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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444253

RESUMEN

Sufficient daily physical activity is associated with many positive mental, physical, and societal benefits in children. Unfortunately, most children worldwide do not achieve recommended levels of daily physical activity (PA), and a majority of evidence is from Western countries and based on subjective measures. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of objectively measured PA levels among Omani children in 2017 (pre-pandemic). A two-stage cluster sampling was used to recruit the 4th grade children across five regions of Oman. A final analytic sample included 1053 children (504 boys, 549 girls) with a mean age of 9.21 years old. PA was objectively measured using a wrist-worn Polar Active Watch during three consecutive school days. Screen-based sedentary behaviors and other PA-related behaviors were subjectively measured. On average, boys were less sedentary and more active, with a greater likelihood of meeting current recommendations when compared with girls. The self-reported time spent in screen-based sedentary behaviors was relatively low for both boys and girls and was not associated with PA; however, sports team participation was associated with a greater likelihood of meeting the current recommendation. The present study provides empirical data on objectively measured PA in Omani children. The gender disparities concerning daily PA, including sports team participation, should receive further attention.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Deportes , Acelerometría , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Actividad Motora , Instituciones Académicas , Conducta Sedentaria
2.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(1): 551, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340511

RESUMEN

The aim of the present study is to determine which acoustic components of harmonic consonance and dissonance influence automatic responses in a simple cognitive task. In a series of affective priming experiments, eight pairs of musical intervals were used to measure the influence of acoustic roughness and harmonicity on response times in a word-classification task conducted online. Interval pairs that contrasted in roughness induced a greater degree of affective priming than pairs that did not contrast in terms of their roughness. Contrasts in harmonicity did not induce affective priming. A follow-up experiment used detuned intervals to create higher levels of roughness contrasts. However, the detuning did not lead to any further increase in the size of the priming effect. More detailed analysis suggests that the presence of priming in intervals is binary: in the negative primes that create congruency effects the intervals' fundamentals and overtones coincide within the same equivalent rectangular bandwidth (i.e., the minor and major seconds). Intervals that fall outside this equivalent rectangular bandwidth do not elicit priming effects, regardless of their dissonance or negative affect. The results are discussed in the context of recent developments in consonance/dissonance research and vocal similarity.


Asunto(s)
Música , Acústica , Actividad Motora , Tiempo de Reacción
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1492, 2021 08 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340663

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Research indicates that childhood motor competence (MC) can predict physical activity (PA) levels later in life and it has been argued that frequently engaging in a wide diversity of physical activities will eventually improve children's MC. However, no longitudinal or experimental studies have confirmed this theoretical rationale. The aims of this study are to explore the longitudinal associations between diversified physical activities at age six and later MC and PA (time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA) (age nine and 13). Furthermore, we explore to what extent the longitudinal association between diversified physical activity and PA is mediated by MC. METHODS: Longitudinal data from the Copenhagen School Intervention Study were used for this analysis, where 704 participated (69% response rate). Diversified physical activity (self-reported), MC (The Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder battery of postural stability and locomotor skills) and PA (accelerometer) were assessed in the children at age six, age nine and age 13. A total of 654 participated in at least two of the measures and, therefore, were included in the analysis. Two structural equation models were constructed, with diversified physical activity at age six and MC and PA at age nine as predictors of PA and MC at age 13. RESULTS: The data from both models demonstrated good model fit. Diversified physical activity at 6 years of age was significantly associated with physical activity and MC at age 13, when adjusting for sex, age, intervention, weight, height, and previous levels of PA and MC. Diversified physical activity at age six was also positively associated with PA and MC at age nine, which were, in turn, positively related to PA at age 13 but to a lesser degree than diversified PA at age six. The association between diversified physical activity at age six and PA at age 13 was not mediated by MC at age nine. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that diversified physical activity at age six is important for the development of MC and PA in adolescence. Increasing the diversity of children's daily physical activities, not only the amount and intensity, seems important for future PA behavior and thereby health promotion in a life course perspective.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Destreza Motora , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Actividad Motora
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e049122, 2021 08 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373307

