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1.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47944

RESUMEN

Neste mês de outubro, relembramos a importância do combate ao câncer de mama e sempre faço uma correlação com o esporte para vocês entenderem que sim, estão conectados


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Actividad Motora
2.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47917

RESUMEN

Infográficos sobre alimentos e hábitos saudáveis também serão divulgados pelo Instituto durante semana comemorativa do Dia Mundial da Alimentação


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias/prevención & control , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Actividad Motora
3.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200099, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053092

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal trend of practicing physical exercise and sports during leisure time in adults in São Paulo between 2006 to 2016. METHODS: Time series analysis study using the VIGITEL System. Adding up the number of people who participated each year, a total 21,357 people were studied. Analyzes of the physical exercises and sports practiced during leisure time (yes or no) stratified by sex, age and education were performed. The prevalences and the differences for all of the years were calculated using the Prains-Winster regression. RESULTS: Practice of physical exercises or sports increased by 7.9 percentage points in the period (p = 0.003) (from 39.9% 95%CI 37.4 - 42.4 to 47.8% 95%CI 45.2 - 50.4). There was a significant increase for women (p = 0.011), for people between 18-24 years old (p = 0.001), 25-34 years old (p = 0.003), 45-54 years old (p = 0.003), and for people with up to eight years of schooling (p = 0.010). There was a decrease in walking and playing soccer and there was an increase in doing gymnastics. CONCLUSION: There was an increase in the practice of physical exercise and sports during leisure time in adults from São Paulo. These increases were observed mainly in women, in people between 18 and 34 years old, between 45 and 54 years old, and in people with up to eight years of schooling. These results are important, as they have shown an increase in general and in more vulnerable groups, and may be related to environmental changes and interventions that have occurred in the city in the last 15 years.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Actividades Recreativas , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Actividad Motora , Adulto Joven
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1469, 2020 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993602

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the association between physical activity (PA) and various causes of mortality in Korea. The aim of our study was to evaluate mortality and causes of death between PA and insufficient PA using Korean national cohort data. METHODS: The health screening cohort data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort from 2009 to 2015 were used. 'PA' was determined if participants walked or performed moderate-intensity activity ≥5 d/week for ≥30 min, or vigorous-intensity activity ≥3 d/week for ≥20 min. Other participants were classified as 'insufficient PA'. The PA and insufficient PA groups were matched by age, sex, income, and region of residence in a 1:1 ratio. Causes of death were classified into 13 categories. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all mortality rates were analyzed using a stratified Cox proportional hazard model. Age, sex, income, and region of residence were stratified. Subgroup analyses were performed according to age, sex, and obesity status. The odds ratio according to the causes of death was calculated by the chi-square test. RESULTS: The adjusted HR for mortality in the PA group was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.82-0.88). In subgroup analyses according to age, sex, and obesity status, results were consistent with the main findings in < 60-year-old females, ≥ 60-year-old males and females, and in all subgroups by obesity. The death rate by neoplasm, mental diseases, neurologic disease, circulatory disease, respiratory disease, digestive disease, abnormal finding, and trauma were lower in the PA than the insufficient PA group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PA is inversely associated with mortality caused specifically by diseases reflected by mental, respiratory, cancer, and cardiovascular conditions. Additionally, PA is inversely associated with mortality compared to insufficient PA in all obesity status.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/mortalidad , Ejercicio Físico , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Conducta Sedentaria , Adulto , Anciano , Causas de Muerte , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Actividad Motora , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , República de Corea
7.
Phys Ther ; 100(10): 1825-1851, 2020 09 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949239

