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4.
Psicothema ; 32(4): 490-500, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073754

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has highlighted the importance of studying the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. The aim of this study is to examine the role of age in the early psychological responses to the pandemic in a Spanish community sample, focusing on how different generations coped with it. METHOD: An online survey was conducted during the early stages of the quarantine. Sociodemographic, health and behavioral variables were compared for five age groups. Mental health was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and psychological impacts were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). RESULTS: 3,524 participants were included (Mage = 39.24, SDage = 12.00). Participants aged between 18 and 33 years old showed more hyperactivation and evitation, were more depressed, anxious and stressed. Those aged between 26 and 33 years old showed more intrusion. Those aged between 18 and 25 years old suffered more sleep disturbances, claustrophobia and somatization and maintained worse routines. Elderly people showed better psychological responses in general. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides initial evidence that the negative psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic hits young people harder. These results should be taken into account when developing specific evidence-based strategies.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Envejecimiento/psicología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/etiología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/etiología , Femenino , Hábitos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Muestreo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Socioeconómicos , España , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 600, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028237

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this national survey was to explore pregnant women's perceptions of COVID-19 and their healthcare experiences. METHODS: Through patient and public involvement, a questionnaire was developed and advertised via the BBC website, Twitter and other online media during May 2020. The findings were analysed by qualitative thematic analysis. Women who are currently pregnant, or who have delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic were invited to partake in a national online survey. RESULTS: One thousand four hundred fifty-one participants replied to the online questionnaire. Participants provided significant insight into the perceived barriers to seeking healthcare during this pandemic. These include 'not wanting to bother anyone', 'lack of wider support from allied healthcare workers' and the influence of the media. Other concerns included the use of virtual clinics antenatally and their acceptability to patients, the presence of birthing partners, and the way in which information is communicated about rapidly changing and evolving services. The influence of the media has also had a significant impact on the way women perceive hospital care in light of COVID-19 and for some, this has shaped whether they would seek help. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first ever reported study in the United Kingdom to explore pregnant women's perceptions of COVID-19 and their subsequent healthcare experiences. It has also provided insight into perceived barriers into seeking care as well as maternal concerns antenatally, intrapartum and postpartum.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Percepción Social , Adulto , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/psicología , Investigación Cualitativa , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido/epidemiología
6.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1275-1284, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999206

RESUMEN

In April 2018, as part of their fifth-year pre-clinical education curriculum, pharmacy students at Setsunan University attended a lecture presented by hepatitis B patients and their lawyer entitled "Lecture by Hepatitis B Patients". This lecture was intended to help the students to understand the circumstances and difficulties encountered by hepatitis B patients on a daily basis. For this study, we conducted questionnaire surveys of the pharmacy students before and after the lecture. The survey items pertained to students' knowledge about hepatitis B (e.g., its spread and infection possibility in daily life). Students' responses before and after the lecture varied depending on the survey topic. Hepatitis B knowledge acquired by the students in their junior year increased after the lecture; moreover, attitudes to hepatitis B patients and understanding of the difficulties and prejudice that they experienced showed a significant change. For example, responses to the items, "Feel sympathy for patients suffering from discrimination and prejudice" and "Hard to work…" were much more sympathetic after the lecture; additionally, students were less likely to "Fear infection when near patients" and more likely "… to associate with patients". Thus, the "Lecture by Hepatitis B Patients" had a significant impact on the pharmacy students' perceptions of these patients, allowing them to cultivate greater empathy. From an educational standpoint, it is of the utmost importance for pharmacy/medical students to develop their humanity as members of healthcare teams. Educational real-world experiences, such as the "Lecture by Hepatitis B Patients", provide opportunities for this development.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Empatía , Hepatitis B/psicología , Participación del Paciente/métodos , Pacientes/psicología , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Curriculum , Humanos , Conocimiento , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 35(4): 389-408, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034796