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine height changes in middle-aged northern European women in relation to overall and cardiovascular mortality. DESIGN: Population-based cohort studies with longitudinally measured heights and register-based mortality. SETTING: Sweden and Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Population-based samples of 2406 Swedish and Danish women born on selected years in 1908-1952, recruited to baseline examinations at ages 30-60, and re-examined 10-13 years later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) specific mortality during 17-19 years of follow-up after last height measure. RESULTS: For each 1 cm height loss during 10-13 years, the HR (95% CI) for total mortality was 1.14 (1.05 to 1.23) in Swedish women and 1.21 (1.09 to 1.35) in Danish women, independent of key covariates. Low height and high leisure time physical activity at baseline were protective of height loss, independent of age. Considering total mortality, the HR for major height loss, defined as height loss greater than 2 cm, were 1.74 (1.32 to 2.29) in Swedish women and 1.80 (1.27 to 2.54) in Danish women. Pooled analyses indicated that height loss was monotonically associated with an increased mortality, confirming a significant effect above 2 cm height loss. For cause-specific mortality, major height loss was associated with a HR of 2.31 (1.09 to 4.87) for stroke mortality, 2.14 (1.47 to 3.12) for total CVD mortality and 1.71 (1.28 to 2.29) for mortality due to causes other than CVD. CONCLUSION: Height loss is a marker for excess mortality in northern European women. Specifically the hazard of CVD mortality is increased in women with height loss during middle age, and the results suggest that the strongest cause-specific endpoint may be stroke mortality. The present findings suggest attention to height loss in early and mid-adulthood to identify women at high risk of CVD, and that regular physical activity may prevent early onset height loss.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad , Actividad Motora , Factores de Riesgo , Suecia/epidemiología
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443428

RESUMEN

Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural dietary polyphenol that has many beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, and neuroprotective effects. Studies have revealed that EA may modulate seizure activity in chemically induced animal models of seizures. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EA on the seizure threshold in two acute seizure tests in male mice, i.e., in the intravenous (i.v.) pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure test and in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test. The obtained results showed that EA (100 mg/kg) significantly elevated the threshold for both the first myoclonic twitch and generalized clonic seizure in the i.v. PTZ seizure test. At the highest dose tested (200 mg/kg), EA increased the threshold for tonic hindlimb extension in the MEST test. EA did not produce any significant changes in motor coordination (assessed in the chimney test) or muscular strength (investigated in the grip-strength test). The plasma and total brain concentration-time profiles of EA after intraperitoneal and oral administration were also determined. Although further studies are necessary to confirm the anticonvulsant activity of EA, our findings suggest that it may modulate seizure susceptibility in animal models.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Elágico/uso terapéutico , Convulsiones/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Aguda , Animales , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ácido Elágico/sangre , Ácido Elágico/farmacología , Masculino , Ratones , Actividad Motora/efectos de los fármacos , Fuerza Muscular/efectos de los fármacos , Pentilenotetrazol , Convulsiones/sangre , Convulsiones/inducido químicamente
6.
BMJ ; 374: n1743, 2021 08 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348957

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine multiple objective and self-reported measures of motor function for their associations with mortality. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: UK based Whitehall II cohort study, which recruited participants aged 35-55 years in 1985-88; motor function component was added at the 2007-09 wave. PARTICIPANTS: 6194 participants with motor function measures in 2007-09 (mean age 65.6, SD 5.9), 2012-13, and 2015-16. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality between 2007 and 2019 in relation to objective measures (walking speed, grip strength, and timed chair rises) and self-reported measures (physical component summary score of the SF-36 and limitations in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL)) of motor function. RESULTS: One sex specific standard deviation poorer motor function in 2007-09 (cases/total, 610/5645) was associated with an increased mortality risk of 22% (95% confidence interval 12% to 33%) for walking speed, 15% (6% to 25%) for grip strength, 14% (7% to 23%) for timed chair rises, and 17% (8% to 26%) for physical component summary score over a mean 10.6 year follow-up. Having basic/instrumental ADL limitations was associated with a 30% (7% to 58%) increased mortality risk. These associations were progressively stronger when measures were drawn from 2012-13 (mean follow-up 6.8 years) and 2015-16 (mean follow-up 3.7 years). Analysis of trajectories showed poorer motor function in decedents (n=484) than survivors (n=6194) up to 10 years before death for timed chair rises (standardised difference 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.59; equivalent to a 1.2 (men) and 1.3 (women) second difference), nine years for walking speed (0.21, 0.05 to 0.36; 5.5 (men) and 5.3 (women) cm/s difference), six years for grip strength (0.10, 0.01 to 0.20; 0.9 (men) and 0.6 (women) kg difference), seven years for physical component summary score (0.15, 0.05 to 0.25; 1.2 (men) and 1.6 (women) score difference), and four years for basic/instrumental ADL limitations (prevalence difference 2%, 0% to 4%). These differences increased in the period leading to death for timed chair rises, physical component summary score, and ADL limitations. CONCLUSION: Motor function in early old age has a robust association with mortality, with evidence of terminal decline emerging early in measures of overall motor function (timed chair rises and physical component summary score) and late in basic/instrumental ADL limitations.


