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1.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(2): 212-218, 2020 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141600

RESUMEN

Background: Parenting approach and early childhood experiences are thought to be two important factors in the initiation of substance use. Aims: We aimed to explore the nurse's role in the prevention of childhood addiction. Methods: In this qualitative study we conducted in-depth interviews with young men and women who were either in treatment for their addiction or were active drug users as well as with family members and nurses. The data analysis followed Strauss and Corbin's constant comparison method. Results: The data analysis revealed six categories: traumatic events during childhood, inappropriate parenting approach, Lack of knowledge and a tolerant attitude toward drug use, turning a blind eye on the threat of drug use, nurses' poor experience of drug use prevention, and the lack of a clear definition of the nurse's role in prevention of drug use. Conclusions: Nurses who work with young people and their families have a special opportunity for prevention, early detection and timely intervention for drug dependency.


Asunto(s)
Consumidores de Drogas/psicología , Rol de la Enfermera , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/enfermería , Adolescente , Adulto , Conducta Adictiva/enfermería , Conducta Adictiva/prevención & control , Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
2.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 24: e-1272, fev.2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1051246

RESUMEN

Introdução: a hanseníase é uma doença secular mantida por muitos anos como incurável, levando à segregação do doente. Os mecanismos excludentes contra o leproso tinham a premissa de proteger a população sadia, ao mesmo tempo em que se constituíam como empecilhos à manutenção do vínculo familiar. Objetivo: analisar o efeito do tratamento compulsório da hanseníase em hospitais-colônias nas relações familiares, na perspectiva daquele que possui parentesco com um ex-doente. Método: estudo qualitativo, utilizando-se da história oral temática. A colônia foi composta pelos 52 familiares de ex-doentes de hanseníase e a rede por 10 colaboradores, de ambos os sexos, com idade de 44 a 76 anos. Utilizou-se a entrevista, com questões abrangentes, submetida à análise temática de conteúdo. A pesquisa foi aprovada com Parecer de nº 650.654/2014. Resultados: mediante a análise, emergiram três categorias: desestruturação da organização familiar, distanciamento familiar e alteração no suporte familiar, os quais abordam as consequências nas relações familiares, estabelecidas mediante a experiência de se ter um parente acometido pela lepra e vitimado pelo internamento compulsório em hospitais-colônias. O distanciamento modificou as relações e o vínculo familiar entre os ex-doentes de lepra tratados em ambiente asilar e seus familiares. Conclusão: as histórias narradas relatam danos vivenciados no passado como consequência da ruptura familiar sofrida pelos colaboradores do estudo frente à política adotada como profilaxia e controle da lepra. Diante dessa parte do histórico da doença relatada no presente estudo, e de suas características epidemiológicas, torna-se relevante considerar a subjetividade dos indivíduos com hanseníase, proporcionando cuidado integral.(AU)


Introduction: leprosy is a secular disease maintained for many years as incurable, leading to segregation of the patient. The exclusionary mechanisms against the leper had the premise of protecting the healthy population, while they constituted obstacles to the maintenance of the family bond. Objective: to analyze the effect of compulsory leprosy treatment in hospital-colonies on family relationships, from the perspective of those who are related to a ex-patient. Method: qualitative study, using thematic oral history. The colony was composed of 52 relatives of ex-leprosy patients and the network of 10 collaborators, of both sexes, aged 44 to 76 years. The interview was used, with comprehensive questions, submitted to thematic content analysis. The survey was approved with Opinion No. 650,654/2014...(AU)