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are reported to have lower levels of strength and anaerobic capacity. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify field-based tests for strength and anaerobic capacity used in studies comparing children with DCD and children who were typically developing (TD), (2) examine the methodological quality of studies reporting psychometric properties and rate the psychometric properties of the examined test, and (3) summarize available evidence by combining the methodological quality of the studies and the quality of the psychometric properties of the test. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted in July 2019 in 4 electronic databases. For purpose 1, primary studies were included with no exclusion of study design in which children aged 4 to 18 years with DCD were compared with children who were TD on strength and/or anaerobic capacity measures. For purpose 2, primary studies were included with no exclusion of study design in which a psychometric property was investigated. The Consensus-Based Standards for Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the 34 studies and rate the psychometric properties of the tests used. RESULTS: Hand-held dynamometer, bent knee push-up, vertical jump, standing long-jump, functional strength measurement, fitness test, and test battery can be recommended for TD, and the shuttle run item of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition and 10 m × 5 m sprints (straight and slalom) can be recommended for DCD. CONCLUSION: Information regarding psychometric properties of field-based tests for strength and anaerobic capacity in children with DCD is lacking. IMPACT: Information about the psychometric properties of field-based tests for strength and anaerobic capacity in children with DCD is lacking. More information is available on TD children, but it is also not complete; information regarding validity and responsiveness, especially, is missing. When using measures in children with DCD, it is important to keep in mind this lack of evidence for the validity and reliability of the outcomes for this target group.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil , Trastornos de la Destreza Motora/rehabilitación , Destreza Motora/fisiología , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Trastornos de la Destreza Motora/fisiopatología , Resistencia Física
8.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003222, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956407

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Treatment with corticosteroids is recommended for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients to slow the progression of weakness. However, chronic corticosteroid treatment causes significant morbidities. Vamorolone is a first-in-class anti-inflammatory investigational drug that has shown evidence of efficacy in DMD after 24 weeks of treatment at 2.0 or 6.0 mg/kg/day. Here, open-label efficacy and safety experience of vamorolone was evaluated over a period of 18 months in trial participants with DMD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A multicenter, open-label, 24-week trial (VBP15-003) with a 24-month long-term extension (VBP15-LTE) was conducted by the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group (CINRG) and evaluated drug-related effects of vamorolone on motor outcomes and corticosteroid-associated safety concerns. The study was carried out in Canada, US, UK, Australia, Sweden, and Israel, from 2016 to 2019. This report covers the initial 24-week trial and the first 12 months of the VBP15-LTE trial (total treatment period 18 months). DMD trial participants (males, 4 to <7 years at entry) treated with 2.0 or 6.0 mg/kg/day vamorolone for the full 18-month period (n = 23) showed clinical improvement of all motor outcomes from baseline to month 18 (time to stand velocity, p = 0.012 [95% CI 0.010, 0.068 event/second]; run/walk 10 meters velocity, p < 0.001 [95% CI 0.220, 0.491 meters/second]; climb 4 stairs velocity, p = 0.001 [95% CI 0.034, 0.105 event/second]; 6-minute walk test, p = 0.001 [95% CI 31.14, 93.38 meters]; North Star Ambulatory Assessment, p < 0.001 [95% CI 2.702, 6.662 points]). Outcomes in vamorolone-treated DMD patients (n = 46) were compared to group-matched participants in the CINRG Duchenne Natural History Study (corticosteroid-naïve, n = 19; corticosteroid-treated, n = 68) over a similar 18-month period. Time to stand was not significantly different between vamorolone-treated and corticosteroid-naïve participants (p = 0.088; least squares [LS] mean 0.042 [95% CI -0.007, 0.091]), but vamorolone-treated participants showed significant improvement compared to group-matched corticosteroid-naïve participants for run/walk 10 meters velocity (p = 0.003; LS mean 0.286 [95% CI 0.104, 0.469]) and climb 4 stairs velocity (p = 0.027; LS mean 0.059 [95% CI 0.007, 0.111]). The vamorolone-related improvements were similar in magnitude to corticosteroid-related improvements. Corticosteroid-treated participants showed stunting of growth, whereas vamorolone-treated trial participants did not (p < 0.001; LS mean 15.86 [95% CI 8.51, 23.22]). Physician-reported incidences of adverse events (AEs) for Cushingoid appearance, hirsutism, weight gain, and behavior change were less for vamorolone than published incidences for prednisone and deflazacort. Key limitations to the study were the open-label design, and use of external comparators. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that vamorolone treatment was associated with improvements in some motor outcomes as compared with corticosteroid-naïve individuals over an 18-month treatment period. We found that fewer physician-reported AEs occurred with vamorolone than have been reported for treatment with prednisone and deflazacort, and that vamorolone treatment did not cause the stunting of growth seen with these corticosteroids. This Phase IIa study provides Class III evidence to support benefit of motor function in young boys with DMD treated with vamorolone 2.0 to 6.0 mg/kg/day, with a favorable safety profile. A Phase III RCT is underway to further investigate safety and efficacy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov, and the links to each trial are as follows (as provided in manuscript text): VBP15-002 [NCT02760264] VBP15-003 [NCT02760277] VBP15-LTE [NCT03038399].