Asunto(s)
Fuerza de la Mano/fisiología , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Velocidad al Caminar/fisiología , Actividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoinforme , Tasa de Supervivencia , Factores de Tiempo , Reino Unido
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360300

RESUMEN

Self-determined motivation (SDT) and self-efficacy theory have been widely used for understanding individuals' physical activity motivation and self-efficacy. However, there is a gap of evidence on the relations between SDT and multidimensional self-efficacy with device-measured physical activity in healthy adults. Questionnaires including the behavior regulation in exercise questionnaire version 2 (BREQ-2) and the multidimensional self-efficacy for exercise scale (MSES) were completed by the participants at baseline. All participants wore an accelerometer for seven days to record their physical activities at baseline and eight-week follow up. In total, thirty healthy adults completed the study (12 men, 18 women). The results showed that intrinsic motivation and scheduling self-efficacy had significantly positive associations with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity energy expenditure and duration. Multiple regression analysis showed that the relative autonomy index, task and scheduling efficacy could predict physical activity at baseline, but no SDT or self-efficacy variable could predict physical activity behavior after eight weeks. These results showed that the associations between motivation and self-efficacy with physical activity might change within a short period of time, which suggests that the regular assessment of motivation and self-efficacy might be needed in interventional programs to promote continued physical activity participation in healthy adults.


Asunto(s)
Motivación , Autoeficacia , Adulto , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Actividad Motora , Autonomía Personal , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360395

RESUMEN

Mass participation events are promoted in South Africa as a positive public health initiative. Parkrun has grown to be one of the most popular. The present study identifies the motives of residents in the Western Cape Province to join parkrun and how their involvement influences future physical activity levels. Participants (N = 1787) completed a survey consisting of demographic history, parkrun participation history, motivations for participation, and physical activity-related behaviour changes associated with parkrun participation. The majority of participants were female (n = 952) and over 50 years of age (median = 50; IQR = 38-59). Along with health-related benefits, the provision of a safe and organised event was reported as a key motive to participate. The social connectedness developed by parkrun encouraged continued participation and promoted uptake of more physical activity. Close to half the participants reported increases in physical activity levels after joining parkrun, which demonstrates the benefit obtained from participation in structured mass participation events. With the large diversity in socioeconomic status in South Africa related to physical activity levels, parkrun provides a protected and engaging environment that provides opportunity for increased physical activity and potentially reducing the burden on the healthcare system.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Motivación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Actividad Motora , Salud Pública , Sudáfrica
9.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 62, 2021 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193048

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Circadian patterns of migraine attacks have been reported by patients but remain understudied. In animal models, circadian phases are generally not taken into consideration. In particular, rodents are nocturnal animals, yet they are most often tested during their inactive phase during the day. This study aims to test the validity of CGRP-induced behavioral changes in mice by comparing responses during the active and inactive phases. METHODS: Male and female mice of the outbred CD1 strain were administered vehicle (PBS) or CGRP (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce migraine-like symptoms. Animals were tested for activity (homecage movement and voluntary wheel running), light aversive behavior, and spontaneous pain at different times of the day and night. RESULTS: Peripheral administration of CGRP decreased the activity of mice during the first hour after administration, induced light aversive behavior, and spontaneous pain during that same period of time. Both phenotypes were observed no matter what time of the day or night they were assessed. CONCLUSIONS: A decrease in wheel activity is an additional clinically relevant phenotype observed in this model, which is reminiscent of the reduction in normal physical activity observed in migraine patients. The ability of peripheral CGRP to induce migraine-like symptoms in mice is independent of the phase of the circadian cycle. Therefore, preclinical assessment of migraine-like phenotypes can likely be done during the more convenient inactive phase of mice.