Introducción: la lepra es una enfermedad secular considerada durante muchos años como incurable, segregando al paciente. Los mecanismos de exclusión contra el leproso tenían la premisa de proteger a la población sana, al mismo tiempo que constituían obstáculos para el mantenimiento del vínculo familiar. Objetivo: analizar el efecto del tratamiento obligatorio de la lepra en hospitales-colonias sobre las relaciones familiares, desde la perspectiva de alguien relacionado con un ex paciente. Método: estudio cualitativo, utilizando historia oral temática. La colonia estaba compuesta por 52 familiares de ex pacientes de lepra y la red de 10 colaboradores, de ambos sexos, de 44 a 76 años. Se utilizó la entrevista con preguntas amplias, sometidas a análisis de contenido temático. La encuesta fue aprobada con el dictamen No. 650,654 / 2014. Resultados: a través del análisis surgieron tres categorías: desestructuración de la organización familiar, distanciamiento familiar y cambios en el apoyo familiar, que enfocan las consecuencias en las relaciones familiares, establecidas a través de la experiencia de tener un familiar afectado por la lepra y victimizado por la internación obligatoria en hospitalescolonias. El distanciamiento alteró las relaciones y el vínculo entre los ex pacientes con lepra tratados en un entorno de asilo y sus familiares. Conclusión: las historias narradas reportan daños sufridos en el pasado como consecuencia de la ruptura familiar de los participantes del estudio ante la política adoptada como profilaxis y control de la lepra. En vista de esta parte de la historia de la enfermedad reportada en el presente estudio, y de sus características epidemiológicas, resulta relevante considerar la subjetividad de las personas con lepra, brindando atención integral.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Relaciones Familiares , Hospitalización , Lepra , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Enfermería de la Familia
3.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e78, 2019 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839014

RESUMEN

AIMS: Associations between childhood abuse and various psychotic illnesses in adulthood are commonly reported. We aim to examine associations between several reported childhood adverse events (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and interpersonal loss) among adults with diagnosed psychotic disorders and clinical and psychosocial outcomes. METHODS: Within a large epidemiological study, the 2010 Australian National Survey of Psychosis (Survey of High Impact Psychosis, SHIP), we used logistic regression to model childhood adverse events (any and specific types) on 18 clinical and psychosocial outcomes. RESULTS: Eighty percent of SHIP participants (1466/1825) reported experiencing adverse events in childhood (sexual abuse, other types of abuse and interpersonal loss). Participants reporting any form of childhood adversity had higher odds for 12/18 outcomes we examined. Significant associations were observed with all psychosocial outcomes (social dysfunction, victimisation, offending and homelessness within the previous 12 months, and definite psychosocial stressor within 12 months of illness onset), with the strongest association for homelessness (odds ratio (OR) = 2.82). Common across all adverse event types was an association with lifetime depression, anxiety and a definite psychosocial stressor within 12 months of illness onset. When adverse event types were non-hierarchically coded, sexual abuse was associated with 11/18 outcomes, other types of abuse 13/18 and, interpersonal loss occurring in the absence of other forms of abuse was associated with fewer of the clinical and psychosocial outcomes, 4/18. When adverse events types were coded hierarchically (to isolate the effect of interpersonal loss in the absence of abuse), interpersonal loss was associated with lower odds of self-reproach (OR = 0.70), negative syndrome (OR = 0.75) and victimisation (OR = 0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Adverse childhood experiences among people with psychosis are common, as are subsequent psychosocial stressors. Mental health professionals should routinely enquire about all types of adversities in this group and provide effective service responses. Childhood abuse, including sexual abuse, may contribute to subsequent adversity, poor psychosocial functioning and complex needs among people with psychosis. Longitudinal research to better understand these relationships is needed, as are studies which evaluate the effectiveness of preventative interventions in high-risk groups.


Asunto(s)
Adultos Sobrevivientes de Eventos Adversos Infantiles/psicología , Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Trastornos Psicóticos/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Adultos Sobrevivientes de Eventos Adversos Infantiles/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Australia/epidemiología , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Trastornos Psicóticos/psicología , Clase Social , Estrés Psicológico , Adulto Joven
4.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 36(3): 318-330, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859751

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since the incorporation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) HIV has become a chronic condition, improving survival and allowing children with the virus to come in better conditions to adolescence, where they are faced with a series of changes, among them, to sexual awakening. AIM: To explore the main beliefs, perceptions and experiences in sexuality of a group of adolescents with HIV infection acquired through vertical transmission. METHODS: A qualitative research was carried out with exploratory and descriptive scope. Semi-structured interviews were applied to 28 adolescents, under control in hospitals in Santiago and Valparaíso, with HIV infection. The analysis was carried out according to the Grounded Theory. RESULTS: There was a lack of sexual education and a vision that focuses on risks, such as sexually transmissible infections or teenage pregnancy. There are fears about the possibility of rejection by others and of transmitting the virus to the couple or the children and they are invaded by feelings of shame and anger. CONCLUSION: It is important to train health professionals who work with this group, because they are identified as a reliable source of information and education.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Cultura , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Masculino , Percepción , Educación Sexual , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
5.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 26(6): 475-482, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741337