RESUMEN

Understanding older adults perceptions of health and adaptation processes to ageing can allow for more culturally aligned services and better targeted care. The aim of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine older adults perceptions of physical, psychological and social health and further understand the processes of adaptation and self-management of these health perceptions. Semi-structured in depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with ethnically diverse older adults in Singapore, aged 60 and above. Participants were asked open ended questions about their physical health, psychological health and their current social health and relationships. They were also asked methods of adaptation to these age related changes. In total, forty participants were interviewed. A thematic analysis identified five main themes when exploring perceptions of physical, psychological and social health. These included; 1) Slowing down 2) Relationship harmony 3) Financial harmony 4) Social connectedness and 5) Eating together. Adaptation and self-management of these health perceptions included six additional themes; 1) Keep moving 2) Keep learning; where continued self-determination and resilience was a key method in adapting to negative thoughts about declining physical health 3) Adopting avoidant coping behaviours 4) 'It feels good to do good'; where finding meaning in life was to help others 5) 'Power of Prayer'; which highlighted how older adults relegated responsibilities to a higher spiritual power 6) Social participation; which included engaging in community and religious social activities that all contributed to self-management of older adults psychological health and social health. In conclusion, our study highlighted specific cultural nuances in older adults perceptions of health, particularly psychological and social health. These findings can help develop more targeted intervention programmes and better methods of measuring older adults health, which can assist with the global ageing phenomena.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Envejecimiento Saludable/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Singapur , Apoyo Social
8.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 35(4): 455-478, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064233

RESUMEN

Successful aging is a concept that has gained popularity and relevance internationally among gerontologists in recent decades. Examining lay older adults' perspectives on successful aging can enhance our understanding of what successful aging means. We conducted a systematic review of peer reviewed studies from multiple countries published in 2010-2020 that contained qualitative responses of lay older adults to open-ended questions such as "What does successful aging mean to you?" We identified 23 studies conducted in 13 countries across North America, Western Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Oceania. We identified no studies meeting our criteria in Africa, South America, Eastern Europe, North Asia, or Pacific Islands. Across all regions represented in our review, older adults most commonly referred to themes of social engagement and positive attitude in their own lay definitions of successful aging. Older adults also commonly identified themes of independence and physical health. Least mentioned were themes of cognitive health and spirituality. Lay definitions of successful aging varied by country and culture. Our findings suggest that gerontology professionals in fields including healthcare, health psychology, and public health may best serve older adults by providing services that align with older adults' priority of maintaining strong social engagement as they age. Lay perspectives on successful aging acknowledge the importance of positive attitude, independence, and spirituality, in addition to physical and cognitive functioning.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/etnología , Actitud Frente a la Salud/etnología , Comparación Transcultural , Envejecimiento Saludable/etnología , Adaptación Psicológica , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Asia , Cognición , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Geriatría , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Medio Oriente , América del Norte , Oceanía , Investigación Cualitativa , Apoyo Social , Espiritualidad
9.
Am J Nurs ; 120(11): 19-20, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105216
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241103, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091088

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and Covid-19, a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 became a pandemic in March 2020. As the pandemic still unfolds, uncertainty circles around the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on patients with chronic diseases, including autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). To diminish the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and lessen the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the healthcare of MS patients, it is essential to understand knowledge, attitudes, and various behavioral practices related to Covid-19 among MS patients. Therefore, this study aimed to look at the behavioral practices related to Covid-19 among patients with MS. A total of 176 MS patients diagnosed at least one year before the survey were conveniently sampled online in Saudi Arabia and their data collected using a structured interview questionnaire in electronic Google form. We determined the reliability of the questionnaire by measuring its internal consistency in a pilot sample of 30 participants. Overall, more than 80% of participants had good knowledge and attitudes towards Covid-19. However, this did not correlate well with the impact on healthcare (r = 0.06). Our study revealed that 46% of participants were anxious about taking their medication, and 32% of participants missed their hospital appointments. Furthermore, 15% of the participants had a relapse but did not go to the hospital because of the pandemic, 15.9% stopped their DMTs, and 35.2% missed drug infusions or refills. Our study revealed overall good knowledge and attitudes related to Covid-19 among MS patients. However, the healthcare impact was considerable, as 32% of the participants missed their hospital appointments, and another 15% had a relapse. This highlights the significance of the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the healthcare of patients with MS. Measures to mitigate the effect of the pandemic on healthcare service delivery to patients with MS, such as telemedicine, should be strongly encouraged.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Esclerosis Múltiple/psicología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad , Citas y Horarios , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Masculino , Esclerosis Múltiple/tratamiento farmacológico , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/virología , Recurrencia , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Telemedicina , Adulto Joven
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240644, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057450

