the quality properties of pears was evidenced after the surface application of chitosan-Ruta graveolens essential oil coatings (CS + RGEO) in four different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 %, v/v) during 21 days of storage under 18 °C. After 21 days of treatment, a weight loss reduction of 10% (from 40.2 ± 5.3 to 20.3 ± 3.9) compared to the uncoated pears was evident with CS + RGEO 0.5%. All the fruits' physical-chemical properties evidenced a protective effect of the coatings. The maturity index increased for all the treatments. However, the pears with CS + RGEO 1.5% were lower (70.21) than the uncoated fruits (98.96). The loss of firmness for the uncoated samples was higher compared to the coated samples. The pears' most excellent mechanical resistance was obtained with CS + RGEO 0.5% after 21 days of storage, both for compression resistance (7.42 kPa) and force (22.7 N). Microbiological studies demonstrated the protective power of the coatings. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria and molds were significantly reduced (in 3 Log CFU/g compared to control) using 15 µL/mL of RGEO, without affecting consumer perception. The results presented in this study showed that CS + RGEO coatings are promising in the post-harvest treatment of pears.


Asunto(s)
Quitosano/química , Conservación de Alimentos/métodos , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Pyrus/química , Quitosano/farmacología , Respuesta al Choque por Frío/efectos de los fármacos , Frutas/química , Hongos/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Aceites Volátiles/química , Aceites Vegetales/química , Pyrus/efectos de los fármacos , Pyrus/microbiología , Ruta/química , Temperatura
9.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546303

RESUMEN

Biodiesels and biolubricants are synthetic esters produced mainly via a transesterification of other esters from bio-based resources, such as plant-based oils or animal fats. Microwave heating has been used to enhance transesterification reaction by converting an electrical energy into a radiation, becoming part of the internal energy acquired by reactant molecules. This method leads to major energy savings and reduces the reaction time by at least 60% compared to a conventional heating via conduction and convection. However, the application of microwave heating technology alone still suffers from non-homogeneous electromagnetic field distribution, thermally unstable rising temperatures, and insufficient depth of microwave penetration, which reduces the mass transfer efficiency. The strategy of integrating multiple technologies for biodiesel and biolubricant production has gained a great deal of interest in applied chemistry. This review presents an advanced transesterification process that combines microwave heating with other technologies, namely an acoustic cavitation, a vacuum, ionic solvent, and a supercritical/subcritical approach to solve the limitations of the stand-alone microwave-assisted transesterification. The combined technologies allow for the improvement in the overall product yield and energy efficiency. This review provides insights into the broader prospects of microwave heating in the production of bio-based products.


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles , Lubricantes , Microondas , Aceites Vegetales/química , Esterificación , Lubricantes/síntesis química , Lubricantes/química
10.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567568

RESUMEN

Cold-pressed plant oils are of high interest to consumers due to their unique and interesting flavors. As they are usually only pressed at low temperatures and filtered, without further processing stages (as refining), they preserve their character that originates from the plant the oil was extracted from. Coriander cold pressed oil is gaining popularity as a novel product, obtained from its fruits/seeds; due to the high amount of terpenes, it has very characteristic flavor. A novel, vacuum-assisted sorbent extraction (VASE) method was used to extract terpenes from coriander cold pressed oil. Optimal parameters were determined. The profile of compounds extracted using VASE was compared with that of classic hydrodistillation method. Moreover, 17 monoterpene hydrocarbons and alcohols were identified with ß-linalool as the main compound, followed by α-pinene, γ-terpinene, camphor, sylvestrene, ß-pinene, and o-cymene. Differences were noted between profiles of terpenes after hydrodistillation and VASE extraction. For 8 out of 17 terpenes, VASE was used for their quantitative analysis. Regarding simplicity of the method, small sample requirement (200 mg) and short extraction time (5 min), VASE combined with GC/MS is well suited for characterization of terpenes in such matrix as plant oils.