Asunto(s)
Actividad Motora/efectos de los fármacos , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/tratamiento farmacológico , Pregnadienodioles/uso terapéutico , Corticoesteroides/efectos adversos , Niño , Preescolar , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Glucocorticoides/efectos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Prednisona/uso terapéutico , Pregnadienodioles/metabolismo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Caminata/fisiología
9.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000820, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866173

RESUMEN

Mutations in the gene encoding the microtubule-severing protein spastin (spastic paraplegia 4 [SPG4]) cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), associated with neurodegeneration, spasticity, and motor impairment. Complicated forms (complicated HSP [cHSP]) further include cognitive deficits and dementia; however, the etiology and dysfunctional mechanisms of cHSP have remained unknown. Here, we report specific working and associative memory deficits upon spastin depletion in mice. Loss of spastin-mediated severing leads to reduced synapse numbers, accompanied by lower miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequencies. At the subcellular level, mutant neurons are characterized by longer microtubules with increased tubulin polyglutamylation levels. Notably, these conditions reduce kinesin-microtubule binding, impair the processivity of kinesin family protein (KIF) 5, and reduce the delivery of presynaptic vesicles and postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. Rescue experiments confirm the specificity of these results by showing that wild-type spastin, but not the severing-deficient and disease-associated K388R mutant, normalizes the effects at the synaptic, microtubule, and transport levels. In addition, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated reduction of tubulin polyglutamylation on spastin knockout background normalizes KIF5 transport deficits and attenuates the loss of excitatory synapses. Our data provide a mechanism that connects spastin dysfunction with the regulation of kinesin-mediated cargo transport, synapse integrity, and cognition.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Glutámico/metabolismo , Cinesina/metabolismo , Trastornos de la Memoria/metabolismo , Trastornos de la Memoria/fisiopatología , Memoria a Corto Plazo , Neuronas/metabolismo , Espastina/deficiencia , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Potenciales de Acción , Animales , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Espinas Dendríticas/metabolismo , Espinas Dendríticas/ultraestructura , Potenciales Postsinápticos Excitadores , Hipocampo/patología , Hipocampo/fisiopatología , Ratones Noqueados , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/ultraestructura , Actividad Motora , Neuronas/patología , Neuronas/ultraestructura , Transporte de Proteínas , Espastina/metabolismo , Sinapsis/metabolismo , Sinapsis/ultraestructura , Vesículas Sinápticas/metabolismo
10.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 144(3): 119-122, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921392

RESUMEN

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by apoptotic death of mature oligodendrocytes, neuroinflammation, and motor dysfunction. A pentacyclic triterpenoid compound, ursolic acid (UA), has various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of UA on cuprizone-induced demyelination, which is a model of MS. Oral administration of UA effectively suppressed cuprizone-induced demyelination and motor dysfunction via the enhancement of IGF-1 levels in the demyelinating lesions. Our results suggest that UA might be therapeutically useful for demyelination in MS.


Asunto(s)
Cuprizona/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Desmielinizantes/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Desmielinizantes/genética , Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/genética , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Actividad Motora/efectos de los fármacos , Actividad Motora/genética , Esclerosis Múltiple/tratamiento farmacológico , Esclerosis Múltiple/genética , Triterpenos/administración & dosificación , Triterpenos/farmacología , Regulación hacia Arriba/efectos de los fármacos , Administración Oral , Animales , Enfermedades Desmielinizantes/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Desmielinizantes/fisiopatología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ratones , Esclerosis Múltiple/inducido químicamente , Esclerosis Múltiple/fisiopatología
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD009233, 2020 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885841