RESUMEN

Confidence in the health care system implies an expectation that sufficient and appropriate treatments will be provided if needed. The COVID-19 public health crisis is a significant, global, and (mostly) simultaneous test of the behavioral implications arising from this confidence. We explore whether populations reporting low levels of confidence in the health care system exhibit a stronger behavioral reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic. We track the dynamic responses to the COVID-19 pandemic across 38 European countries and 621 regions by employing a large dataset on human mobility generated between February 15 and June 5, 2020 and a broad range of contextual factors (e.g., deaths or policy implementations). Using a time-dynamic framework we find that societies with low levels of health care confidence initially exhibit a faster response with respect to staying home. However, this reaction plateaus sooner, and after the plateau it declines with greater magnitude than does the response from societies with high health care confidence. On the other hand, regions with higher confidence in the health care system are more likely to reduce mobility once the government mandates that its citizens are not to leave home except for essential trips, compared to those with lower health care system confidence. Regions with high trust in the government but low confidence in the health care system dramatically reduce their mobility, suggesting a correlation for trust in the state with respect to behavioral responses during a crisis.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Movimiento , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Confianza , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Viaje/estadística & datos numéricos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241259, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095836

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Efforts to mitigate the global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) have largely relied on broad compliance with public health recommendations yet navigating the high volume of evolving information can be challenging. We assessed self-reported public perceptions related to COVID-19 including, beliefs (e.g., severity, concerns, health), knowledge (e.g., transmission, information sources), and behaviors (e.g., physical distancing) to understand perspectives in Canada and to inform future public health initiatives. METHODS: We administered a national online survey aiming to obtain responses from 2000 adults in Canada. Respondent sampling was stratified by age, sex, and region. We used descriptive statistics to summarize responses and tested for regional differences using chi-squared tests, followed by weighted logistic regression. RESULTS: We collected 1,996 eligible questionnaires between April 26th and May 1st, 2020. One-fifth (20%) of respondents knew someone diagnosed with COVID-19, but few had tested positive themselves (0.6%). Negative impacts of pandemic conditions were evidenced in several areas, including concerns about healthcare (e.g. sufficient equipment, 52%), pandemic stress (45%), and worsening social (49%) and mental/emotional (39%) health. Most respondents (88%) felt they had good to excellent knowledge of virus transmission, and predominantly accessed (74%) and trusted (60%) Canadian news television, newspapers/magazines, or non-government news websites for COVID-19 information. We found high compliance with distancing measures (80% reported self-isolating or always physical distancing). We identified associations between region and self-reported beliefs, knowledge, and behaviors related to COVID-19. DISCUSSION: We found that information about COVID-19 is largely acquired through domestic news sources, which may explain high self-reported compliance with prevention measures. The results highlight the broader impact of a pandemic on the general public's overall health and wellbeing, outside of personal infection. The study findings should be used to inform public health communications during COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Opinión Pública , Autoinforme , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Canadá/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Difusión de la Información , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Televisión , Adulto Joven
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 797, 2020 Oct 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109110

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Delay in the diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge against achieving effective TB prevention and control. Though a number of studies with inconsistent findings were conducted in Ethiopia; unavailability of a nationwide study determining the median time of patient delays to TB diagnosis is an important research gap. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the pooled median time of the patient delay to TB diagnosis and its determinants in Ethiopia. METHODS: We followed PRISMA checklist to present this study. We searched from Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for studies. The comprehensive search for relevant studies was done by two of the authors (MA and LY) up to the 10th of October 2019. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale adapted for observational studies. Data were pooled and a random effect meta-analysis model was fitted to provide the overall median time of patient delay and its determinants in Ethiopia. Furthermore, subgroup analyses were conducted to investigate how the median time of patient delay varies across different groups of studies. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies that satisfied the eligibility criteria were included. Our meta-analysis showed that the median time of the patient delay was 24.6 (95%CI: 20.8-28.4) days. Living in rural area (OR: 2.19, 95%CI: 1.51-3.18), and poor knowledge about TB (OR: 2.85, 95%CI: 1.49-5.47) were more likely to lead to prolonged delay. Patients who consult non-formal health providers (OR: 5.08, 95%CI: 1.56-16.59) had a prolonged delay in the diagnosis of TB. Moreover, the narrative review of this study showed that age, educational level, financial burden and distance travel to reach the nearest health facility were significantly associated with a patient delay in the diagnosis of TB. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, patients are delayed more-than three weeks in the diagnosis of TB. Lack of awareness about TB, consulting non-formal health provider, and being in the rural area had increased patient delay to TB diagnosis. Increasing public awareness about TB, particularly in rural and disadvantaged areas could help to early diagnosis of TB.


