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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 219-227, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130073

RESUMEN

Theoretical research suggests that racialized felony disenfranchisement-a form of structural racism-is likely to undermine the health of Black people, yet empirical studies on the topic are scant. We used administrative data on disproportionate felony disenfranchisement of Black residents across US states, linked to geocoded individual-level health data from the 2016 Health and Retirement Study, to estimate race-specific regression models describing the relationship between racialized disenfranchisement and health among middle-aged and older adults, adjusting for other individual- and state-level factors. Results show that living in states with higher levels of racialized disenfranchisement is associated with more depressive symptoms, more functional limitations, more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living, and more difficulty performing activities of daily living among Black people. However, there are no statistically significant relationships between racialized disenfranchisement and health among White people. These findings suggest that policies aiming to mitigate disproportionate Black felony disenfranchisement not only are essential for political inclusion but also may be valuable tools for improving population health equity.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Salud Poblacional , Racismo , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35497375

RESUMEN

Purpose: The presence of pain can be associated with an exaggerated negative cognitive and emotional response, leading to worsening of existing symptoms. This study aimed to describe the multifaceted impact of chronic pain on cognition, emotional and physical health in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and to explore the clinical impact of pain. Patients and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out in 68 people with COPD (COPD group) and 65 community-dwelling age-matched participants (control group). Participants were assessed for the presence of chronic pain, pain location, intensity and catastrophizing, pain-related fear (kinesiophobia), anxiety and depression, physical activity, and sleep duration. The COPD group also completed assessments of dyspnea, exercise tolerance (6-minute walk distance [6MWD]), and activities of daily living (ADL). Results: The prevalence of pain was higher in the COPD group (85% vs 51%, p<0.001). The COPD group reported pain located in neck/shoulder, upper back, thorax and upper limbs, while the control group had more pain in the lower back. Pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia were reported by 28% and 67% vs 9% and 42%, in the COPD and control groups respectively (both p<0.05). People with COPD and pain (n=58) reported greater dyspnea (p<0.001), and impairment in ADL (p<0.05), and lower 6MWD and physical activity (both p<0.01) compared to COPD participants without pain (n=10). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that, compared to community-dwelling participants, there is a higher prevalence of chronic pain in people with COPD. Pain combined with dyspnea may impact adversely on cognitive function and lead to anxiety and depression, as well as greater impairment in exercise tolerance, physical activity, and ADL. These results suggested that it is necessary to assess the symptoms of chronic pain and inflect in chronic pain coping strategies.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Crónico , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Actividades Cotidianas , Dolor Crónico/diagnóstico , Dolor Crónico/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Disnea/diagnóstico , Disnea/epidemiología , Humanos , Trastornos Fóbicos , Estudios Prospectivos , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/complicaciones , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/diagnóstico
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 8557936, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502338

RESUMEN

Objective: A case-control study was conducted to explore the effect of acupuncture combined with rehabilitation training on limb function and nerve injury rehabilitation in elderly patients with stroke. Methods: A total of 72 elderly patients with stroke treated from March 2019 to June 2021 in our hospital were enrolled as the object of study. The clinical data were collected and divided into two groups according to their different treatment methods. The patients cured with routine treatment combined with rehabilitation training were taken as the control group and the patients cured with acupuncture combined with rehabilitation training as the study group. The clinical efficacy was recorded, and the cognition and activities of daily living were evaluated by Terrell Cognitive Assessment scale, limb motor function score, and activities of daily living scale. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were employed to compare the neurological function before and after treatment. Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and Disability Rating Scale (DRS) were adopted to evaluate the functional prognosis. The simplified Fugl-Meyer assessment of motor recovery score was employed to evaluate the limb function of the patients. The Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) score was adopted to evaluate the functional rehabilitation effect of the patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was adopted to determine the serum neurological function indexes such as nerve growth factor, Smur100B protein, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. The cerebral blood flow (CBF), peak time, average transit time, and cerebral blood volume were measured by CT perfusion imaging, and the incidence of side effects during treatment was recorded. Results: Regarding the recovery of cognitive function and daily function after treatment, after treatment, the MoCA and ADL scores were increased, and the comparison indicated that the MoCA and ADL scores of the study group were remarkably higher compared to the control group (P < 0.05). With regard to the FMA-UE scores after treatment, the Fugl-Meyer scores were gradually increased, and the Fugl-Meyer scores in the study group were remarkably higher compared to the control group (P < 0.05) in the next two months. After 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 6 weeks of treatment, the WMFT scores gradually increased, and the WMFT score of the study group was remarkably higher compared to the control group. After treatment, the levels of nerve growth factor and S-100B protein were decreased, and the level of glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased. Comparison between the two groups, it indicated the improvement degree of each neurological function index in the study group was remarkably better (P < 0.05). With regard to cerebral hemodynamic indexes after treatment, 1 week after treatment, the CBF and average transit time of the observation group were remarkably higher compared to the control group, and the levels of cerebral blood volume and peak time were remarkably lower compared to the control group (P < 0.05). After 4 weeks of treatment, the cerebral hemodynamic indexes of the observation group did not change remarkably, and they were all lower than 1 week after the treatment. In the terms of side effects, 1 case of limb dysfunction, 1 case of swallowing dysfunction, 1 case of electrolyte disturbance, and none of infection in the study group, the incidence of adverse reactions was 8.33%. In the control group, there were 3 cases of limb dysfunction, 2 cases of swallowing dysfunction, 2 cases of electrolyte disturbance, and 3 cases of infection, and the incidence of adverse reactions was 27.78%. Compared between groups, the incidence of adverse reactions in the study group was lower (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Early use of acupuncture combined with rehabilitation training has a remarkable therapeutic effect on elderly stroke patients. It can remarkably promote the recovery of the patient's condition, remarkably enhance their neurological function, cognitive function, motor function, and daily life function, and effectively strengthen the patient's prognosis score. It has important clinical application value to reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Electrólitos , Proteína Ácida Fibrilar de la Glía , Humanos , Factores de Crecimiento Nervioso , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
4.
Rehabil Nurs ; 47(3): 92-98, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507835

