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1.
Orv Hetil ; 162(15): 571-578, 2021 04 02.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798102

RESUMEN

Összefoglaló. Az új típusú koronavírus (SARS-CoV-2 ) okozta járvány hirtelen megnövekedett betegszámai és halálozásai komoly kihívás elé állították az egészségügyi ellátás minden színterét. A magas idofaktorú kórképek ellátásában a laikusok által végzett elsosegélynyújtás alapveto fontosságú a beteg túlélése és maradandó egészségkárosodásának elkerülése szempontjából. Az áttekintés célja rávilágítani arra, hogy a SARS-CoV-2 okozta járvány idején az elso észlelok által megkezdett azonnali beavatkozások késlekedése mögött az elsosegélynyújtói attitud változása feltételezheto. A társadalmilag fontos elsosegélynyújtás fenntartása érdekében az Európai Újraélesztési Tanács is módosította az elsosegélyre, az alapveto, eszköz nélküli újraélesztésre vonatkozó irányelveit, továbbá ajánlásokat fogalmazott meg a járvány idején a biztonságos elsosegélynyújtás oktatásával kapcsolatban. A hazai adaptáció érdekében a jelen áttekintés összefoglalja a legfontosabb eljárásrendi szempontokat, kiegészítéseket, és kitér azok gyakorlati alkalmazhatóságára is. Az eljárásrendek változásának legfobb célja, hogy a segítségnyújtói szándékot a koronavírus-járvány elotti motiváltsági szintre lehessen visszahozni és azt tovább fokozni szakszeru oktatási anyagok és korszeru módszerek révén. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(15): 571-578. Summary. The sudden increase in the number of patients and deaths from this novel type of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic poses a serious challenge to all arenas of health care delivery system. The care of high-time dependent-factor illnesses is essential for the survival of a patient and the need for avoiding impairment of health. The purpose of the review is to highlight that a change in first-aid attitudes can be assumed behind the delay in immediate interventions initiated by first responders during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. To maintain socially important first aid, the European Resuscitation Council amended its guidelines on first aid, basic life support and made further recommendations at the time of pandemic on first-aid education, too. For effective domestic adaptation, the present overview summarises the most important aspects of guidelines and their supplements and also covers their practical implementations. The main purpose of the change in guidelines is to bring the willingness of the first responders back to the level before the coronavirus pandemic, and to further enhance it with professional educational materials and modern methods. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(15): 571-578.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Primeros Auxilios , Humanos
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807787

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic put clinical research in the media spotlight globally. This article proposes a first measure of familiarity with and attitude toward clinical research in France. Drawing from the "Health Literacy Survey 2019" (HLS19) conducted online between 27 May and 5 June 2020 on a sample of the French adult population (N = 1003), we show that a significant proportion of the French population claimed some familiarity with clinical trials (64.8%) and had positive attitudes (72%) toward them. One of the important findings of this study is that positive attitudes toward clinical research exist side by side with a strong distancing from the pharmaceutical industry. While respondents acknowledged that the pharmaceutical industry plays an important role in clinical research (68.3%), only one-quarter indicated that they trust the industry (25.7%). Positive attitudes toward clinical trials were associated with familiarity with clinical trials (Odds Ratio, OR 2.97 [1.90-4.63]), financial difficulties (OR 0.63 [0.46-0.85]), as well as mistrust of doctors (0.48 [0.27-0.85]) and of scientists (OR 0.62 [0.38-0.99]). Although the French media provided a great deal of information on how clinical research works during the first months of the pandemic, there remains profound mistrust of the pharmaceutical industry in France. This suspicion can undermine crisis management, especially in the areas of vaccine development and preparation for future pandemics.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Adulto , Actitud , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Estudios Transversales , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806763

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by rapidly emerging evidence, changing guidance, and misinformation, which present new challenges for health literacy (HL) and digital health literacy (DHL) skills. This study explored whether COVID-19-related information access, attitudes, and behaviors were associated with health literacy and digital health literacy among college students in the United States. Self-reported measures of health literacy, along with items on pandemic-related attitudes, behaviors, information sources, and social networks, were collected online using a managed research panel. In July 2020, 256 responses were collected, which mirrored the racial/ethnic and gender diversity of U.S. colleges. Only 49% reported adequate HL, and 57% found DHL tasks easy overall. DHL did not vary by HL level. In multivariable models, both HL and DHL were independently associated with overall compliance with basic preventive practices. Higher DHL, but not HL, was significantly associated with greater willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine and the belief that acquiring the disease would negatively impact their life. On average, respondents discussed health with 4-5 people, which did not vary by HL or DHL measures. The usage of online information sources varied by HL and DHL. The study findings can inform future student-focused interventions, including identifying the distinct roles of HL and DHL in pandemic information access, attitudes, and behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Alfabetización en Salud , Actitud , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809956