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Impairment of vision is associated with a decrease in activities of daily living. Avoidance of physical activity in older adults with visual impairment can lead to functional decline and is an important risk factor for falls. The rate of falls and fractures is higher in older people with visual impairment than in age-matched visually normal older people. Possible interventions to reduce activity restriction and prevent falls include environmental and behavioral interventions. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of environmental and behavioral interventions in reducing physical activity limitation, preventing falls and improving quality of life amongst visually impaired older people. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (including the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (Issue 2, 2020), Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and eight other databases to 4 February 2020, with no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized controlled trials (Q-RCTs) that compared environmental interventions, behavioral interventions or both, versus control (usual care or no intervention); or that compared different types of environmental or behavioral interventions. Eligible study populations were older people (aged 60 and over) with irreversible visual impairment, living in their own homes or in residential settings. To be eligible for inclusion, studies must have included a measure of physical activity or falls, the two primary outcomes of interest. Secondary outcomes included fear of falling, and quality of life. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs (686 participants) conducted in five countries (Australia, Hungary, New Zealand, UK, US) with follow-up periods ranging from two to 12 months. Participants in these trials included older adults (mean age 80 years) and were mostly female (69%), with visual impairments of varying severity and underlying causes. Participants mostly lived in their homes and were physically independent. We classified all trials as having high risk of bias for masking of participants, and three trials as having high or unclear risk of bias for all other domains. The included trials evaluated various intervention strategies (e.g. an exercise program versus home safety modifications). Heterogeneity of study characteristics, including interventions and outcomes, (e.g. different fall measures), precluded any meta-analysis. Two trials compared the home safety modification by occupational therapists versus social/home visits. One trial (28 participants) reported physical activity at six months and showed no evidence of a difference in mean estimates between groups (step counts: mean difference (MD) = 321, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1981 to 2623; average walking time (minutes): MD 1.70, 95% CI -24.03 to 27.43; telephone questionnaire for self-reported physical activity: MD -3.68 scores, 95% CI -20.6 to 13.24; low-certainty of evidence for each outcome). Two trials reported the proportion of participants who fell at six months (risk ratio (RR) 0.76, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.51; 28 participants) and 12 months (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.80, 196 participants) with low-certainty of evidence for each outcome. One trial (28 participants) reported fear of falling at six months, using the Short Falls Efficacy Scale-International, and found no evidence of a difference in mean estimates between groups (MD 2.55 scores, 95% CI -0.51 to 5.61; low-certainty of evidence). This trial also reported quality of life at six months using 12-Item Short Form Health Survey, and showed no evidence of a difference in mean estimates between groups (MD -3.14 scores, 95% CI -10.86 to 4.58; low-certainty of evidence). Five trials compared a behavioral intervention (exercise) versus usual activity or social/home visits. One trial (59 participants) assessed self-reported physical activity at six months and showed no evidence of a difference between groups (MD 9.10 scores, 95% CI -13.85 to 32.5; low-certainty of evidence). Three trials investigated different fall measures at six or 12 months, and found no evidence of a difference in effect estimates (RRs for proportion of fallers ranged from 0.54 (95% CI 0.29 to 1.01; 41 participants); to 0.93 (95% CI 0.61 to 1.39; 120 participants); low-certainty of evidence for each outcome). Three trials assessed the fear of falling using Short Falls Efficacy Scale-International or the Illinois Fear of Falling Measure from two to 12 months, and found no evidence of a difference in mean estimates between groups (the estimates ranged from -0.88 score (95% CI -2.72 to 0.96, 114 participants) to 1.00 score (95% CI -0.13 to 2.13; 59 participants); low-certainty of evidence). One trial (59 participants) assessed the European Quality of Life scale at six months (MD -0.15 score, 95% CI -0.29 to -0.01), and found no evidence of a clinical difference between groups (low-certainty of evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence of effect for most of the environmental or behavioral interventions studied for reducing physical activity limitation and preventing falls in visually impaired older people. The certainty of evidence is generally low due to poor methodological quality and heterogeneous outcome measurements. Researchers should form a consensus to adopt standard ways of measuring physical activity and falls reliably in older people with visual impairments. Fall prevention trials should plan to use objectively measured or self-reported physical activity as outcome measures of reduced activity limitation. Future research should evaluate the acceptability and applicability of interventions, and use validated questionnaires to assess the adherence to rehabilitative strategies and performance during activities of daily living.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Vida Independiente , Actividad Motora , Personas con Daño Visual/rehabilitación , Accidentes por Caídas/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Sesgo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4228, 2020 08 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839445

RESUMEN

Grid and head direction codes represent cognitive spaces for navigation and memory. Pure grid cells generate grid codes that have been assumed to be independent of head direction, whereas conjunctive cells generate grid representations that are tuned to a single head direction. Here, we demonstrate that pure grid cells also encode head direction, but through distinct mechanisms. We show that individual firing fields of pure grid cells are tuned to multiple head directions, with the preferred sets of directions differing between fields. This local directional modulation is not predicted by previous continuous attractor or oscillatory interference models of grid firing but is accounted for by models in which pure grid cells integrate inputs from co-aligned conjunctive cells with firing rates that differ between their fields. We suggest that local directional signals from grid cells may contribute to downstream computations by decorrelating different points of view from the same location.