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Psychosocial factors influence the risk of developing hypertension. Personality traits have a modulating effect against the harmful influences of psychosocial factors. AIM: Through a longitudinal clinical study consisting of men and women aged 35 and 55 at the baseline in Estonia and Sweden, to assess the influence of psychosocial factors and personality traits resulting in arterial hypertension. METHODS: Data analysis based on the cross-sectional study with 2 assessments over 13 years of a sample comprising 158 individuals from Estonia and 213 individuals from Sweden. The Pearlin Mastery Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Depression Model and Gothenburg Quality of Life Instrument were used. RESULTS: Throughout the follow-up period, a higher depressive mood and lower self-assessed quality of life score prevailed among the 35-year-old and 55-year-old Estonians compared with the Swedish study participants (p < 0.001). Among the 55-year-old Estonian study participants with diagnosed hypertension, but not among the Swedish, negative stressful life events had a significantly stronger effect (p < 0.001) on the risk of developing hypertension. In addition, lower mastery (p < 0.05) dominated among study participants diagnosed with hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: The combined effects of psychosocial factors and personality traits are important variables in predicting the risk of developing arterial hypertension. The study results are relevant to clinical practice and provide suggestions for employing successful preventive measures.


Asunto(s)
Presión Arterial , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/psicología , Personalidad , Adulto , Afecto , Factores de Edad , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Estonia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Calidad de Vida , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Suecia/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1511, 2019 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718621

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the transition to adulthood many young adults become obese for the first time in their lives, yet relatively little research has examined why people in this life phase become obese. This study examines what career and family life-course pathways during the transition to adulthood are related to developing obesity in young adulthood. METHODS: We use data from the NLSY97, a U.S. nationally representative panel survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics between 1997 to 2013 (N = 4688), and apply multichannel sequence analysis in order to identify clusters of typical career-family pathways during the transition to adulthood (age 17 to 27), and subsequently investigate whether these pathways are associated with becoming obese at the end of young adulthood (age 28), using logistic regression. We control for obesity at age 17 and family background factors (race, parental education, parental income, and family structure). To take into account the fact that the transition to adulthood has a different meaning for men and for women, we also interact career-family clusters with gender. RESULTS: For women, pathways characterized by college education, early home leaving, and postponement of family formation decrease the probability of becoming obese. For men, pathways characterized by early marriage increase the probability of becoming obese. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the importance of gender differences in how career and family pathways are related to becoming obese in young adulthood.


Asunto(s)
Empleo , Familia , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Matrimonio , Obesidad/etiología , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Selección de Profesión , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Padres , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
7.
J Surg Oncol ; 120(8): 1497-1504, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705571

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Few reports have investigated patient experiences following total en bloc sacrectomy. The aims of this study were to obtain a deeper understanding of patients' personal experiences, needs, and satisfaction with the treatment to reveal areas in which perioperative and long-term patient care can be improved. METHODS: A qualitative design was applied to examine patient experiences and supportive care needs. Patients treated between 2007 and 2017 were identified from our institutional database. RESULTS: A total of 28 survivors were interviewed (13 females, age 13-75 years). Eight themes were identified: the effect of surgery on patients' (a) daily lives, (b) social activities, (c) work or school activities, (d) and family lives; (e) acceptance of ostomy surgery; (f) need for guidance regarding long-term rehabilitation; (g) satisfaction with the medical services provided in the hospital; and (h) satisfaction with the treatment outcomes. CONCLUSION: Total en bloc sacrectomy can yield satisfactory oncological outcomes; however, the procedure is a life-changing event for patients and their families. Physicians must provide long-term support and guidance after surgery to enable patients to fully understand and cope with the changes in their lives.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Óseas/terapia , Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Calidad de Vida , Sacro/cirugía , Actividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estomía/psicología , Satisfacción del Paciente , Adulto Joven
8.
Vox Sang ; 114(8): 795-807, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576575

