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1.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 4321131, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899965

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating effect on many people, creating severe anxiety, fear, and complicated feelings or emotions. After the initiation of vaccinations against coronavirus, people's feelings have become more diverse and complex. Our aim is to understand and unravel their sentiments in this research using deep learning techniques. Social media is currently the best way to express feelings and emotions, and with the help of Twitter, one can have a better idea of what is trending and going on in people's minds. Our motivation for this research was to understand the diverse sentiments of people regarding the vaccination process. In this research, the timeline of the collected tweets was from December 21 to July21. The tweets contained information about the most common vaccines available recently from across the world. The sentiments of people regarding vaccines of all sorts were assessed using the natural language processing (NLP) tool, Valence Aware Dictionary for sEntiment Reasoner (VADER). Initializing the polarities of the obtained sentiments into three groups (positive, negative, and neutral) helped us visualize the overall scenario; our findings included 33.96% positive, 17.55% negative, and 48.49% neutral responses. In addition, we included our analysis of the timeline of the tweets in this research, as sentiments fluctuated over time. A recurrent neural network- (RNN-) oriented architecture, including long short-term memory (LSTM) and bidirectional LSTM (Bi-LSTM), was used to assess the performance of the predictive models, with LSTM achieving an accuracy of 90.59% and Bi-LSTM achieving 90.83%. Other performance metrics such as precision,, F1-score, and a confusion matrix were also used to validate our models and findings more effectively. This study improves understanding of the public's opinion on COVID-19 vaccines and supports the aim of eradicating coronavirus from the world.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Aprendizaje Profundo , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Actitud , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Lenguaje , Modelos Estadísticos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Opinión Pública , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Vacunación
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2139533, 2021 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913976

RESUMEN

Importance: Stereotype threat, or the fear of confirming a negative stereotype about one's social group, may contribute to racial differences in adherence to medications by decreasing patient activation to manage chronic conditions. Objective: To examine whether a values affirmation writing exercise improves medication adherence and whether the effect differs by patient race. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Hypertension and Values trial, a patient-level, blinded randomized clinical trial, compared an intervention and a control writing exercise delivered immediately prior to a clinic appointment. Of 20 777 eligible, self-identified non-Hispanic Black and White patients with uncontrolled hypertension who were taking blood pressure (BP) medications, 3891 were approached and 960 enrolled. Block randomization by self-identified race ensured balanced randomization. Patients enrolled between February 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019, at 11 US safety-net and community primary care clinics, with outcomes assessed at 3 and 6 months. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Interventions: From a list of 11 values, intervention patients wrote about their most important values and control patients wrote about their least important values. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome of adherence to BP medications was measured using pharmacy fill data (proportion of days covered >90%) at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The secondary outcome was systolic and diastolic BP. Patient activation to manage their health was also measured. Results: Of 960 patients, 474 (286 women [60.3%]; 256 Black patients [54.0%]; mean [SD] age, 63.4 [11.9] years) were randomly assigned to the intervention group and 486 (288 women [59.3%]; 272 Black patients [56.0%]; mean [SD] age, 62.8 [12.0] years) to the control group. Baseline medication adherence was lower (318 of 482 [66.0%] vs 331 of 412 [80.3%]) and mean (SE) BP higher among Black patients compared with White patients (systolic BP, 140.6 [18.5] vs 137.3 [17.8] mm Hg; diastolic BP, 83.9 [12.6] vs 79.7 [11.3] mm Hg). Compared with baseline, pharmacy fill adherence did not differ between intervention and control groups at 3 months (odds ratio [OR], 0.91 [95% CI, 0.57-1.43]) or at 6 months (OR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.53-1.38]). There were also no treatment effect differences in pharmacy fill adherence by patient race (Black patients at 3 months: OR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.61-1.92]; at 6 months: OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.58-1.87]; White patients at 3 months: OR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.33-1.44]; at 6 months: OR, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.24-1.27]). Immediately after the intervention, the median patient activation was higher in intervention patients than in control patients, but this difference was not statistically significant in an unadjusted comparison (75.0 [IQR, 65.5-84.8] vs 72.5 [IQR, 63.1-80.9]; P = .06). In adjusted models, the Patient Activation Measure score immediately after the intervention was significantly higher in the intervention patients than in control patients (mean difference, 2.3 [95% CI, 0.1-4.5]). Conclusions and Relevance: A values affirmation intervention was associated with higher patient activation overall but did not improve adherence or blood pressure among Black and White patients with hypertension. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03028597.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/psicología , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Actitud Frente a la Salud/etnología , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/etnología , Racismo/psicología , Valores Sociales/etnología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Colorado , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Humanos , Hipertensión/etnología , Hipertensión/psicología , Análisis de Intención de Tratar , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Método Simple Ciego , Escritura , Adulto Joven
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(49): e339, 2021 Dec 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34931499