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic may cause a nursing shortage. Prelicensure nursing students who are exposed to high-stress COVID-19 events are related to defective career decision-making. This study validated the COVID-19 attitude scale and clarified how their attitudes about COVID-19 affected their behavioral intentions toward career decision-making. We conducted a cross-sectional study and recruited a convenience sample of 362 prelicensure nursing students from Northern and Central Taiwan. Two measurements were applied, including the Nursing Students Career Decision-making instrument and COVID-19 attitude scale. We used AMOS (version 22.0) to perform a confirmatory factor analysis. The Cronbach α of the COVID-19 attitude scale was 0.74 and consisted of four factors. The most positive attitude was the nursing belief factor, and the least positive factor was emotional burden. Prelicensure nursing students' COVID-19 attitudes were significantly positively associated with their career decision-making attitudes and perceived control (ß = 0.41 and ß = 0.40, respectively; p < 0.001). All the key latent variables explained significantly 23% of the variance in the career decision-making behavioral intentions module. In conclusion, the COVID-19 attitude scale is valid. Although the prelicensure nursing students' COVID-19 attitudes had no direct effect on career decision-making intentions, they had a direct effect on career decision-making attitudes and the perceived control.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Enfermería , Actitud , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Taiwán/epidemiología
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e22860, 2021 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739287

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has challenged global public health because it is highly contagious and can be lethal. Numerous ongoing and recently published studies about the disease have emerged. However, the research regarding COVID-19 is largely ongoing and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: A potential way to accelerate COVID-19 research is to use existing information gleaned from research into other viruses that belong to the coronavirus family. Our objective is to develop a natural language processing method for answering factoid questions related to COVID-19 using published articles as knowledge sources. METHODS: Given a question, first, a BM25-based context retriever model is implemented to select the most relevant passages from previously published articles. Second, for each selected context passage, an answer is obtained using a pretrained bidirectional encoder representations from transformers (BERT) question-answering model. Third, an opinion aggregator, which is a combination of a biterm topic model and k-means clustering, is applied to the task of aggregating all answers into several opinions. RESULTS: We applied the proposed pipeline to extract answers, opinions, and the most frequent words related to six questions from the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset Challenge. By showing the longitudinal distributions of the opinions, we uncovered the trends of opinions and popular words in the articles published in the five time periods assessed: before 1990, 1990-1999, 2000-2009, 2010-2018, and since 2019. The changes in opinions and popular words agree with several distinct characteristics and challenges of COVID-19, including a higher risk for senior people and people with pre-existing medical conditions; high contagion and rapid transmission; and a more urgent need for screening and testing. The opinions and popular words also provide additional insights for the COVID-19-related questions. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with other methods of literature retrieval and answer generation, opinion aggregation using our method leads to more interpretable, robust, and comprehensive question-specific literature reviews. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method in answering COVID-19-related questions with main opinions and capturing the trends of research about COVID-19 and other relevant strains of coronavirus in recent years.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Almacenamiento y Recuperación de la Información , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural , Actitud , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Soins ; 66(853): 43-45, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775303

RESUMEN

In the context of the rebuilding of the emergency services a new health care provider has been identified to reorganize emergency medicine in order to meet the expectations of the population, institutions and professionals. The nurse in advanced practice with extended skills must be able to fit into a pre-existing organization, in collaboration with the actors already present, but also represent an innovative care offer with regard to intra-hospital and pre-hospital needs as well as in terms of regulation. Student proposals.