Asunto(s)
Potenciales de Acción/fisiología , Corteza Entorrinal/fisiología , Células de Red/fisiología , Cabeza/fisiología , Neuronas/fisiología , Animales , Simulación por Computador , Electrofisiología/instrumentación , Electrofisiología/métodos , Corteza Entorrinal/citología , Femenino , Masculino , Ratones , Modelos Neurológicos , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Ratas
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235232, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735618

RESUMEN

The tamoxifen-dependent Cre/lox system in transgenic mice has become an important research tool across all scientific disciplines for manipulating gene expression in specific cell types. In these mouse models, Cre-recombination is not induced until tamoxifen is administered, which allows researchers to have temporal control of genetic modifications. Interestingly, tamoxifen has been identified as a potential therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury patients due to its neuroprotective properties. It is also reparative in that it stimulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and remyelination after toxin-induced demyelination. However, it is unknown whether tamoxifen is neuroprotective and neuroreparative when administration is delayed after SCI. To properly interpret data from transgenic mice in which tamoxifen treatment is delayed after SCI, it is necessary to identify the effects of tamoxifen alone on anatomical and functional recovery. In this study, female and male mice received a moderate mid-thoracic spinal cord contusion. Mice were then gavaged with corn oil or a high dose of tamoxifen from 19-22 days post-injury, and sacrificed 42 days post-injury. All mice underwent behavioral testing for the duration of the study, which revealed that tamoxifen treatment did not impact hindlimb motor recovery. Similarly, histological analyses revealed that tamoxifen had no effect on white matter sparing, total axon number, axon sprouting, glial reactivity, cell proliferation, oligodendrocyte number, or myelination, but tamoxifen did decrease the number of neurons in the dorsal and ventral horn. Semi-thin sections confirmed that axon demyelination and remyelination were unaffected by tamoxifen. Sex-specific responses to tamoxifen were also assessed, and there were no significant differences between female and male mice. These data suggest that delayed tamoxifen administration after SCI does not change functional recovery or improve tissue sparing in female or male mice.


Asunto(s)
Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Remielinización/efectos de los fármacos , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/tratamiento farmacológico , Tamoxifeno/administración & dosificación , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Administración Oral , Animales , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Miembro Posterior/inervación , Miembro Posterior/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Actividad Motora/efectos de los fármacos , Neurogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Oligodendroglía/efectos de los fármacos , Recuperación de la Función/efectos de los fármacos , Factores Sexuales , Asta Dorsal de la Médula Espinal/citología , Asta Dorsal de la Médula Espinal/efectos de los fármacos , Asta Ventral de la Médula Espinal/citología , Asta Ventral de la Médula Espinal/efectos de los fármacos
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4026, 2020 08 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788604

RESUMEN

Physical fatigue crucially influences our decisions to partake in effortful action. However, there is a limited understanding of how fatigue impacts effort-based decision-making at the level of brain and behavior. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging to record markers of brain activity while human participants engage in uncertain choices for prospective physical effort, before and after bouts of exertion. Using computational modeling of choice behavior we find that fatiguing exertions cause participants to increase their subjective cost of effort, compared to a baseline/rested state. We describe a mechanism by which signals related to motor cortical state in premotor cortex influence effort value computations, instantiated by insula, thereby increasing an individual's subjective valuation of prospective physical effort while fatigued. Our findings provide a neurobiological account of how information about bodily state modulates decisions to engage in physical activity.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Conducta de Elección , Fatiga/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeo Encefálico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Esfuerzo Físico , Adulto Joven
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237860, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834008