Asunto(s)
Péptido Relacionado con Gen de Calcitonina , Trastornos Migrañosos , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Trastornos Migrañosos/inducido químicamente , Actividad Motora
10.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299631

RESUMEN

Efficient repetitive clinical use of morphine is limited by its numerous side effects, whereas analgesic tolerance necessitates subsequent increases in morphine dose to achieve adequate levels of analgesia. While many studies focused on analgesic tolerance, the effect of morphine dosing on non-analgesic effects has been overlooked. This study aimed to characterize morphine-induced behavior and the development and progression of morphine-induced behavioral tolerance. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were repetitively treated with subcutaneous morphine for 14 days in two dose groups (A: 5 mg/kg/day (b.i.d.) → 10 mg/kg/day; B: 10 mg/kg/day (b.i.d.) → 20 mg/kg/day). Motor behavior was assessed daily (distance traveled, speed, moving time, rearing, rotation) in an open-field arena, before and 30 min post-injections. Antinociception was measured using tail-flick and hot-plate assays. All measured parameters were highly suppressed in both dosing groups on the first treatment day, followed by a gradual manifestation of behavioral tolerance as the treatment progressed. Animals in the high-dose group showed increased locomotor activity after 10 days of morphine treatment. This excitatory phase converted to an inhibition of behavior when a higher morphine dose was introduced. We suggest that the excitatory locomotor effects of repetitive high-dose morphine exposure represent a signature of its behavioral and antinociceptive tolerance.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacología , Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Morfina/farmacología , Actividad Motora/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Masculino , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Dolor/fisiopatología , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105991, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293643

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Computer game assisted task specific exercises (CGATSE) are rehabilitation gaming systems (RGS) used in stroke rehabilitation to facilitate patient performance of high intensity, task based, repetitive exercises aiming to enhance neuroplasticity. CGATSE maybe an appealing option in home based rehabilitation of stroke patients, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to determine the effects of CGATSE on hemiplegic arm-hand function, cognitive function and quality of life in stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty stroke patients were randomized into two groups. All participants received twenty sessions of physical therapy. In addition, the therapy group undertook thirty minutes of CGATSE using the Rejoyce gaming system; while the control group undertook thirty minutes of occupational therapy (OT). Motor function was evaluated before and after treatment using the Fugl Meyer upper extremity (FMUE), Brunnstrom stages of stroke recovery (BSSR) arm and hand. The CGATSE group also completed the Rejoyce arm hand function test (RAHFT). Cognitive function was evaluated using the mini mental state examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Stroke Specific Quality of Life (SS-QOL) scale. RESULTS: The FMUE, BSSR arm and SSQOL improved in both groups (p < 0.05). BSSR of the hand improved only in the CGATSE group (p = 0.024). RAHFT scores improved in the CGATSE group (p = 0.008). MoCA scores significantly improved in the control group (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: CGATSE may be beneficial in providing continuation of care after stroke, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic when home based rehabilitation options are becoming increasingly important. Benefits of CGATSE in improving cognitive function is less clear. RGS aimed at improving motor function may be compared to gaming systems designed to target cognitive development and more detailed higher cortical function deficit tests can be used as outcome measures.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Terapia por Ejercicio , Actividad Motora , Calidad de Vida , Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular , Accidente Cerebrovascular/terapia , Telerrehabilitación , Extremidad Superior/inervación , Juegos de Video , Anciano , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Femenino , Estado Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recuperación de la Función , Accidente Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico , Accidente Cerebrovascular/fisiopatología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/psicología , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Turquia
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 284: 114235, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311392

RESUMEN

The increasing ubiquity of smartphones provides a potential new data source to capture physical activity behaviours. Though not designed as a research tool, these secondary data have the potential to capture a large population over a more extensive spatial area and with longer temporality than current methods afford. This paper uses one such secondary data source from a commercial app designed to incentivise activity. We explore the new insights these data provide, alongside the sociodemographic profile of those using physical activity apps, to gain insight into both physical activity behaviour and determinants of app usage in order to evaluate the suitability of the app in providing insights into the physical activity of the population. We find app usage to be higher in females, those aged 25-50, and users more likely to live in areas where a higher proportion of the population are of a lower socioeconomic status. We ascertain longer-term patterns of app usage with increasing age and more male users reaching physical activity guideline recommendations despite longer daily activity duration recorded by female users. Additionally, we identify key weekly and seasonal trends in physical activity. This is one of the first studies to utilise a large volume of secondary physical activity app data to co-investigate usage alongside activity behaviour captured.