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is affecting people at any age and there is limited information about the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on quality of life (QoL) in adolescents with asthma. In the present study, it was aimed to assess the attitudes of adolescents with asthma toward the COVID-19 pandemic and determine the effects of the pandemic on their QoL. METHODS: In total, 125 adolescents with asthma and 98 healthy adolescents participated in the present study. The questionnaire form consisted of three parts. In the first part, all the participants were asked whether they complied with the protective measures against COVID-19. The second part included questions for measuring the participants' level of concern about COVID-19, while the third part consisted of EUROHIS-QOL 8. RESULTS: The patient and control groups were similar in terms of the female/male ratio (55/70 and 48/50, respectively) and mean participant age (14.6 ± 2 and 15.1 ± 1.65 years, respectively) (P = 0.459 and P = 0.062, respectively). The prevalence of COVID-19 in the patients (n = 2, 1.6%) was lower than that in the controls (n = 6, 6.1%); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.142). The total EUROHIS-QOL score was significantly lower in the patients (31.2 ± 6.7) than in the controls (33.7 ± 4.4) (P < 0.001). The total QoL scores of asthmatic adolescents without other allergic disease (31.4 ± 6.7) was also lower than those of the controls (33.7 ± 4.4) (P = 0.009). Treatment disruption was significantly more common in patients who received subcutaneous immunotherapy (n = 20, 48.8%) than in those who did not (n = 8, 9.5%) (P < 0.001). Moreover, the patients had lower EUROHIS-QOL scores in the overall QoL, general health, finance, and home domains. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the mean QoL score of asthmatic adolescents during COVID-19 pandemic is lower than in the healthy population. Disruption in their treatment was most common in patients with asthma who were receiving subcutaneous immunotherapy.


Asunto(s)
Asma/epidemiología , Asma/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Adolescente , Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , Asma/complicaciones , Actitud Frente a la Salud , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/psicología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Calidad de Vida , Cuarentena , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261688, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962944

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Understanding health delivery service from a patient´s perspective, including factors influencing healthcare seeking behaviour, is crucial when treating diseases, particularly infectious ones, like tuberculosis. This study aims to trace and contextualise the trajectories patients pursued towards diagnosis and treatment, while discussing key factors associated with treatment delays. Tuberculosis patients' pathways may serve as indicator of the difficulties the more vulnerable sections of society experience in obtaining adequate care. METHODS: We conducted 27 semi-structured interviews with tuberculosis patients attending a treatment centre in a suburban area of Lisbon. We invited nationals and migrant patients in active treatment to participate by sharing their illness experiences since the onset of symptoms until the present. The Health Belief Model was used as a reference framework to consolidate the qualitative findings. RESULTS: By inductive analysis of all interviews, we categorised participants' healthcare seeking behaviour into 4 main types, related to the time participants took to actively search for healthcare (patient delay) and time the health system spent to diagnose and initiate treatment (health system delay). Each type of healthcare seeking behaviour identified (inhibited, timely, prolonged, and absent) expressed a mindset influencing the way participants sought healthcare. The emergency room was the main entry point where diagnostic care cascade was initiated. Primary Health Care was underused by participants. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support that healthcare seeking behaviour is not homogeneous and influences diagnostic delays. If diagnostic delays are to be reduced, the identification of behavioural patterns should be considered when designing measures to improve health services' delivery. Healthcare professionals should be sensitised and perform continuous capacity development training to deal with patients´ needs. Inhibited and prolonged healthcare seeking behaviour contributes significantly to diagnostic delays. These behaviours should be detected and reverted. Timely responses, from patients and the healthcare system, should be promoted.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/terapia , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/terapia , Adulto , Alcoholismo/complicaciones , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Complicaciones de la Diabetes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud , Investigación Cualitativa , Proyectos de Investigación , Fumar , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Tabaquismo/complicaciones , Migrantes , Poblaciones Vulnerables
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261501, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968396