Asunto(s)
Enfermería de Práctica Avanzada , Actitud , Enfermería de Urgencia , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Enfermería de Práctica Avanzada/educación , Enfermería de Urgencia/tendencias , Predicción , Humanos , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología
7.
Soins ; 66(852): 18-23, 2021.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750551

RESUMEN

Due to the health crisis which marked 2020, nurses' initial training was forced to adapt and was delivered entirely online. A two-stage survey of first year student nurses revealed their state of mind, their experience and their assessment of the programme, before and after two months of "100% remote" training.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Educación a Distancia , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Humanos , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 609716, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732677

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still evolving and affecting millions of lives. E-government and social media have been used widely during this unprecedented time to spread awareness and educate the public on preventive measures. However, the extent to which the 2 digital platforms bring to improve public health awareness and prevention during a health crisis is unknown. In this study, we examined the influence of e-government and social media on the public's attitude to adopt protective behavior. For this purpose, a Web survey was conducted among 404 Malaysian residents during the Recovery Movement Control Order (RMCO) period in the country. Descriptive and multiple regression analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS software. Social media was chosen by most of the respondents (n = 331 or 81.9%) as the source to get information related to COVID-19. Multiple regression analysis suggests the roles of e-government and social media to be significantly related to people's attitudes to engage in protective behavior. In conclusion, during the COVID-19 outbreak, public health decision makers may use e-government and social media platforms as effective tools to improve public engagement on protective behavior. This, in turn, will help the country to contain the transmission of the virus.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Gobierno , Difusión de la Información , Salud Pública , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Concienciación , Femenino , Humanos , Malasia , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6626, 2021 03 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758218

RESUMEN

Misinformation is usually adjusted to fit distinct narratives and propagates rapidly through social networks. False beliefs, once adopted, are rarely corrected. Amidst the COVID-19 crisis, pandemic-deniers and people who oppose wearing face masks or quarantine have already been a substantial aspect of the development of the pandemic. With the vaccine for COVID-19, different anti-vaccine narratives are being created and are probably being adopted by large population groups with critical consequences. Assuming full adherence to vaccine administration, we use a diffusion model to analyse epidemic spreading and the impact of different vaccination strategies, measured with the average years of life lost, in three network topologies (a proximity, a scale-free and a small-world network). Then, using a similar diffusion model, we consider the spread of anti-vaccine views in the network, which are adopted based on a persuasiveness parameter of anti-vaccine views. Results show that even if anti-vaccine narratives have a small persuasiveness, a large part of the population will be rapidly exposed to them. Assuming that all individuals are equally likely to adopt anti-vaccine views after being exposed, more central nodes in the network, which are more exposed to these views, are more likely to adopt them. Comparing years of life lost, anti-vaccine views could have a significant cost not only on those who share them, since the core social benefits of a limited vaccination strategy (reduction of susceptible hosts, network disruptions and slowing the spread of the disease) are substantially shortened.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , /prevención & control , Actitud , /virología , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Red Social , Vacunación
10.
J Homosex ; 68(5): 802-829, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650942

RESUMEN

According to the precarious manhood perspective, masculinity threat triggers various compensatory mechanisms and heightens motivation to restore and reaffirm masculinity via typically masculine attitudes and behaviors. Four experiments aiming to examine the effect of masculinity threat on prejudices toward sexual and gender minorities were undertaken, controlling for adherence to sex role stereotypes. Our studies showed that Polish men representing university and high school students exposed to gender threat experienced increased negative affect (Experiment 1) and expressed higher prejudices toward gay people (Experiment 2) and transgender individuals (Experiments 3a and 3b). Furthermore, Experiment 2 revealed an effect of masculinity threat on modern prejudices predominantly toward gay people but not old-fashioned homonegativity. The results are discussed in terms of the role of masculinity threat as the mechanism responsible for gender differences in the attitudes toward sexual and gender minorities.


Asunto(s)
Masculinidad , Prejuicio , Personas Transgénero , Adolescente , Actitud , Femenino , Feminidad , Homofobia , Humanos , Masculino , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Estudiantes , Universidades
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668784

RESUMEN

As the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spreads worldwide, quarantine guidelines are being constantly updating to prevent the transmission of this virus. Regardless of which country international students live in, they might receive limited crucial quarantine guidelines from that country's government. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing the preventive practice of international students in South Korea during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Data were collected from international students in three universities from July 10 to July 31 in 2020. A total of 261 international students participated in the survey, using an online questionnaire. Data were analyzed by independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple regression analysis. Preventive practice during the COVID-19 pandemic was affected by duration of stay in Korea (ß = -0.21, p < 0.001), attitudes (ß = 0.22, p = 0.001), and trust in Korea's quarantine system (ß = 0.33, p < 0.001). This study showed that attitudes and trust in the quarantine system could affect personal preventive practice during the outbreak of a highly contagious disease such as COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Cuarentena , Estudiantes , Actitud , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , República de Corea/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Confianza , Universidades
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673637