Asunto(s)
Aplicaciones Móviles , Teléfono Inteligente , Demografía , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Actividad Motora
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300515

RESUMEN

Combining accelerometry from multiple independent activity monitors worn by the same subject have gained widespread interest with the assessment of physical activity behavior. However, a difference in the real time clock accuracy of the activity monitor introduces a substantial temporal misalignment with long duration recordings which is commonly not considered. In this study, a novel method not requiring human interaction is described for the temporal alignment of triaxial acceleration measured with two independent activity monitors and evaluating the performance with the misalignment manually identified. The method was evaluated with free-living recordings using both combined wrist/hip (n = 9) and thigh/hip device (n = 30) wear locations, and descriptive data on initial offset and accumulated day 7 drift in a large-scale population-based study (n = 2513) were calculated. The results from the Bland-Altman analysis show good agreement between the proposed algorithm and the reference suggesting that the described method is valid for reducing the temporal misalignment and thus reduce the measurement error with aggregated data. Applying the algorithm to the n = 2513 samples worn for 7-days suggest a wide and substantial issue with drift over time when each subject wears two independent activity monitors.


Asunto(s)
Acelerometría , Monitores de Ejercicio , Aceleración , Humanos , Actividad Motora , Muñeca
14.
Redox Biol ; 45: 102054, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198070

RESUMEN

Nucleoredoxin is a thioredoxin-like redoxin that has been recognized as redox modulator of WNT signaling. Using a Yeast-2-Hybrid screen, we identified calcium calmodulin kinase 2a, Camk2a, as a prominent prey in a brain library. Camk2a is crucial for nitric oxide dependent processes of neuronal plasticity of learning and memory. Therefore, the present study assessed functions of NXN in neuronal Nestin-NXN-/- deficient mice. The NXN-Camk2a interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation, and by colocalization in neuropil and dendritic spines. Functionally, Camk2a activity was reduced in NXN deficient neurons and restored with recombinant NXN. Proteomics revealed reduced oxidation in the hippocampus of Nestin-NXN-/- deficient mice, including Camk2a, further synaptic and mitochondrial proteins, and was associated with a reduction of mitochondrial respiration. Nestin-NXN-/- mice were healthy and behaved normally in behavioral tests of anxiety, activity and sociability. They had no cognitive deficits in touchscreen based learning & memory tasks, but omitted more trials showing a lower interest in the reward. They also engaged less in rewarding voluntary wheel running, and in exploratory behavior in IntelliCages. Accuracy was enhanced owing to the loss of exploration. The data suggested that NXN maintained the oxidative state of Camk2a and thereby its activity. In addition, it supported oxidation of other synaptic and mitochondrial proteins, and mitochondrial respiration. The loss of NXN-dependent pro-oxidative functions manifested in a loss of exploratory drive and reduced interest in reward in behaving mice.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Exploratoria , Actividad Motora , Oxidorreductasas/genética , Animales , Proteína Quinasa Tipo 2 Dependiente de Calcio Calmodulina , Hipocampo , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Noqueados , Nestina , Neuronas
15.
Gene ; 799: 145811, 2021 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224829

RESUMEN

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder with motor symptoms linked to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. α-Synuclein is an aggregation-prone neural protein that plays a role in the pathogenesis of PD. In our previous paper, we found that saffron; the stigma of Crocus sativus Linné (Iridaceae), and its constituents (crocin and crocetin) suppressed aggregation of α-synuclein and promoted the dissociation of α-synuclein fibrils in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary saffron and its constituent, crocetin, in vivo on a fly PD model overexpressing several mutant α-synuclein in a tissue-specific manner. Saffron and crocetin significantly suppressed the decrease of climbing ability in the Drosophila overexpressing A30P (A30P fly PD model) or G51D (G51D fly PD model) mutated α-synuclein in neurons. Saffron and crocetin extended the life span in the G51D fly PD model. Saffron suppressed the rough-eyed phenotype and the dispersion of the size histogram of the ocular long axis in the eye of A30P fly PD model. Saffron had a cytoprotective effect on a human neuronal cell line with α-synuclein fibrils. These data showed that saffron and its constituent crocetin have protective effects on the progression of PD disease in animals in vivo and suggest that saffron and crocetin can be used to treat PD.