Asunto(s)
Diagnóstico Tardío , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Concienciación , Etiopía/epidemiología , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Factores de Tiempo , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/microbiología
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241330, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112922

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: According to current reporting, the number of active coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections is not evenly distributed, both spatially and temporally. Reported COVID-19 infections may not have properly conveyed the full extent of attention to the pandemic. Furthermore, infection metrics are unlikely to illustrate the full scope of negative consequences of the pandemic and its associated risk to communities. METHODS: In an effort to better understand the impacts of COVID-19, we concurrently assessed the geospatial and longitudinal distributions of Twitter messages about COVID-19 which were posted between March 3rd and April 13th and compared these results with the number of confirmed cases reported for sub-national levels of the United States. Geospatial hot spot analysis was also conducted to detect geographic areas that might be at elevated risk of spread based on both volume of tweets and number of reported cases. RESULTS: Statistically significant aberrations of high numbers of tweets were detected in approximately one-third of US states, most of which had relatively high proportions of rural inhabitants. Geospatial trends toward becoming hotspots for tweets related to COVID-19 were observed for specific rural states in the United States. DISCUSSION: Population-adjusted results indicate that rural areas in the U.S. may not have engaged with the COVID-19 topic until later stages of an outbreak. Future studies should explore how this dynamic can inform future outbreak communication and health promotion.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Geografía Médica , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Participación de la Comunidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Estudios Prospectivos , Salud Pública , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
15.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 68(11): 2385-2390, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120624

RESUMEN

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) pattern towards COVID-19, among patients presenting to eye care hospitals during the last phase of lockdown period. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional survey was conducted from May 15 to June 15, 2020 in five tertiary eye care hospitals in South India to assess the KAP towards COVID-19. Each of the hospitals belonged to one of the three different zones assigned in India based on number of infections. Red zones represent hotspots and orange/green zones represent regions with medium and lower caseloads, respectively. A validated questionnaire was administered through telephone and responses were recorded on a Google form. Results: Out of the total (n = 6119) participants, 3081 were from hospitals in green zone, 2110 from the orange zone, and 928 from red zone. Majority of participants were above 50 years of age (42%) and 15.54% were illiterate. The mean (percentage) scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice were 21.26 (82%), 9.37 (92%), and 10.32 (86%), respectively. KAP among patients more than 50 years of age and in illiterate individuals was significantly less (P < 0.01) when compared with all other groups. Participants from red zone had a significantly better attitude (P < 0.01) compared to other centers. Conclusion: Although the overall KAP regarding COVID-19 disease was robust (above 80% in all categories) in our participants, the high risk elderly population (>50 years) and illiterate individuals had a significantly lower KAP. These are populations in which education should be emphasized and appropriately delivered as a way to reduce COVID-19 risk.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Centros de Atención Terciaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Estudios Transversales , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
16.
Value Health ; 23(11): 1438-1443, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127014

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a discrete-choice experiment to quantify Americans' acceptance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection risks for earlier lifting of social-distancing restrictions and diminishing the pandemic's economic impact. METHODS: We designed a discrete-choice experiment to administer 10 choice questions to each respondent representing experimentally controlled pairs of scenarios defined by when nonessential businesses could reopen (May, July, or October 2020), cumulative percentage of Americans contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through 2020 (2% to 20%), time for economic recovery (2 to 5 years), and the percentage of US households falling below the poverty threshold (16% to 25%). Respondents were recruited by SurveyHealthcareGlobus. RESULTS: A total of 5953 adults across all 50 states completed the survey between May 8 and 20, 2020. Latent-class analysis supported a 4-class model. The largest class (36%) represented COVID-19 risk-minimizers, reluctant to accept any increases in COVID-19 risks. About 26% were waiters, strongly preferring to delay reopening nonessential businesses, independent of COVID-19 risk levels. Another 25% represented recovery-supporters, primarily concerned about time required for economic recovery. This group would accept COVID-19 risks as high as 16% (95% CI: 13%-19%) to shorten economic recovery from 3 to 2 years. The final openers class prioritized lifting social distancing restrictions, accepting of COVID-19 risks greater than 20% to open in May rather than July or October. Political affiliation, race, household income, and employment status were all associated with class membership (P<.01). CONCLUSION: Americans have diverse preferences pertaining to social-distancing restrictions, infection risks, and economic outcomes. These findings can assist elected and public-health officials in making difficult policy decisions related to the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Política de Salud/economía , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Salud Pública , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022993