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The likelihood of donating blood changes over the life course, with life events shown to influence entry to and exit from the donor population. While these previous findings provide valuable insights for donor management, blood collection agencies need to be cautious about generalizing findings to other countries as blood donor behaviour is context-specific. To examine cross-country variations in donor behaviour, the repeatability of a previous Dutch study on life events and blood donor lapse is examined by using a sample of Danish donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Register data from Statistics Denmark was linked to the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database (n = 152 887). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the association between life events in 2009-2012 and blood donor lapse in 2013-2014. RESULTS: Of the total sample, 69 079 (45·2%) donors lapsed. Childbirth and losing a job increased the lapsing risk by 11% and 16%, respectively, while health-related events in the family (i.e. blood transfusion, disease and death) decreased the lapsing risk by 5%, 7% and 9%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Life events are associated with donor lapse of Danish donors. These results are comparable to previous findings from the Netherlands (i.e. childbirth and labour market transitions increased lapsing risk; health-related events decreased lapsing risk), with two thirds of the associations being in the same direction. Differences between study results were mainly related to effect sizes and demographic compositions of the donor pools. We argue contextual factors to be of importance in blood donor studies.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Adulto , Bases de Datos Factuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Dinamarca , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
9.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(6): 714-725, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647284

RESUMEN

This study aimed to test the hypothesis that meaning making is a mediating process in the relationship between risk factors for prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and subsequent emergence of PGD symptomatology. A survey design was employed with prospective measurement of PGD. The following variables were assessed 2-12 months postloss among adults across North America and Europe (N = 357): (a) risk factors for PGD (insecure attachment, social support, neuroticism, violent loss, and spousal loss) and (b) meaning made. Meaning made was measured using the Grief and Meaning Reconstruction Inventory (GMRI) as well as using the Integration of Stressful Life Experiences-Short Form (ISLES-SF). At a 7-10-months follow-up (n = 171) symptoms of PGD were assessed. The mean age at the second assessment point was 44.3 years (SD = 16.1) and the majority of the sample identified as female (71.9%). Process analysis was employed to test a series of simple mediation models. When the GMRI was used as a measure of meaning, the indirect effect of each risk factor on PGD symptoms, as mediated by meaning made, was significant (95% CI). When the ISLES-SF was used to measure meaning, the indirect effect of each risk factor with the exception of violent loss was significant (95% CI). The study demonstrates that meaning making serves to mediate the adverse impact of multiple PGD risk factors on the development of PGD symptomatology. Specifically, the study suggests that PGD risk factors exacerbate symptoms of PGD by impeding the meaning-making process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Pesar , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Negociación/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Negociación/métodos , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Tiempo
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569522

RESUMEN

Recent studies show evidence that human-dog companionship has healthy effects on humans. For example, findings demonstrate that owning a dog leads to a reduction in stress levels. Aspects that have not been taken into consideration so far are underlying theoretical principles of stress like the sense of coherence (SOC) by Aaron Antonovsky. The SOC consists of psycho-social, biochemical and physical conditions which indicate whether or not inner and outer stimuli are comprehensive, manageable and meaningful to an individual. In addition, it is still unclear if owning a dog affects the subjective assessment of critical life events (CLE), which is associated with the strength of the SOC (the stronger the SOC, the better the handling and assessment of stressful situations). Based on these aspects, the goal of the study was to examine if dog ownership, as well as values of the SOC, have an impact on the subjective evaluation of CLE (including daily hassles as well as unexpected critical life events). For this purpose, dog owners and non-dog owners were surveyed online and were compared based on their personal estimations regarding these constructs. Statistical analysis including t-tests, correlations and interaction-analyses were performed and a significant difference between dog owners and non-dog owners regarding the assessment of daily hassles was found. Contrary to expectations, results show that dog owners assessed daily stressors to be more stressful than non-dog owners did. Moreover, data show that the higher the number of stated relationships (inner- and cross-species), the more stressful life events were assessed to be. Calculations showed no evidence for the influence of dogs regarding the SOC. Based on the actual findings, it might be assumed, that an overestimation of the dog's protective role regarding stress has taken place in public media and in research as well.