Asunto(s)
Carotenoides/farmacología , Crocus/química , Actividad Motora/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedad de Parkinson/etiología , Degeneración Retiniana/tratamiento farmacológico , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados , Animales , Animales Modificados Genéticamente , Línea Celular , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Longevidad/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Mutación , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Neuronas/patología , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/farmacología , Enfermedad de Parkinson/tratamiento farmacológico , Degeneración Retiniana/etiología , Degeneración Retiniana/fisiopatología , Vitamina A/farmacología , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/toxicidad
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199295

RESUMEN

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), a hereditary and lethal neurodegenerative disease, is attributed to the abnormal accumulation of undegradable polyglutamine (polyQ), which is encoded by mutated ataxin-3 gene (ATXN3). The toxic fragments processed from mutant ATXN3 can induce neuronal death, leading to the muscular incoordination of the human body. Some treatment strategies of SCA3 are preferentially focused on depleting the abnormal aggregates, which led to the discovery of small molecule n-butylidenephthalide (n-BP). n-BP-promoted autophagy protected the loss of Purkinje cell in the cerebellum that regulates the network associated with motor functions. We report that the n-BP treatment may be effective in treating SCA3 disease. n-BP treatment led to the depletion of mutant ATXN3 with the expanded polyQ chain and the toxic fragments resulting in increased metabolic activity and alleviated atrophy of SCA3 murine cerebellum. Furthermore, n-BP treated animal and HEK-293GFP-ATXN3-84Q cell models could consistently show the depletion of aggregates through mTOR inhibition. With its unique mechanism, the two autophagic inhibitors Bafilomycin A1 and wortmannin could halt the n-BP-induced elimination of aggregates. Collectively, n-BP shows promising results for the treatment of SCA3.


Asunto(s)
Autofagia , Enfermedad de Machado-Joseph/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad de Machado-Joseph/patología , Anhídridos Ftálicos/uso terapéutico , Transducción de Señal , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo , Adenilato Quinasa/metabolismo , Animales , Ataxina-3/genética , Autofagia/efectos de los fármacos , Cerebelo/patología , Femenino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedad de Machado-Joseph/fisiopatología , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Actividad Motora/efectos de los fármacos , Mutación/genética , Anhídridos Ftálicos/farmacología , Agregado de Proteínas/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Células de Purkinje/efectos de los fármacos , Células de Purkinje/patología , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203691

RESUMEN

Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with both locomotor and cognitive decline, typically linked to chronic systemic inflammation, i.e., inflammaging. In the current study, we investigated the effect of a two-month oral supplementation with standardized extracts of H. erinaceus, containing a known amount of Erinacine A, Hericenone C, Hericenone D, and L-ergothioneine, on locomotor frailty and cerebellum of aged mice. Locomotor performances were monitored comparing healthy aging and frail mice. Cerebellar volume and cytoarchitecture, together with inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways, were assessed focusing on senescent frail animals. H. erinaceus partially recovered the aged-related decline of locomotor performances. Histopathological analyses paralleled by immunocytochemical evaluation of specific molecules strengthened the neuroprotective role of H. erinaceus able to ameliorate cerebellar alterations, i.e., milder volume reduction, slighter molecular layer thickness decrease and minor percentage of shrunken Purkinje neurons, also diminishing inflammation and oxidative stress in frail mice while increasing a key longevity regulator and a neuroprotective molecule. Thus, our present findings demonstrated the efficacy of a non-pharmacological approach, based on the dietary supplementation using H. erinaceus extract, which represent a promising adjuvant therapy to be associated with conventional geriatric treatments.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento Saludable/fisiología , Hericium/metabolismo , Neuroprotección , Animales , Ciclooxigenasa 2/metabolismo , Fragilidad/metabolismo , Fragilidad/fisiopatología , Proteína Ácida Fibrilar de la Glía/metabolismo , Envejecimiento Saludable/efectos de los fármacos , Subunidad alfa del Factor 1 Inducible por Hipoxia/metabolismo , Inflamación/patología , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Actividad Motora/efectos de los fármacos , Neuroprotección/efectos de los fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Sirtuina 1/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299230