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic represents a worldwide threat to mental health. To optimize the allocation of health care resources, research on specific vulnerability factors, such as health anxiety, intolerance of uncertainty, and distress (in)tolerance, and particularly their effect on the time course of SARS-CoV-2 related anxiety appears crucial for supporting high risk groups suffering from elevated mental distress during the pandemic. N = 887 participants (78.4% female; Mage = 38.15, SD = 17.04) completed an online survey in Germany (April to mid-May 2020), comprising measures of SARS-CoV-2 related anxiety, health anxiety, safety and preventive behavior, intolerance of uncertainty, and distress intolerance. Higher levels of health anxiety pre and during COVID-19 were associated with an initially intensified increase (b = 1.10, p < 0.001), but later on a more rapid dampening (b = -0.18, p < 0.001) of SARS-CoV-2 related anxiety. SARS-CoV-2 related preventive behavior was intensified by both pre (b = 0.06, p = 0.01) and during (b = 0.15, p < 0.001) COVID-19 health anxiety, while reassurance behavior only was associated with health anxiety during COVID-19 (b = 0.14, p < 0.001). Distress intolerance and intolerance of uncertainty did not moderate the relationship between health anxiety and SARS-CoV-2 related anxiety and behavior. The results suggest detrimental effects of health anxiety on the emotional and behavioral response to virus outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Distrés Psicológico , Incertidumbre
18.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e040910, 2020 10 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033099

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate psychological and behavioural responses to COVID-19 among the Chinese general population. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a population-based mobile phone survey between 1 February and 10 February 2020 via random digit dialling. A total of 1011 adult residents in Wuhan (n=510), the epicentre and quarantined city, and Shanghai (n=501) were interviewed. Proportional quota sampling and poststratification weighting were used. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate perception factors associated with the public responses. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured anxiety levels using the 7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and asked respondents to report their precautionary behaviours before and during the outbreak. RESULTS: The prevalence of moderate or severe anxiety was significantly higher (p<0.001) in Wuhan (32.8%) than Shanghai (20.5%). Around 79.6%-88.2% residents reported always wearing a face mask when they went out and washing hands immediately when they returned home, with no discernible difference across cities. Only 35.5%-37.0% of residents reported a handwashing duration above 40 s as recommended by the WHO. The strongest predictor of moderate or severe anxiety was perceived harm of the disease (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.1), followed by confusion about information reliability (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5 to 1.9). None of the examined perception factors were associated with odds of handwashing duration above 40 s. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of moderate or severe anxiety and strict personal precautionary behaviours was generally high, regardless of the quarantine status. Our results support efforts for handwashing education programmes with a focus on hygiene procedures in China and timely dissemination of reliable information.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/etiología , Ansiedad/etiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Brotes de Enfermedades , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Higiene de las Manos , Humanos , Difusión de la Información , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3481-3491, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876271

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to understand how men's feelings and emotions contribute to the Covid-19 framing in Brazil. METHOD: Asocial-historical, qualitative study, carried out with 200 men resident in Brazil, through online search on digital platform.The grasped data were analyzed by the Collective Subject Discourse method in the light of the reference of epidemic disease proposed by Charles Rosemberg. RESULTS: Negative feelings and anxiety prevailed due to the knowledge about the growing number of hospitalized patients and deaths from the pandemic conveyed in the news. For men, the optimism is necessary to encourage attitudes with responsibility and trust that the crisis will be overcome.Subsequently, men present a set of attitudes and behaviors for coping with the pandemic.Moreover,the acceptance signals the emergence of the fourth dramaturgical act of the Covid-19framing. CONCLUSION: Men's feelings and emotions, in this historic context, pervade three of the four acts of the Covid-19 framingin Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Hombres/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Brasil , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Emociones , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e220, 2020 09 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951623

RESUMEN

Due to the outbreak of the deadly coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19), Wuhan was on lockdown for more than 60 days by the state government. This study investigated the perceptions and attitudes of the public on quarantine as a practical approach to halting the spread of COVID-19. An online survey was conducted via WeChat between 10 January 2020 and 10 March 2020 on the general population in Hubei province at the height of the COVID-19 outbreak. In total, 549 respondents participated in the survey. Results revealed that the public displayed significantly strong support towards quarantine throughout the outbreak period, apart from locking people up and using imprisonment legal sanctions against those who failed to comply with the stringent regulations. The support exerted by the public stemmed from the execution of authorised officers to protect the public interest and provision of psychosocial support for those affected. In situations where quarantine could not be imposed, public health policy-makers and government officials should implement an extensive system of psychosocial support to safeguard, instruct and inform frontline public health workers. The public should also be enlisted in an open conversation concerning the ethical utility of restrictive values during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Opinión Pública , Cuarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Gobierno Estatal , Adulto Joven
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