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The National Family Planning program of Nepal has introduced the condom as an important family planning method. Despite the continuous effort from the public and private sectors at various levels, its use among youth remains low. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the factors associated with condom use during the last sexual intercourse among male college youth. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study and analyzed the responses of 361 male college youth (aged 19 to 24 years who reported being sexually active preceding six months of the survey), among the 903 participants who reported being involved in vaginal and anal sexual intercourse. The chi-square test was primarily used to find the associated factors and then, stepwise logistic regression was performed by selecting the covariates after the multicollinearity test followed by adjustment of confounders. RESULTS: We found that more than one-fourth (27.4%) of the sexually active male youth had used the condoms during their last sexual intercourse. Postgraduate male youth were four times more likely to use the condoms during the last sexual intercourse than undergraduate male youth (AOR = 4.09, 95% CI; 2.08-8.06). Similarly, married youth were less likely to use the condoms during the last sexual intercourse with 95% lower odds than their counterparts (AOR = 0.05, 95% CI; 0.01-0.38). Male youth with adequate knowledge about the condoms were 8 times more likely to use them compared to those with inadequate knowledge (AOR = 8.42, 95% CI; 4.34-16.33). Likewise, male youth with favorable attitude towards the condoms were 2.5 times more likely to use them compared to their counterparts (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI; 1.23-5.42). Similarly, male youth having two or more sex partners were 4.5 times more likely to use the condoms than the youth having only a sex partner (AOR = 4.57, 95% CI; 2.38-8.76). CONCLUSION: The study concluded that slightly more than one-fourth (27.4%) of male college youth in Kaski district used the condoms during their last sexual intercourse. Level of education, marital status, knowledge about condoms, attitude toward condoms, and number of sex partners are the determinants of condom use among male college youth so recommended for early behavioral interventions, especially in knowledge and attitude. Further studies focusing on including the rural youth and larger geography may help to reach a firmer conclusion.


Asunto(s)
Coito , Condones , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Modelos Estadísticos , Nepal/epidemiología , Población Rural , Sexo Seguro , Parejas Sexuales , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21751, 2021 11 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741109

RESUMEN

Adoption of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) remains critical to curtail the spread of COVID-19. Using self-reported adherence to NPIs in Canada, assessed through a national cross-sectional survey of 4498 respondents, we aimed to identify and characterize non-adopters of NPIs, evaluating their attitudes and behaviours to understand barriers and facilitators of adoption. A cluster analysis was used to group adopters separately from non-adopters of NPIs. Associations with sociodemographic factors, attitudes towards COVID-19 and the public health response were assessed using logistic regression models comparing non-adopters to adopters. Of the 4498 respondents, 994 (22%) were clustered as non-adopters. Sociodemographic factors significantly associated with the non-adoption cluster were: (1) being male, (2) age 18-34 years, (3) Albertans, (4) lower education level and (5) higher conservative political leaning. Participants who expressed low concern for COVID-19 and distrust towards several institutions had greater odds of being non-adopters. This information characterizes individuals at greatest odds for non-adoption of NPIs to inform targeted marketing interventions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Alberta/epidemiología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , COVID-19/psicología , Canadá/epidemiología , Análisis por Conglomerados , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Alfabetización en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distanciamiento Físico , Política , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 614602, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744578

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a university tobacco-free policy by examining differences in students' attitudes, perceptions of compliance and policy benefits, after one year of the policy's implementation. Methods: Cross-sectional studies were undertaken to collect data pre- and 1 year post-policy implementation. The two samples were selected using stratified random sampling. Results: The prevalence of smoking decreased from 26% pre-policy implementation to 21% 1 year after (p = 0.035). The proportion of smokers who thought the policy had contributed to a reduction in smoking frequency increased from 10% to 70% (p < 0.001). Smokers' support for the policy rose from 42 to 58% (p = 0.007). Conclusion: Against the background of a strongly pro-tobacco environment in Lebanon, it is possible to create a positive change in the mindset of smokers at the levels of the education and smoking cessation and more efforts should be expended to bring it about.