Asunto(s)
Vínculo Ser Humano-Animal , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Propiedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Sentido de Coherencia , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Animales , Perros , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
11.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1286-1292, out.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1022718

RESUMEN

Objective: The study's purpose has been to know the experience of mothers during the hospitalization of their children. Methods: This is a descriptive-exploratory study with a qualitative approach in a pediatric clinic of a reference hospital in the northern region of Ceará State, Brazil, on November 2015. The research includes eight mothers with hospitalized children at least seven days. The information was collected through individual semi-structured interviews, which were organized through the thematic analysis. Results: Four thematic categories were configured: the experience of mothers with children in hospitalization; contributions of mothers in the recovery of their child; quality of nursing care in the mother's perception; feelings aroused by the mothers during the hospitalization of their child. Conclusion: It was evidenced the need for the health team to plan and implement qualified health care, furthermore, those professionals are imbued with humanization and a comprehensive care perspective


Objetivo: Conhecer a experiência de mães durante a internação hospitalar de seus filhos. Métodos: Estudo descritivo-exploratório, com abordagem qualitativa em uma clínica pediátrica de um Hospital de referência na região norte do Ceará, Brasil, em novembro de 2015, com oito mães com filhos internados há pelo menos sete dias. A coleta das informações ocorreu por meio de entrevistas semiestruturada individual, que foram organizadas por meio da análise temática. Resultados: Configuraram-se quatro categorias temáticas: experiência de mães com filhos em internação hospitalar; contribuições das mães na recuperação do filho; qualidade do atendimento de enfermagem na percepção das mães e; sentimentos despertados das mães durante a internação hospitalar do filho. Conclusão: Evidenciou-se a necessidade de a equipe de saúde planejar e implementar cuidados de saúde qualificados, e que esses estejam imbuídos de humanização e de uma perspectiva de atenção integral


Objetivo: Conocer la experiencia de madres durante la internación hospitalaria de sus hijos. Método: Estudio descriptivo-exploratorio, con abordaje cualitativo en una clínica pediátrica de un Hospital de referencia en la región norte de Ceará, Brasil, en noviembre de 2015, con ocho madres con hijos internados hace al menos siete días. La recolección de las informaciones ocurrió por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas individuales, que fueron organizadas por medio del análisis temático. Resultados: Se configuraron cuatro categorías temáticas: experiencia de madres con hijos en internación hospitalaria; las contribuciones de las madres en la recuperación del hijo; calidad de la atención de enfermería en la percepción de las madres y; sentimientos despertados de las madres durante la internación hospitalaria del hijo. Conclusión: Se evidenció la necesidad de que el equipo de salud planificar e implementar cuidados de salud calificados, y que éstos estén imbuidos de humanización y de una perspectiva de atención integral


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Niño , Adulto , Niño Hospitalizado , Humanización de la Atención , Relaciones Madre-Hijo , Relaciones Familiares , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida
12.
J Addict Nurs ; 30(3): 185-192, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478966