Asunto(s)
Manipulación de Alimentos , Aceites Volátiles/química , Aceites Vegetales/química , Terpenos/análisis , Terpenos/aislamiento & purificación , Vacio , Terpenos/química , Volatilización
11.
Food Chem ; 348: 129021, 2021 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545643

RESUMEN

Lemon essential oils (LEO), as natural bacteriostatic agents, show significant loss in the preparation processes of food packaging materials, therefore, an effective encapsulation of LEO is urgent for realizing the protection. In this study, LEO was absorbed by thermally stable and porous vermiculite (VML) to form LEO/VML complex, which is further coupled with konjac glucomannan-grafted-poly (acrylic acid)/polyvinyl alcohol (KGM-g-PAA/PVA) composite. KGM-g-PAA/PVA bacteriostatic water-absorbing pad was prepared via electrospinning technique, which can minimize the loss of LEO. The VML (1 g) can significantly reduce LEO loss and achieve sustained control LEO release from the pad, which follows the predominant mechanism of Fick diffusion law. The sustained control LEO release from the pad can effectively inhibit the growth of E. coli during storage, thus prolonging shelf life of chilled pork for 3 day. This study suggests that KGM-g-PAA/PVA pad may have a great potential in the field of intelligent packaging.


Asunto(s)
Silicatos de Aluminio/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Conservación de Alimentos/métodos , Mananos/química , Aceites Vegetales/química , Alcohol Polivinílico/química , Animales , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Embalaje de Alimentos , Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Agua/química
12.
Food Chem ; 347: 129080, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508586

RESUMEN

Vegetable oils are increasingly replacing animal fats in diets, but malondialdehyde (MDA), a peroxidation product of these oils, has been regarded as toxic; this necessitated investigation of MDA formation during consumption. This study investigated MDA formation in four vegetable oils during frying French fries (FF) and fried chicken breast meat (FCBM) at 180 °C for 7 h. Results showed that MDA contents were lower in oils used for frying foods than in control oils, mainly because MDA was incorporated into the foods. MDA content was lower in FF, but higher in FCBM, due to the different food components. Model oil and food system analyses yielded similar results. MDA bound the hydrophobic helical structure in starch-based FF, but was exhibited greater reactivity with nucleophilic groups in protein-based FCBM, resulting in stronger interaction with FCBM than with FF. Our results indicated the existence of distinct mechanisms underlying MDA migration in different food matrixes.


Asunto(s)
Culinaria/métodos , Lípidos/química , Malondialdehído/química , Aceites Vegetales/química , Adsorción , Animales , Pollos , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Calor , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Carne/análisis , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Almidón/química
13.
Food Chem ; 347: 128996, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508588

RESUMEN

Soybean oil (SBO), rapeseed oil (RSO), peanut oil (PO), corn oil (CO), olive oil (OO), sunflower oil (SFO), rice germ oil (RGO), walnut oil (WO), torreya seed oil (TSO), and grapeseed oil (GSO) were used to investigate the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in roasted beef patties. Seven HAs, including 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (MeIQ), 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (IQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman), and 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman) were detected in control patties and patties with vegetable oils. GSO, SFO, and WO greatly reduced the content of PhIP and MeIQ. 1.25%TSO and 3.75% RGO showed higher inhibition effects on the more strongly mutagenic compounds (PhIP, MeIQ, IQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, MeIQx). SBO, PO, and RSO promoted imidazoquin(ox)aline (MeIQ, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and IQx) and ß-carboline (harman and norharman); 1.25% SBO had the most significant promoting effect on total HA. This could be useful for the reduction of HA by selecting oils during cooking.


Asunto(s)
Aminas/análisis , Compuestos Heterocíclicos/química , Carne/análisis , Aceites Vegetales/química , Animales , Bovinos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Culinaria , Imidazoles/análisis , Límite de Detección , Análisis de Componente Principal , Quinoxalinas/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
14.
Food Chem ; 347: 128997, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450551

RESUMEN

In this study, five fats (hydrogenated palm kernel oil, HPKO-A and HPKO-B; refined vegetable oils, RVO-A and RVO-B; transesterification oil, TO) were used to prepare whipping creams. HPKO-A and RVO-A which rich in lauric and myristic acids facilitated the formation of small crystals and dense crystal network, while higher stearic acid content of HPKO-B formed large spherical crystals. The richness in palmitic acid (RVO-B and TO) and oleic acid (TO) led to the formation of weak crystal network. Higher partial coalescence was correlated to higher collision frequency of fat globules and crystal connection, therefore, the overruns, firmness and stability of creams prepared by HPKO-A and RVO-A were higher than those of HPKO-B and RVO-B. The least stability of cream prepared by TO was related to the weak crystal networks. In summary, higher lauric and myristic acids content resulted in dense crystal networks, promoting partial coalescence and improving the cream quality.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos/química , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Aceites Vegetales/química , Cristalización , Emulsiones/química , Aceite de Palma/química , Temperatura de Transición
15.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244159, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400695