Asunto(s)
Política para Fumadores , Estudiantes , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Estudios Transversales , Adhesión a Directriz , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiología , Percepción , Fumar/epidemiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades
9.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 642869, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744591

RESUMEN

Objectives: To investigate the perspectives and attitudes of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in Slovakia. Methods: A cross-sectional, computer-assisted web survey on health status, emotional support, stigmatisation, communication with physician, treatment, perception, decision-making, concerns, and treatment history. A representative sample of >10% of all PLHIV (N = 895) in Slovakia was invited to participate. Results: Mean age of the 117 respondents was 35.4 (±8.9) years, 52.8% had higher education, and 67.0% were in full-time employment. Most (89.4%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 81.8% had undetectable viral load. Most (85.1%) were satisfied with their ART, and side effects were the primary reason for switching therapies. Most (60.8%) had informed only close friends or relatives about their HIV status, only 3 (2.9%) spoke openly about it, and 60.0% hid their ART from others. Of the 31 respondents (31.6%) who experienced stigmatisation, it was primarily from dentists and other physicians who refused to treat them. Conclusion: In general, PLHIV in Slovakia receive ART and are satisfied with it. They do not speak openly about their HIV status, and some have experienced discrimination.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Infecciones por VIH , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Eslovaquia/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 643486, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744592

RESUMEN

Objectives: Young adults are essential to the effective mitigation of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19) given their tendency toward greater frequency of social interactions. Little is known about vaccine willingness during pandemics in European populations. This study examined young people's attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines in Fall 2020. Methods: Data came from an ongoing longitudinal study's online COVID-19-focused supplement among young adults aged 22 in Zurich, Switzerland (N = 499) in September 2020. Logistic regressions examined young adults' likelihood of participating in COVID-19 immunization programs. Results: Approximately half of respondents reported being unlikely to get vaccinated against COVID-19. Compared to males, females were more likely to oppose COVID-19 vaccination (p < 0.05). In multivariate models, Sri Lankan maternal background and higher socioeconomic status were associated with a greater likelihood of getting vaccinated against COVID-19 (p < 0.05). Respondents were more likely to report a willingness to get vaccinated against COVID-19 when they perceived 1) an effective government response (p < 0.05) and 2) their information sources to be objective (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study communicates aspects important to the development of targeted information campaigns to promote engagement in COVID-19 immunization efforts.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Vacunación , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Suiza/epidemiología , Vacunación/psicología , Adulto Joven
11.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 56(4): 599-607, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749898

RESUMEN

The health outcomes of men are significantly worse, when compared with their female counterparts, for the top 15 leading causes of death nationwide. At this time, men are not actively engaged in the health care system, creating a challenge for those managing patients in the clinical setting. The premature morbidity and mortality of men financially burdens the health care system and places a financial strain in secondary and tertiary preventive care that is simply not sustainable. Obesity is a catalyst that fuels disease and is directly responsible for the pathogenesis for the disease claiming the lives of men nationwide.


Asunto(s)
Adiposidad , Masculinidad , Salud del Hombre , Obesidad , Atención Primaria de Salud , Estigma Social , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/terapia , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Factores Sexuales , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
12.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259451, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739515

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to examine attitudes of the general population towards reasonableness of these costs, as well as the degree to which these costs are shared across society (solidarity financing) and to determine the factors associated with them. METHOD: Repeated cross-sectional data from a nationally representative online-survey. More precisely, data from wave 8 (21-22 April 2020) and wave 16 (7-8 July 2020) were used (in wave 8: analytical sample with n = 976, average age was 47.0 years (SD: 15.3 years), ranging from 18 to 74 years, 51.8% female; in wave 16: analytical sample with n = 978, average age was 46.1 years (SD: 15.9 years), ranging from 18 to 74 years, 50.9% female). After a short introduction emphasizing considerable economic costs associated with the measures against the spread of the coronavirus, individuals were asked to rate the following statements (outcome measures), in each case from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree: "These economic costs are currently reasonable in relation to the objective pursued" (reasonableness of costs), "These economic costs should be borne jointly by all citizens and depending on income" (solidarity financing). RESULTS: In wave 8 (wave 16 in parentheses), the average rating for the attitude towards reasonableness of costs was 4.3, SD: 1.8 (wave 16, average: 4.2, SD: 1.8) and the average rating for the attitude towards solidarity financing was 3.7, SD: 1.9 (wave 16, average: 3.3, SD: 2.0). In wave 8, more positive attitudes towards the reasonableness of costs and solidarity financing were associated with being male, higher education, not being in a partnership/being unmarried, higher affect regarding COVID-19 and higher presumed severity with respect to COVID-19. Furthermore, more positive attitudes towards the reasonableness of costs were associated with having a migration background. More positive attitudes towards solidarity financing was associated with higher age groups. Mainly similar findings were observed in wave 16. DISCUSSION: Agreement with reasonableness of costs of preventative measures as well as solidarity financing was moderately high. Knowledge of these attitudes is important to ensure social cohesion during the fight against COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Actitud Frente a la Salud , COVID-19/economía , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Económicos , Percepción , Análisis de Regresión , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
13.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(10): 1388-1395, 2021 10 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780360