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People living with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have to cope with additional comorbid disorders. In daily practice, practitioners observe that ADHD not only causes a decline in participants' quality of life, but the presence of sleep and eating disorders also has an impact on daily functioning. The aims of this study are to give meaning to the experiences of participants who are living with ADHD and sleep deprivation and are overweight and to provide additional knowledge and data that will inform integrated treatment in the long term. The following research questions were formulated: METHOD: A qualitative design based on a Parse research method provided the best research framework to answer our questions. The method aims for data saturation, employing six steps in which data collection alternates with data analysis. This iterative process with double hermeneutics enlarges participants' perspectives on their experiences. RESULTS: Participants' daily life is continuously influenced by their experiences with (binge) eating, irregular sleeping patterns, and loss of emotional control. These complex phenomena are often caused by their ADHD, because of underdeveloped coping skills. An everyday struggle with life and difficulty making choices are the leading themes in participant narratives. Continuous feelings of failure, referred to in this report as everyday "failure moments," cause negative self-esteem and negative body image. According to participants, standardized care should include opportunities for participants to tell their life stories as well as an individualized analysis of how ADHD core symptoms affect daily decision making, taking into account sleeping and eating patterns. CONCLUSION: The experience of failure moments, the struggle with making choices, and negative self-esteem and body image all develop in a different way for each participant. When professionals treat participants by solely focusing on the core symptoms using a one-dimensional cognitive behavioral approach, they may overlook underlying (biological) interactions.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Sobrepeso/psicología , Privación de Sueño/psicología , Adulto , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/rehabilitación , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Trastorno por Atracón/psicología , Trastorno Dismórfico Corporal/psicología , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Masculino , Sobrepeso/rehabilitación , Autoimagen , Privación de Sueño/rehabilitación
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007710, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490931

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Integrated disease management, disability and inclusion (DMDI) for NTDs is increasingly prioritised. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of integrated DMDI from the perspective of affected individuals and how this varies by differing axes of inequality such as age, gender, and disability. We used narrative methods to consider how individuals' unique positions of power and privilege shaped their illness experience, to elucidate what practical and feasible steps could support integrated DMDI in Liberia and beyond. METHODS: We purposively selected 27 participants affected by the clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis, leprosy, Buruli Ulcer, and onchocerciasis from three counties in Liberia to take part in illness narrative interviews. Participants were selected to ensure maximum variation in age, gender and clinical manifestation. Narrative analysis was grounded within feminist intersectional theory. FINDINGS: For all participants, chronic illness, morbidity and disability associated with NTDs represented a key moment of 'biographical disruption' triggering the commencement of a restitution narrative. Complex health seeking pathways, aetiologies and medical syncretism meant that adoption of the 'sick role' was initially acceptable, but when the reality of permanency of condition was identified, a transition to periods of chaos and significant psycho-social difficulty occurred. An intersectional lens emphasises how biographical disruption is mediated by intersecting social processes. Gender, generation, and disability were all dominant axes of social inequity shaping experience. SIGNIFICANCE: This is one of the first studies to use narrative approaches to interrogate experience of chronic disabling conditions within LMICs and is the only study to apply such an analysis to NTDs. The emotive power of narrative should be utilised to influence the value base of policy makers to ensure that DMDI strategies respond holistically to the needs of the most marginalised, thus contributing to more equitable people-centred care.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/psicología , Enfermedades Desatendidas/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Úlcera de Buruli/psicología , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Filariasis Linfática/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra/psicología , Liberia , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oncocercosis/psicología
14.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 64(8): 507-512, 2019.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479609

RESUMEN

The purpose of the work is to determine the spectrum, quantity and frequency of occurrence of microorganisms in the oral fluid and large intestine in healthy young men under changes of living conditions. A survey was conducted of 14 nonresident young men, students of the 1st and 2nd courses, studying at Tver State Medical University, which included questions about the place of birth, living conditions, the presence of chronic diseases and the frequency of their exacerbations over the past year, water and food regimes, physical exertion, the presence of bad habits and emotional stress, etc. The oral fluid and feces were examined to determine the spectrum and amount of microbiota of the upper and lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. As the result of the survey, it was found that the living conditions of all young men significantly worsened among second-year students than freshmen. It was revealed that colon microbiota in sophomores characterized by less diverse than those of first-year, despite of a marked increase in the number of opportunistic pathogens (Stаphylocоccus spp., Strерtocoсcus spp., Clоstridium spp., Васillus spp., Кlebsiеlla spp.) over resident microbes. It was found the decrease in the number and frequency of occurrence of all microbial representatives in the oral microbiota of 2nd year students in comparison with first-year. It was proved that the deterioration of living conditions of nonresident students led to the increase in the number of second-year students with dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota from 86% to 100%, mainly due to the increase in the number of persons with dysbiosis of II and III degree.