RESUMEN

The application of reclaimed asphalt pavement has been widely encouraged due to its significant economic and environmental benefits. However, it is necessary to add rejuvenators to ensure its performance. Currently, bio-oil-based regenerants have attracted attention owing to their advantages of renewability and cost savings. The purpose of this paper is to study the use of recycled vegetable oil waste (R-oil) and recycled polyethylene particles for the regeneration and modification of aged asphalt. Physical, rheological, and chemical tests were used to figure out their influence on the pavement performance of aged asphalt. According to the physical test indices (penetration, softening point, and ductility), the performance of the rejuvenated asphalt was better than that of virgin asphalt. The workability and low-temperature performance of the rejuvenated asphalt were basically the same as those of virgin asphalt, and its fatigue and high-temperature performance were better. Infrared spectroscopy showed that R-oil diluted the high-polarity sulfoxide base of aged asphalt. Gel permeation chromatography showed that its molecular weight dispersion was better than that of aged asphalt. Therefore, R-oil and polyethylene can improve the pavement performance and chemical properties of aged asphalt.


Asunto(s)
Materiales de Construcción/análisis , Hidrocarburos/química , Aceites Vegetales/química , Polietileno/química , Cromatografía en Gel , Frío , Estudios de Factibilidad , Peso Molecular , Reciclaje , Safrol/análogos & derivados , Safrol/análisis , Factores de Tiempo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477381

RESUMEN

Nanoemulsion systems receive a significant amount of interest nowadays due to their promising potential in biomedicine and food technology. Using a two-step process, we produced a series of nanoemulsion systems with different concentrations of hemp seed oil (HSO) stabilized with Aesculus hippocastanum L. extract (AHE). Water and commercially-available low-concentrated hyaluronic acid (HA) were used as the liquid phase. Stability tests, including an emulsifying index (EI), and droplet size distribution tests performed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) proved the beneficial impact of AHE on the emulsion's stability. After 7 days of storage, the EI for the water-based system was found to be around 100%, unlike the HA systems. The highest stability was achieved by an emulsion containing 5% HSO and 2 g/L AHE in water, as well as the HA solution. In order to obtain the detailed characteristics of the emulsions, UV-Vis and FTIR spectra were recorded, and the viscosity of the samples was determined. Finally, a visible microscopic analysis was used for the homogeneity evaluation of the samples, and was compared with the DLS results of the water system emulsion, which showed a desirable stability. The presented results demonstrate the possible use of oil emulsions based on a plant extract rich in saponins, such as AHE. Furthermore, it was found that the anti-inflammatory properties of AHE provide opportunities for the development of new emulsion formulations with health benefits.


Asunto(s)
Aesculus/metabolismo , Cannabis/metabolismo , Emulsionantes/química , Dispersión Dinámica de Luz , Emulsiones/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tamaño de la Partícula , Aceites Vegetales/química , Semillas/metabolismo , Tensoactivos , Temperatura , Viscosidad , Agua
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477389

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the chemical compositions of the leaves and fruits of eight black pepper cultivars cultivated in Pará State (Amazon, Brazil). Hydrodistillation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed to extract and analyze the volatile compounds, respectively. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were predominant (58.5-90.9%) in the cultivars "Cingapura", "Equador", "Guajarina", "Iaçará", and "Kottanadan", and "Bragantina", "Clonada", and "Uthirankota" displayed oxygenated sesquiterpenoids (50.6-75.0%). The multivariate statistical analysis applied using volatile composition grouped the samples into four groups: γ-Elemene, curzerene, and δ-elemene ("Equador"/"Guajarina", I); δ-elemene ("Iaçará"/"Kottanadan"/"Cingapura", II); elemol ("Clonada"/"Uthirankota", III) and α-muurolol, bicyclogermacrene, and cubebol ("Bragantina", IV). The major compounds in all fruit samples were monoterpene hydrocarbons such as α-pinene, ß-pinene, and limonene. Among the cultivar leaves, phenolics content (44.75-140.53 mg GAE·g-1 FW), the enzymatic activity of phenylalanine-ammonia lyase (20.19-57.22 µU·mL-1), and carotenoids (0.21-2.31 µg·mL-1) displayed significant variations. Due to black pepper's susceptibility to Fusarium infection, a molecular docking analysis was carried out on Fusarium protein targets using each cultivar's volatile components. F. oxysporum endoglucanase was identified as the preferential protein target of the compounds. These results can be used to identify chemical markers related to the susceptibility degree of black pepper cultivars to plant diseases prevalent in Pará State.