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Immunization, as a process of fighting against the COVID-19, has gained important research appeal, but very limited endeavor has been paid for vaccine behavioral studies in underdeveloped and developing countries. This study explores the vaccine demand, hesitancy, and nationalism as well as vaccine acceptance and domestic vaccine preference among young adults in Bangladesh. METHODOLOGY: This quantitative study followed the snowball sampling technique and collected responses from 1,018 individuals from various social media platforms. The analysis covered both descriptive and inferential statistics including chi-square, F-statistic, and logistic regression. RESULTS: The findings of the fully-adjusted regression model suggest that the individuals who had more vaccine demand were 3.29 times (95% confidence interval = 2.39-4.54; p < 0.001) higher to accept vaccine compared to those who had no vaccine demand. Conversely, vaccine hesitancy was negatively associated with vaccine acceptance. Here, the odds ratio was found 0.70 (95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.80; p < 0.001), which means that those who had higher vaccine hesitancy were about 30% less likely to accept vaccines than those who had no hesitancy. In addition, the persons who had vaccine nationalism were 1.75 times (95% confidence interval = 1.62-1.88; p < 0.001) more prone to prefer domestic vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that policymakers may take initiatives for making people aware and knowledgeable about the severity and vulnerability to specific health threats. In this concern, perception and efficacy-increasing programs may take part in increasing protection motivation behaviors like vaccine acceptance and (domestic) vaccine preference.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Motivación , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Vacunación/psicología , Adolescente , Bangladesh , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Negativa a la Vacunación/psicología , Adulto Joven
14.
J BUON ; 26(5): 2183-2190, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761633

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Recommendations and guidelines consider cancer patients a high-priority population for COVID-19 immunization. Vaccination process in Serbia began in January 2021 with four available vaccines. We have conducted a cross-sectional study investigating cancer patients' acceptability of anti SARS-COV2 vaccines. METHODS: The study included 767 patients with solid and hematologic malignancies treated at the Oncology Institute of Vojvodina, Serbia. During July and August 2021 patients filled in an individual paper questionnaire on anti SARS-COV2 vaccination acceptance, preferences, side effects and information origin. Data on treatment phase, diagnosis and treatment was collected from electronic health records. RESULTS: During the first six months of vaccination campaign in Serbia 41% (320/767) of the investigated oncology patients received COVID-19 vaccines. The median age of vaccinated patients was 65 years (28-84). Most of them (75%) were in active treatment of cancer. Half of the unvaccinated patients (52%) wish to get vaccinated after the end of their cancer treatment. Around 10% of the patients definitely refused vaccination. The majority of information on COVID-19 vaccines cancer patients got from their oncologist, television and newspapers. Side effects were reported by 10.93% of the patients after the first dose and 13,31% after the second dose. No serious side effects were reported. CONCLUSION: We have confirmed that patients are reluctant of receiving vaccine due to fear of side effects, especially during the active cancer treatment. However, real-world evidence and clinical trials data have gathered enough evidence to reassure any doubts of the patients and their oncologists on safety and efficacy of anti SARS-COV2 vaccines.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , COVID-19/complicaciones , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Neoplasias/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/psicología , COVID-19/virología , Estudios Transversales , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/psicología , Neoplasias/virología , Vacunación , Adulto Joven
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20796, 2021 10 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675256

RESUMEN

In a survey and three experiments (one preregistered with a nationally representative sample), we examined if vaccination requirements are likely to backfire, as commonly feared. We investigated if relative to encouraging free choice in vaccination, requiring a vaccine weakens or strengthens vaccination intentions, both in general and among individuals with a predisposition to experience psychological reactance. In the four studies, compared to free choice, requirements strengthened vaccination intentions across racial and ethnic groups, across studies, and across levels of trait psychological reactance. The results consistently suggest that fears of a backlash against vaccine mandates may be unfounded and that requirements will promote COVID-19 vaccine uptake in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Política de Salud , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vacunación/psicología , Afroamericanos , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
16.
MSMR ; 28(8): 22-27, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622900