RESUMEN

Since the unfolding of the novel coronavirus global pandemic, public health research has increasingly suggested that certain groups of individuals may be more exposed to the virus. The aim of this contribution was to investigate whether workers grouped into several latent classes, based on two perceived economic stressors, would report different levels of enactment of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommended behaviors to prevent the spread of such virus. We also tested propositions regarding the potential differential predictors of compliance behavior, differentiating between cognitive (i.e., attitudes toward the CDC guidelines) and affective (i.e., COVID-specific worry) predictors. Using a longitudinal dataset of 419 U.S. workers, we did not find significant differences among the levels of CDC guidelines enactment across three latent classes, representing a range of economic vulnerability. We found that cognitive attitudes were a significantly stronger predictor of compliance with CDC guidelines for workers in the most economically secure class, whereas worry was a significantly stronger predictor of compliance for the most vulnerable counterpart. We discuss these findings in light of the Conservation of Resources theory and other health behavior theories, being mindful of the need to further understand the differential impact of this health and economic crisis on employees facing economic stressors.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Actitud , /psicología , Pandemias , Adulto , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , Cooperación del Paciente , Estados Unidos
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e046127, 2021 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707274

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In the context of a highly contagious virus with only recently approved vaccines and no cure, the key to slowing the spread of the COVID-19 disease and successfully transitioning through the phases of the pandemic, including vaccine uptake, is public adherence to rapidly evolving behaviour-based public health policies. The overall objective of the iCARE Study is to assess public awareness, attitudes, concerns and behavioural responses to COVID-19 public health policies, and their impacts, on people around the world and to link behavioural survey data with policy, mobility and case data to provide behavioural science, data-driven recommendations to governments on how to optimise current policy strategies to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSES: The iCARE study (www.icarestudy.com) uses a multiple cross-sectional survey design to capture self-reported information on a variety of COVID-19 related variables from individuals around the globe. Survey data are captured using two data capture methods: convenience and representative sampling. These data are then linked to open access data for policies, cases and population movement. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The primary ethical approval was obtained from the coordinating site, the Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux du Nord-de-l'Île-de-Montréal (REB#: 2020-2099/03-25-2020). This study will provide high-quality, accelerated and real-time evidence to help us understand the effectiveness of evolving country-level policies and communication strategies to reduce the spread of the COVID-19. Due to the urgency of the pandemic, results will be disseminated in a variety of ways, including policy briefs, social media posts, press releases and through regular scientific methods.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Política de Salud , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Pandemias , Salud Pública , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
N Z Med J ; 134(1530): 38-47, 2021 02 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651776

RESUMEN

AIMS: We aimed to assess the use of and attitudes towards cannabis use (medicinal and recreational) by people with IBD in New Zealand. METHODS: People with IBD were invited to complete an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants were recruited via postal mail using a hospital database of patients with IBD (developed by the Gas-troenterology Department at Dunedin Public Hospital) and via online recruitment (advertised on the Crohn's and Colitis New Zealand website, Facebook page and e-mail list). Inclusion criteria were ages 18+ and self-reported confirmed IBD diagnosis. RESULTS: In total, 378 participants completed the questionnaire, with 334 eligible responses. Partici-pants were predominantly New Zealand European (84%) and female (71%). Sixty-one percent of re-spondents had CD and 34% UC. Overall, 51% of respondents reported having ever used cannabis. Of those, 63% reported use as recreational and 31% for reduction of IBD symptoms. Users were more likely to be younger (on average by 6.4 years), with on-going symptoms, unemployed or self-employed and current or ex-smokers. There were no differences by disease status or severity. Symp-toms most reported as improved by cannabis use were abdominal pain/cramping, nausea/vomiting and loss of appetite. Fifty-four percent of participants reported that if cannabis were legal, they would request it for medicinal use to help manage their symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our research aligns with previous observational research that reports im-provements in symptoms of IBD with cannabis use. Studies of a higher evidence level (eg, RCTs) would be needed to guide prescribing. In the meantime, this research provides useful background to clini-cians about patients' views and experiences.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Cannabis/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/tratamiento farmacológico , Fitoterapia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Colitis Ulcerosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Colitis Ulcerosa/psicología , Enfermedad de Crohn/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad de Crohn/psicología , Utilización de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Zelanda , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Automedicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoinforme , Adulto Joven
15.
Animal ; 15(2): 100062, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712209