RESUMEN

In a previous study we have shown that patients with long standing non-specific neck-pain display more rigid neck movement behavior than controls in response to unpredictable perturbations. In the present study we investigated head/neck motor control in patients with neck-pain during a course of physiotherapy intervention and the associations with pain, neck disability and kinesiophobia. In this longitudinal observational study, 72 patients with non-specific neck-pain were exposed to unpredictable horizontal rotations by means of an actuated chair in three conditions; with a visual reference, and without vision with and without a cognitive task before first consultation with physiotherapist, after 2 weeks and 2 months of intervention. The neck movements were analyzed in the frequency domain to cover voluntarily and reflex controlled responses. Questionnaires encompassed Neck Disability Index, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, and the Numerical Rating Scale for current pain. The results showed that the response pattern for the amplitudes of movement between head and trunk across frequencies did not change over time, whereas some changes in timing were found for some frequencies. Pain, neck disability, and kinesiophobia improved after intervention, but were not significantly associated with neck movement responses to perturbations across time or condition. Although physiotherapy intervention improved self-reported function, the rigid responses to unpredictable perturbations remained unchanged. This indicates altered function in reflex mediated control mechanisms, i.e., the vestibulocollic and the cervicocollic reflex systems that control the head in space and on the trunk. Future research should further investigate pain related changes in reflex systems and whether alterations in these systems are modifiable.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de Cuello/fisiopatología , Dolor de Cuello/terapia , Cuello/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Cognición , Femenino , Cabeza/fisiopatología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Actividad Motora , Resultado del Tratamiento , Visión Ocular , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0221668, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776927

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Animal models of brain recovery identify the first days after lesioning as a time of great flux in sensorimotor function and physiology. After rodent motor system lesioning, daily skill training in the less affected forelimb reduces skill acquisition in the more affected forelimb. We asked whether spontaneous human motor behaviors of the less affected upper extremity (UE) early after stroke resemble the animal training model, with the potential to suppress clinical recovery. METHODS: This prospective observational study used a convenience sample of patients (n = 25, mean 4.5 ±1.8) days after stroke with a wide severity range; Controls were hospitalized for non-neurological conditions (n = 12). Outcome measures were Accelerometry, Upper-Extremity Fugl-Meyer (UEFM), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Shoulder Abduction/ Finger Extension Test (SAFE), NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS). RESULTS: Accelerometry indicated total paretic UE movement was reduced compared to controls, primarily due to a 44% reduction of bilateral UE use. Unilateral paretic movement was unchanged. Thus, movement shifted early after stroke; bilateral use was reduced and unilateral use of the non-paretic UE was increased by 77%. Low correlations between movement time and motor performance prompted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealing a 2-component solution; motor performance tests load on one component (motor performance) whereas accelerometry-derived variables load on a second orthogonal component (quantity of movement). CONCLUSIONS: Early after stroke, spontaneous overall UE movement is reduced, and movement shifts to unilateral use of the non-paretic UE. Two mechanisms that could influence motor recovery may already be in place 4.5 ± 1.8 days post stroke: (1) the overuse of the less affected UE, which could set the stage for learned non-use and (2) skill acquisition in the non-paretic limb that could impede recovery. Accurate UE motor assessment requires two independent constructs: motor performance and quantity of movement. These findings provide opportunities and measurement methods for studies to develop new behaviorally-based stroke recovery treatments that begin early after onset.


Asunto(s)
Actividad Motora/fisiología , Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular/métodos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/fisiopatología , Acelerometría/métodos , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Destreza Motora/fisiología , Movimiento/fisiología , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Paresia/fisiopatología , Paresia/terapia , Estudios Prospectivos , Recuperación de la Función/fisiología , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos , Extremidad Superior/fisiología
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231995, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833958