Asunto(s)
Intestino Grueso/microbiología , Microbiota , Boca/microbiología , Disbiosis , Heces , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Masculino , Características de la Residencia
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395818

RESUMEN

Negative life events (NLEs) increase the risk of suicidal ideation (SI) in adolescents. However, it is not known whether the association between NLEs and SI can be moderated by self-esteem and varies with gender. The aim of the current paper was to examine gender differences in the association of SI with NLEs in adolescents, and assess the effects of self-esteem on the association and their gender variations. We conducted a school-based health survey in 15 schools in China between November 2013 and January 2014. A total of 9704 participants aged 11-19 years had sociodemographic data reported and self-esteem (Rosenberg self-esteem scale), NLEs, and SI measured. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of having SI in relation to NLEs. Increased risk of SI was significantly associated with NLEs (adjusted OR 2.19, 95%CI 1.94-2.47), showing no gender differences (in females 2.38, 2.02-2.80, in males 1.96, 1.64-2.36, respectively). The association was stronger in adolescents with high esteem (2.93, 2.34-3.68) than those with low esteem (2.00, 1.65-2.42) (ORs ratio 1.47, p = 0.012). The matched figures in females were 3.66 (2.69-4.99) and 2.08 (1.61-2.70) (1.76, p = 0.006), while in males these figures were 2.27(1.62-3.19) and 1.89 (1.41-2.53) (1.20, p = 0.422), respectively. Self-esteem had moderate effects on the association between NLEs and SI in adolescents, mainly in females. NLEs, self-esteem, and gender need to be incorporated into future intervention programs to prevent SI in adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Autoimagen , Ideación Suicida , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , China , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
16.
Midwifery ; 77: 155-164, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369936

RESUMEN

AIM: To describe primiparous and multiparous women's labour experiences and their perception of quality of intrapartum care, in relation to background characteristics and length of latent phase of labour prior to admittance to labour ward. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A middle-sized hospital in a rural county in western part of Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Primiparous and multiparous women, both low-risk and risk, with a spontaneous onset of labour after gestational week 37+0 were included. In total, n = 1193 women were invited, and n = 757 responded the questionnaire, n = 342 primiparous and n = 415 multiparous women. METHODS: The Intrapartal-specific Quality from Patient Perspective (QPP-I), with responses on perceived reality and subjective importance, was used for data collection. QPP-I covers ten factors of quality of care. Background characteristics, length of latent phase of labour, global items about labour experience and items regarding feelings during labour and birth were included. Data were analysed with descriptive and analytic statistics. FINDINGS: All factors in QPP-I were rated higher for subjective importance than perceived reality, except for information about selfcare, for both primi- and multiparous women. Labour experience, perceived reality of quality of care, and feelings were related to length of the latent phase of labour. Primiparous women with a prolonged latent phase (>18 h) had significantly lower scores regarding six out of ten QPP-I factors (PR); Information procedures, Information self-care, Commitment (midwives), Commitment (enrolled nurses), Midwives present, and Partner/ significant others. They scored lower on Experience birth as normal and Safe during labour and birth. The felt less proud and felt more ignored by professionals. Multiparous women with a prolonged latent phase of labour scored significantly lower on one QPP-I factor, Commitment (midwives). They also scored lower on Control over the situation and felt less safe during labour and birth. KEY CONCLUSION: Women's perception of quality of intrapartum care, the birth experience and feelings are related to length of the latent phase of labour. Women perceive quality of intrapartum care as being lower than its subjective importance. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: A prolonged latent phase of labour can be regarded as a risk factor for a more negative birthing experience.


Asunto(s)
Trabajo de Parto/psicología , Calidad de la Atención de Salud/normas , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Satisfacción del Paciente , Embarazo , Calidad de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Suecia
17.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(11): 1237-1244, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378624