RESUMEN

The precise neural mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of depression are largely unknown, though stress-induced brain inflammation and serotonergic plasticity are thought to be centrally involved. Moreover, we previously demonstrated that neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2) overexpression provokes depressive-like behaviors in mice. Here, we assess whether NPFFR2 is involved in priming of depressive-like behaviors and downregulation of serotonergic 1A receptor (5HT1AR) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. The forced swimming test (FST) and sucrose preference test (SPT) were used to quantify depressive-like phenotypes in wild-type (WT) and NPFFR2-knockout (KO) mice. A single dose of LPS (i.p. 1 mg/kg) readily caused increases in toll-like receptor 4 and tumor necrosis factor-α along with decreases in 5-HT1AR mRNA in the ventral hippocampus of WT mice. Furthermore, LPS treatment of WT mice increased immobility time in FST and decreased sucrose preference in SPT. In contrast, none of these effects were observed in NPFFR2-KO mice. While WT mice injected with lentiviral 5-HT1AR shRNA in the ventral hippocampus displayed an unaltered response after LPS challenge, LPS-challenged NPFFR2-KO mice displayed a profound decrease in sucrose preference when pretreated with 5-HT1AR shRNA. Taken together, these results suggest that NPFFR2 modulates LPS-induced depressive-like behavioral phenotypes by downregulating 5HT1AR in the ventral hippocampus.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/genética , Receptor de Serotonina 5-HT1A/metabolismo , Receptores de Neuropéptido/genética , Animales , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Depresión/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Lipopolisacáridos/efectos adversos , Lipopolisacáridos/farmacología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Noqueados , Actividad Motora/efectos de los fármacos , Receptor de Serotonina 5-HT1A/genética , Receptores de Neuropéptido/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 4/metabolismo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 20(7): 374-383, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234093

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Children with obesity experience musculoskeletal pain and reduced physical function and well-being, which collectively impact their fitness, strength, motor skills, and even their ability to undertake simple tasks, like walking and climbing stairs. Disrupting obesity-related disability may be critical to increasing children's physical activity. Thus, barriers to movement should be considered by health practitioners to improve the efficacy of prescribed physical activity. This applied clinical review highlights key subjective and objective findings from a hypothetical case scenario, linking those findings to the research evidence, before exploring strategies to enhance movement and increase physical activity.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Obesidad Pediátrica/rehabilitación , Aptitud Física , Actigrafía/estadística & datos numéricos , Ciclismo , Niño , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Pie Plano/diagnóstico , Análisis de la Marcha , Genu Valgum/diagnóstico , Alfabetización en Salud , Humanos , Actividad Motora , Destreza Motora , Movimiento , Fuerza Muscular , Dolor Musculoesquelético/diagnóstico , Obesidad Pediátrica/complicaciones , Examen Físico , Familia de Padres Solteros , Natación
20.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 863, 2021 07 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267313

RESUMEN

Organisms comprise multiple interacting parts, but few quantitative studies have analysed multi-element systems, limiting understanding of phenotypic evolution. We investigate how disparity of vertebral morphology varies along the axial column of mammalian carnivores - a chain of 27 subunits - and the extent to which morphological variation have been structured by evolutionary constraints and locomotory adaptation. We find that lumbars and posterior thoracics exhibit high individual disparity but low serial differentiation. They are pervasively recruited into locomotory functions and exhibit relaxed evolutionary constraint. More anterior vertebrae also show signals of locomotory adaptation, but nevertheless have low individual disparity and constrained patterns of evolution, characterised by low-dimensional shape changes. Our findings demonstrate the importance of the thoracolumbar region as an innovation enabling evolutionary versatility of mammalian locomotion. Moreover, they underscore the complexity of phenotypic macroevolution of multi-element systems and that the strength of ecomorphological signal does not have a predictable influence on macroevolutionary outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica/fisiología , Evolución Biológica , Carnivoría/fisiología , Locomoción/fisiología , Mamíferos/fisiología , Columna Vertebral/fisiología , Análisis de Varianza , Animales , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Columna Vertebral/anatomía & histología , Columna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Factores de Tiempo , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Microtomografía por Rayos X
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