RESUMEN

Under-use of genetic improvement tools and low participation in breeding programmes are key drivers of breeding programmes under-performance. Both aspects are heavily influenced by farmers attitudes which, to date, have not been analysed in an objective and systematic manner. A key factor constraining the implementation of attitudinal studies towards livestock breeding tools is the lack of a reference scale for measuring attitudes. In this research, we provide the livestock breeding sector with such a reference measure. We developed the scale following the standardized psychometric methodologies and statistical tools. Then, as a case study, we used the scale to explore the attitudes of beef and dairy sheep farmers in Australia, New Zealand and Spain and analysed farmer and farming system factors related to those attitudes. Fourteen sheep and beef breed associations facilitated the implementation of a survey of 547 farmers, generating data that was used for the scale evaluation. The relationship between attitudinal factors and farmer and farming system factors was analysed using generalized linear models across and within breeds. The results suggest that the 8-item definitive scale we have developed is appropriate to measure farmer attitudes. We found that attitudes towards genetic improvement tools have two components; i) traditional selection and ii) genetic and genomic selection combined. This means that positive attitudes towards traditional phenotypic selection do not necessarily imply a negative attitude towards genetic and genomic selection tools. Farmer attitudes varied greatly not only across the studied breeds, species and countries, but also within them. High-educated farmers of business-oriented farms tend to have the most negative attitude towards traditional selection. However, attitudes towards genetic and genomic selection tools could not be linked to these factors. Finally, we found that the breed raised had a large effect on farmer attitude. These findings may help in the evolution of breeding programmes by identifying both the farmers most inclined to uptake breeding innovations in the early stages of its establishment and the farmers who would be more reluctant to participate in such programmes, thus informing where to focus extension efforts.


Asunto(s)
Agricultores , Ganado , Animales , Actitud , Australia , Bovinos , Humanos , Nueva Zelanda , Ovinos , España
16.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247981, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684148

RESUMEN

Stance markers are critical linguistic devices for writers to convey their personal attitudes, judgments or assessments about the proposition of certain messages. Following Hyland's framework of stance, this study investigated the distribution of stance markers in two different genres: medical research articles (medical RA) and newspaper opinion columns (newspaper OC). The corpus constructed for the investigation includes 52 medical research articles and 175 newspaper opinion articles, which were both written in English and published from January to April in 2020 with the topic focusing on COVID-19. The findings of this study demonstrated that the occurrences of stance markers in newspaper OC were far more frequent than those in medical RA, indicating the different conventions of these two genres. Despite the significant difference in the occurrences of stance markers between the two sub-corpora, similarities of the most frequent stance markers in two genres were also highlighted. The study indicated that the topic content seems to play an important role in shaping the way of how writers construct their stance. The lack of information or evidence on the topic of COVID-19 could restrain writers from making high degree of commitment to their claims, which make them adopt a more tentative stance to qualify their statements.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Investigación Biomédica , Lingüística , Periódicos como Asunto , Escritura , Humanos
17.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(3): 207-215, 2021 03.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687359

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The recent lockdown, resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, has had a strong social and psychological impact on the most fragile individuals and family structures. In the present work we investigated the experience of families without specific elements of social or health vulnerability during the quarantine period that occurred in the spring of 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between May and July 2020, 22 primary care pediatricians belonging to AUSL Romagna administered to a number of families a questionnaire to detect changes that occurred, during the lockdown, in family environment, school attendance and personal attitudes. RESULTS: A total of 721 questionnaires were collected, analyzing the associations between variables relating to home environment, daily rhythms, school and warning signs in relation to the age of children. As a result of the lockdown, family habits changed in 31% of cases, with a greater presence of the reference figure in 68% of these. Three out of four families reported they had sufficient domestic spaces, and nine out of ten had access to an outdoor, private or condominium space. Daily rhythms were preserved in 56.7% of cases; mood disorders appeared in 30% of adolescent children, followed by sleep, appetite and psychosomatic disorders. One in three children has made progress in terms of evolution and behavior, and one in 5 children has seen their relationships improve. The overall resilience of families during the lockdown period was considered good in 66.3%, sufficient in 31.3% and not satisfactory in only 2.4% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that, in the interviewed families, the simultaneous presence of adults and children at home has generally intensified. Families refer, on the whole, a positive and resilient behavior in the lockdown period, even if initial emotional problems are reported in one out of three children-adolescents. The ability to maintain a family organized structure seems to be partially compromised. Forced cohabitation leads to competition for the same resources of time and space and affects the entire family unit. The school institution emerges as a protective factor for children, young people and also for the well-being of families themselves.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Medicina Comunitaria , Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Pandemias , Pediatras , Psicología del Adolescente , Psicología Infantil , Cuarentena/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Actitud , Niño , Preescolar , Aglomeración/psicología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/epidemiología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/etiología , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Vivienda , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Trastornos del Humor/epidemiología , Trastornos del Humor/etiología , Padres/psicología , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos/epidemiología , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos/etiología , Instituciones Académicas , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/etiología
18.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(1): 20-27, 2021.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658460