RESUMEN

Current practice of assessing mood episodes in affective disorders largely depends on subjective observations combined with semi-structured clinical rating scales. Motor activity is an objective observation of the inner physiological state expressed in behavior patterns. Alterations of motor activity are essential features of bipolar and unipolar depression. The aim was to investigate if objective measures of motor activity can aid existing diagnostic practice, by applying machine-learning techniques to analyze activity patterns in depressed patients and healthy controls. Random Forrest, Deep Neural Network and Convolutional Neural Network algorithms were used to analyze 14 days of actigraph recorded motor activity from 23 depressed patients and 32 healthy controls. Statistical features analyzed in the dataset were mean activity, standard deviation of mean activity and proportion of zero activity. Various techniques to handle data imbalance were applied, and to ensure generalizability and avoid overfitting a Leave-One-User-Out validation strategy was utilized. All outcomes reports as measures of accuracy for binary tests. A Deep Neural Network combined with SMOTE class balancing technique performed a cut above the rest with a true positive rate of 0.82 (sensitivity) and a true negative rate of 0.84 (specificity). Accuracy was 0.84 and the Matthews Correlation Coefficient 0.65. Misclassifications appear related to data overlapping among the classes, so an appropriate future approach will be to compare mood states intra-individualistically. In summary, machine-learning techniques present promising abilities in discriminating between depressed patients and healthy controls in motor activity time series.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Adulto , Algoritmos , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Masculino , Trastornos del Humor/psicología , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
19.
Life Sci ; 258: 118197, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781059

RESUMEN

AIMS: Patients with neurodevelopmental disorders, usually suffer from bone diseases. Many studies have revealed a higher risk of fracture after atypical antipsychotic drug Risperidone (RIS) treatment, which is usually used to treat such disorders. It remains debatable whether neurodevelopmental disorders by itself are the cause of bone diseases or pharmacotherapy may be the reason. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study attempts to evaluate the biomechanical, histological, stereological, and molecular properties of bones in the offspring of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and saline-treated mothers that received saline, drug vehicle or the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone (RIS) at different days of postnatal development. After postnatal drug treatment, animals were assessed for autistic-like behaviors. Then their bones were taken for evaluations. RESULTS: Maternal LPS exposure resulted in deficits in all behavioral tests and RIS ameliorated these behaviors (p < 0.01& p < 0.05). The administration of LPS and RIS individually led to a significant decrease in the biomechanical parameters such as bone stiffness, strength and the energy used to fracture of bone. The numerical density of osteocalcin-positive cells were significantly decreased in these groups. These rats also had decreased RUNX2 and osteocalcin gene expression. When LPS rats were treated with RIS, these conditions were accelerated (p < 0.001). DISCUSSIONS: The results of our preclinical study, consistent with previous studies in animals, explore that autistic-like deficits induced by prenatal exposure to LPS, can reduce bone stability and bone mass similar to those observed in neurodevelopmental disorders, and, for the first time, reveal that this condition worsened when these animals were treated with RIS.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Autístico/inducido químicamente , Resorción Ósea/inducido químicamente , Exposición Materna , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/patología , Risperidona/efectos adversos , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Trastorno Autístico/sangre , Trastorno Autístico/complicaciones , Conducta Animal , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Resorción Ósea/sangre , Resorción Ósea/fisiopatología , Citocinas/sangre , Citocinas/genética , Femenino , Lipopolisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Actividad Motora , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/sangre , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Ratas , Risperidona/administración & dosificación , Conducta Estereotipada
20.
Gesundheitswesen ; 82(S 03): S170-S176, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858755

RESUMEN

There is sound scientific evidence that regular physical activity enhances physical, psychological, and mental health. Specific physical activity guidelines for target groups make an essential contribution to the promotion of physical activity behavior at a population level. In this article, we introduce the updated Austrian physical activity guidelines for adults and older adults with and without physical, sensory, or mental disabilities, as well as for adults with chronic diseases. We have also added comments to key elements of the guidelines. The scientific basis of the physical activity guidelines is the scientific report by the US advisory committee, as well as the 2nd edition of the physical activity guidelines for Americans. Guidelines for a new target group - adults with chronic health conditions - have been included. Furthermore, people with disabilities are now explicitly part of the (older) adult target groups. Instead of providing one cut-off point to separate people into meeting the guidelines/not meeting the guidelines, a range of 150 to 300 minutes per week is now recommended. Placing the guidelines for strength training above those for aerobic training emphasizes the importance of this type of training. In addition, it is now recommended that prolonged sitting is avoided by regularl interruptions. We believe that the publication of the physical activity guidelines for Austria will make an important contribution to the promotion of health through regular physical activity. However, the promotion of regular physical activity will only be successful if all target groups have a fair chance to reach physical activity competence, and attractive environments are created for regular physical activity.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Ejercicio Físico , Actividad Motora , Adulto , Anciano , Austria , Enfermedad Crónica , Alemania , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos
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