RESUMEN

This analysis of population-level health care utilization data evaluates changes in monthly counts and rates of medical encounters for mental and behavioral health (MH/BH) conditions and the proportion of care delivered via telehealth among active component military members of the U.S. Armed Forces during the first 6 months (March-September 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic. Comparisons are also made to the same time period in the previous year (2019). Telehealth usage increased during the early pandemic and was on average 25% higher during March-September 2020 as compared to the previous year. In contrast, MH/BH outpatient visit rates declined modestly between March and May 2020 before rebounding in June and remaining stable through September 2020. The number of bed days attributable to MH/BH conditions also declined during March and April 2020 and was on average 30% lower during March-September 2020 as compared to the same period in the prior year. Continued surveillance is warranted to track MH/BH health care utilization during the later months of the pandemic to ensure that sufficient resources continue to be directed towards MH/BH care to support the health and readiness of active component service members.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicina Militar/tendencias , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Telemedicina/tendencias , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Humanos , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Derivación y Consulta/tendencias , Estados Unidos
19.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e225, 2021 10 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645533

RESUMEN

Vaccine hesitancy remains a serious global threat to achieve herd immunity, and this study aimed to assess the magnitude and associated factors of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Amhara regional referral hospitals. A web-based anonymised survey was conducted among 440 HCWs in the Amhara region referral hospitals. The questionnaire was designed using Google Forms and distributed using telegram and e-mail from 15 May to 10 June 2021 to the randomly selected participants in each hospital. The data were analysed with Stata 14.0 and described using frequency tables. A multivariable binary logistic regression model was fitted and model fitness was checked with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test. Out of 440 participants, 418 were willing to participate in the study and the mean age was about 30 years. Overall, 45.9% (n = 192) of participants reported vaccine hesitancy. After applying multivariate analysis, age ≤25 years (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 5.6); do not wear a mask (aOR = 2.4); not compliance with physical distancing (aOR = 3.6); unclear information by public health authorities (aOR = 2.5); low risk of getting COVID-19 infection (aOR = 2.8); and not sure about the tolerability of the vaccine (aOR = 3.76) were associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. A considerable proportion of HCWs were hesitant towards COVID-19 vaccine, and this can be tackled with the provision of clear information about the vaccine.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/prevención & control , Personal de Hospital/psicología , Negativa a la Vacunación/psicología , Adulto , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Personal de Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Distanciamiento Físico , Factores de Riesgo , Centros de Atención Secundaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Negativa a la Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
20.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0256642, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673809

RESUMEN

Varicella infection is a highly contagious disease which, whilst mild in most cases, can cause severe complications. Varicella vaccination is available privately in Sweden and is currently being reviewed for inclusion in the Swedish Public Health Agency's national immunisation program (NIP). A cross-sectional study of parents of Swedish children aged 1-8 years (n = 2212) was conducted to understand parental acceptance, beliefs and knowledge around varicella infection and vaccination. Respondents generally viewed varicella infection as a mild disease, with only a small proportion aware of potential severe complications. While 65% of respondents were aware of the vaccine, only 15% had started the course of vaccination as of February 2019. Further, 43% of parents did not intend to vaccinate, most commonly due to lack of inclusion in the NIP, but also due to perception of mild disease. Nevertheless, if offered within the NIP, 85% of parents would be highly likely to vaccinate their child. A number of statistically significant differences in awareness and behaviours were observed between sociodemographic subgroups. In general, women were more aware of vaccination (72%) compared to men (58%). Among unemployed or respondents with elementary school education, awareness was below 43%, and among respondents with high income the awareness was above 75%. Similarly, among unemployed or respondents with a low income the vaccination rate was as low as 30% compared with at least 57% among respondents with a high income. Respondents from metropolitan areas, those with university degrees and respondents with a higher income were more likely to be aware of the varicella vaccine and to have vaccinated their child. Whilst inclusion in the NIP is clearly the main driver for uptake, these identified knowledge gaps should inform educational efforts to ensure that all parents are informed of the availability and benefits of the varicella vaccine independent of socioeconomic status.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna contra la Varicela/administración & dosificación , Varicela/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Padres/psicología , Negativa a la Vacunación/psicología , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Vacuna contra la Varicela/inmunología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Herpesvirus Humano 3/inmunología , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Población Rural , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Suecia , Población Urbana
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