RESUMEN

The role of dietitians is important for consumers to practice self-care, which includes the use of the "Foods with Function Claims (FFC)". In this study, a nationwide internet survey was conducted to clarify the understanding and attitudes of dietitians towards the FFC 1 year and 4 years after its introduction (Surveys were conducted in 2015 and 2019, respectively). In the survey of 1 year after the introduction, the ratio of recognition of the FFC was 98%; however, only 35% correctly understood the characteristics of the FFC. Similarly, in the survey of 4 year after the introduction, only 42% of dietitians correctly answered the characteristics. At 4 year after, 56% of dietitians currently or previously have used the FFC. The dietitians who had been consulted about the use of the FFC accounted for 22% and about the adverse events accounted for 15%. The advice they gave at the consultation differed according to their experience of the use of the FFC. Of the ones who never used the FFC, 25% referred no information sources for the FFC. The place to educate primarily working dietitians needs to be prepared to let them provide appropriate information to consumers to support self-care including the appropriate use of the FFC.


Asunto(s)
Nutricionistas , Actitud , Humanos , Derivación y Consulta , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e044753, 2021 03 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664080

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Describe the experiences and views of medical applicants from diverse social backgrounds following the closure of schools and universities and the cancellation of public examinations in the UK due to COVID-19. DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire study, part of the longitudinal UK Medical Applicant Cohort Study (UKMACS). SETTING: UK medical school admissions in 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 2887 participants completed an online questionnaire from 8 April to 22 April 2020. Eligible participants had registered to take the University Clinical Admissions Test in 2019 and agreed to be invited to take part, or had completed a previous UKMACS questionnaire, had been seriously considering applying to medicine in the UK for entry in 2020, and were UK residents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Views on calculated grades, views on medical school admissions and teaching in 2020 and 2021, reported experiences of education during the national lockdown. RESULTS: Respondents were concerned about the calculated grades that replaced A-level examinations: female and Black Asian and Minority Ethnic applicants felt teachers would find it difficult to grade and rank students accurately, and applicants from non-selective state schools and living in deprived areas had concerns about the standardisation process. Calculated grades were generally not considered fair enough to use in selection, but were considered fair enough to use in combination with other measures including interview and aptitude test scores. Respondents from non-selective state (public) schools reported less access to educational resources compared with private/selective school pupils, less online teaching in real time and less time studying during lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has and will have significant and long-term impacts on the selection, education and performance of our medical workforce. It is important that the views and experiences of applicants from diverse backgrounds are considered in decisions affecting their future and the future of the profession.


Asunto(s)
Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Facultades de Medicina/normas , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Actitud , Estudios de Cohortes , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670271

RESUMEN

The Chinese government has launched a digital health code system to detect people potentially exposed to the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease and to curb its spread. Citizens are required to show the health code on their smartphones when using public transport. However, many seniors are not allowed to use public transport due to their difficulties in obtaining health codes, leading to widespread debates about these unfair events. Traditionally, public perceptions and attitudes toward such unfair events are investigated using analytical methods based on interviews or questionnaires. This study crawled seven-month messages from Sina Weibo, the Chinese version of Twitter, and developed a hybrid approach integrating term-frequency-inverse-document-frequency, latent Dirichlet allocation, and sentiment classification. Results indicate that a rumor about the unfair treatment of elderly travelers triggered public concerns. Primary subjects of concern were the status quo of elderly travelers, the provision of transport services, and unfair event descriptions. Following the government's responses, people still had negative attitudes toward transport services, while they became more positive about the status quo of elderly travelers. These findings will guide government authorities to explore new forms of automated social control and to improve transport policies in terms of equity and fairness in future pandemics.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Políticas de Control Social/ética , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Transportes/ética , Anciano , China , Humanos , Pandemias , Viaje
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