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Undernutrition in early life may have a lifelong effect on adult health. The conclusions on the association of exposure to famine with the risk of hypertension were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the association of exposure to the Chinese famine with incident hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. All included participants were divided into five birth cohorts: no exposure, born in or after 1962 (N = 2 088); fetal exposure, between 1959 and 1961 (N = 880); early childhood exposure, between 1956 and 1958 (N = 1 214); mid-childhood exposure, between 1953 and 1955 (N = 1 287); and late childhood exposure, between 1949 and 1952 (N = 1 445). Hypertension was defined as SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mmHg, use of hypertensive medications, or a self-reported diagnosis. A total of 6 914 participants were included. The exposure to famine decreased the incidence of hypertension (P = 0.0018, 0.0001, <0.0001, and <0.0001; HR: 0.715, 0.686, 0.622, and 0.527, respectively) in males. Similarly, the exposure to famine might also decrease incident hypertension in the rural areas (P = 0.0013, <0.0001, <0.0001, and <0.0001; HR: 0.735, 0.706, 0.679, and 0.539, respectively). There were interaction effects between famine severity and exposure to famine in early (P = 0.024) and late childhood (P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Exposure to the Chinese famine decreased the incidence of hypertension, especially in males and in the rural areas. Furthermore, the exposure postponed the age at the onset of hypertension.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/fisiopatología , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Edad Gestacional , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Incidencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Desnutrición/diagnóstico , Desnutrición/fisiopatología , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Factores de Tiempo
18.
G Ital Nefrol ; 36(4)2019 Jul 24.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373463

RESUMEN

People with a chronic kidney condition can live with their disease for several years, during which the illness becomes "an integral aspect of life" and requires "an arduous and continuous process of adaptation at multiple levels: cognitive, emotional and physical". Often, communicating with doctors is not helpful to these patients in understanding what is happening and reorganizing their lives, as ineffective communication strategies are employed. It is in fact necessary to overcome obstacles such as the use of incomprehensible technical language, ambiguity, the lack of communication training and the abundance of stressful situations. Chronically ill patients have the right to be informed in a simple, clear and impartial way about their condition and its possible treatments; this information will help them manage their kidney disease, "accept" it and find the motivation to adhere to medical prescriptions over time.


Asunto(s)
Barreras de Comunicación , Nefrología , Relaciones Enfermero-Paciente , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Diálisis Renal/psicología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/psicología , Agotamiento Profesional , Comunicación , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/terapia
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 506, 2019 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412914

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This research note reports on the activities of the Multi-centre Analysis of the Dynamics of Internal Migration And Health (MADIMAH) project aimed at collating and testing of a set of tools to conduct longitudinal event history analyses applied to standardised Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) datasets. The methods are illustrated using an example of longitudinal micro-data from the Agincourt HDSS, one of a number of open access datasets available through the INDEPTH iShare2 data repository. The research note documents the experience of the MADIMAH group in analysing HDSS data and demonstrates how complex analyses can be streamlined and conducted in an accessible way. These tools are aimed at aiding analysts and researchers wishing to conduct longitudinal data analysis of demographic events. RESULTS: The methods demonstrated in this research note may successfully be applied by practitioners to longitudinal micro-data from HDSS, as well as retrospective surveys or register data. The illustrations provided are accompanied by detailed, tested computer programs, which demonstrate the full potential of longitudinal data to generate both cross-sectional and longitudinal standard descriptive estimates as well as more complex regression estimates.


Asunto(s)
Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Dinámica Poblacional , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Análisis de Supervivencia , Tasa de Supervivencia
20.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3169, 2019 Aug 19.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432922

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To develop a web software prototype to support retirement planning. METHOD: This is a methodological research, applied and based on the principles of prototyping model, which followed the steps of communication, planning, prototype creation, functional tests and consolidation of web software version 1. RESULTS: The functions of the web software prototype were defined from a flowchart and scope. In the creation stage, the screens that integrated the prototype, composed by interview, were projected from the filling of the Retirement Resources Inventory, screen of access to support planning materials, including lectures, scientific texts, and technical materials, retirement news screen, experiences screen, which allow users to post retirement expectations and comment on other users' posts. After performing tests, the prototype was made available at www.aposentarsecomsaude.com.br . CONCLUSION: the web software prototype consists of an interactive environment in which the user feels active in the reflection process about the retirement along the different screens. With clear language and expressions that are easily understood by the public, they are applicable to users of different professional profiles.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Jubilación , Diseño de Programas Informáticos , Brasil , Instrucción por Computador , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Motivación , Sistemas en Línea , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
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