Asunto(s)
Piper nigrum/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/análisis , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Brasil , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Metaboloma , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Monoterpenos/análisis , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Aceites Volátiles/química , Piper nigrum/genética , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Aceites Vegetales/química , Sesquiterpenos/química
18.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466765

RESUMEN

The thermal degradation of linalool-chemotype Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil and the stability effect of microencapsulation of leaf essential oil with ß-cyclodextrin were studied. After thermal degradation of linalool-chemotype leaf essential oil, degraded compounds including ß-myrcene, cis-ocimene and trans-ocimene, were formed through the dehydroxylation of linalool; and ene cyclization also occurs to linalool and its dehydroxylated products to form the compounds such as limonene, terpinolene and α-terpinene. The optimal microencapsulation conditions of leaf essential oil microcapsules were at a leaf essential oil to the ß-cyclodextrin ratio of 15:85 and with a solvent ratio (ethanol to water) of 1:5. The maximum yield of leaf essential oil microencapsulated with ß-cyclodextrin was 96.5%. According to results from the accelerated dry-heat aging test, ß-cyclodextrin was fairly stable at 105 °C, and microencapsulation with ß-cyclodextrin can efficiently slow down the emission of linalool-chemotype C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil.


Asunto(s)
Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Cinnamomum/química , Aceites Volátiles/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Aceites Vegetales/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Cápsulas , Estabilidad de Medicamentos , Calor
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498454

RESUMEN

Selectively targeted drug delivery systems are preferable chemotherapeutic platforms, as they specifically deliver the drug cargo into tumor cells, while minimizing untoward toxic effects. However, these delivery systems suffer from insufficient encapsulation efficiency (EE), encapsulation capacity (EC), and premature drug release. Herein, we coencapsulated paclitaxel (PTX) and Jasmine oil (JO) within PEG-PCL nanoparticles (NPs), with an average diameter < 50 nm, selectively targeted to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, via S15-aptamer (APT) decoration. JO was selected as an "adhesive" oily core to enhance PTX entrapment, as JO and PTX share similar hydrophobicity and terpenoid structure. JO markedly enhanced EE of PTX from 23% to 87.8% and EC from 35 ± 6 to 74 ± 8 µg PTX/mg PEG-PCL. JO also markedly increased the residual amount of PTX after 69 h, from 18.3% to 65%. Moreover, PTX cytotoxicity against human NSCLC A549 cells was significantly enhanced due to the co-encapsulation with JO; the IC50 value for PTX encapsulated within JO-containing APT-NPs was 20-fold lower than that for APT-NPs lacking JO. Remarkably, JO-containing APT-NPs displayed a 6-fold more potent cell-killing, relatively to the free-drug. Collectively, these findings reveal a marked synergistic contribution of JO to the cytotoxic activity of APT-NP-based systems, for targeted PTX delivery against NSCLC, which may be readily applied to various hydrophobic chemotherapeutics.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Nanopartículas/química , Paclitaxel/administración & dosificación , Aceites Vegetales/química , Células A549 , Humanos , Polietilenglicoles/química
20.
J Food Sci ; 86(2): 411-419, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448021

RESUMEN

Echium seed oil is an alternative source of omega 3 fatty acids but it is highly susceptible to oxidation. A combination of three natural strategies was proposed in this study aiming to improve the oxidative stability of echium oil obtained by pressing (PO) or solvent extraction (PSO), kept in the storage condition for 180 days or during the consumption for 30 days. Our results showed that the reduction of temperature was sufficient to keep the oil stable during storage for both samples. During the consumption time, the best stability was achieved by adding a mixture of antioxidants, composed of sinapic (500 ppm), ascorbic (250 ppm), and citric (150 ppm) acids, and/or 20% of high oleic sunflower oil. The combined strategies promoted a 34 to 80% reduction of peroxide value and 0 to 85% reduction of malondialdehyde concentrations in the samples, showing to be a feasible and natural alternative to improve the oxidative stability of echium oil. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Our study successfully applied an optimized combination of simple and low-cost strategies to enhance the chemical stability of echium seed oil. As the use of echium oil expands around the world, the oil industry and final consumers may benefit from our results to increase the oil shelf-life.


Asunto(s)
Echium/química , Aceites Vegetales/química , Semillas/química , Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Estabilidad de Medicamentos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3 , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Almacenamiento de Alimentos/métodos , Oxidación-Reducción , Estrés Oxidativo , Temperatura
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