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore associations between social support, sense of control, and attributed dignity in persons aged 65 years and older who self-manage multiple chronic conditions while living in the community. DESIGN: A descriptive, nonexperimental, correlational design was used in this study. METHODS: Eighty-nine participants completed telephone surveys that measured social support, sense of control and attributed dignity. Regression analysis was used to identify associations. RESULTS: Participants were independent in seven of the eight instrumental activities of daily living, with participants having an average of 11 (±4) chronic conditions. Significant positive relationships between social support, perceived sense of control, and attributed dignity were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Positive social support is strongly associated with perceived sense of control and attributed dignity. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Healthcare professionals, especially rehabilitation nurses, can assess social support and offer ways to improve social support, thus enhancing sense of control and attributed dignity. These concepts enhance older individuals' ability to manage multiple chronic conditions.


Asunto(s)
Afecciones Crónicas Múltiples , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Humanos , Control Interno-Externo , Respeto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD013444, 2022 05 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510826

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Spasticity and chronic neuropathic pain are common and serious symptoms in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). These symptoms increase with disease progression and lead to worsening disability, impaired activities of daily living and quality of life. Anti-spasticity medications and analgesics are of limited benefit or poorly tolerated. Cannabinoids may reduce spasticity and pain in people with MS. Demand for symptomatic treatment with cannabinoids is high. A thorough understanding of the current body of evidence regarding benefits and harms of these drugs is required. OBJECTIVES: To assess benefit and harms of cannabinoids, including synthetic, or herbal and plant-derived cannabinoids, for reducing symptoms for adults with MS. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases from inception to December 2021: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library), CINAHL (EBSCO host), LILACS, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), the World Health Organisation International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the US National Institutes of Health clinical trial register, the European Union Clinical Trials Register, the International Association for Cannabinoid Medicines databank. We hand searched citation lists of included studies and relevant reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised parallel or cross-over trials (RCTs) evaluating any cannabinoid (including herbal Cannabis, Cannabis flowers, plant-based cannabinoids, or synthetic cannabinoids) irrespective of dose, route, frequency, or duration of use for adults with MS. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. To assess bias in included studies, we used the Cochrane Risk of bias 2 tool for parallel RCTs and crossover trials. We rated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach for the following outcomes: reduction of 30% in the spasticity Numeric Rating Scale, pain relief of 50% or greater in the Numeric Rating Scale-Pain Intensity, much or very much improvement in the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC), Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), withdrawals due to adverse events (AEs) (tolerability), serious adverse events (SAEs), nervous system disorders, psychiatric disorders, physical dependence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 25 RCTs with 3763 participants of whom 2290 received cannabinoids. Age ranged from 18 to 60 years, and between 50% and 88% participants across the studies were female.  The included studies were 3 to 48 weeks long and compared nabiximols, an oromucosal spray with a plant derived equal (1:1) combination of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) (13 studies), synthetic cannabinoids mimicking THC (7 studies), an oral THC extract of Cannabis sativa (2 studies), inhaled herbal Cannabis (1 study) against placebo. One study compared dronabinol, THC extract of Cannabis sativa and placebo, one compared inhaled herbal Cannabis, dronabinol and placebo. We identified eight ongoing studies. Critical outcomes • Spasticity: nabiximols probably increases the number of people who report an important reduction of perceived severity of spasticity compared with placebo (odds ratio (OR) 2.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56 to 4.04; 5 RCTs, 1143 participants; I2 = 67%; moderate-certainty evidence). The absolute effect was 216 more people (95% CI 99 more to 332 more) per 1000 reporting benefit with cannabinoids than with placebo. • Chronic neuropathic pain: we found only one small trial that measured the number of participants reporting substantial pain relief with a synthetic cannabinoid compared with placebo (OR 4.23, 95% CI 1.11 to 16.17; 1 study, 48 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether cannabinoids reduce chronic neuropathic pain intensity. • Treatment discontinuation due to AEs: cannabinoids may increase slightly the number of participants who discontinue treatment compared with placebo (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.51 to 3.84; 21 studies, 3110 participants; I² = 17%; low-certainty evidence); the absolute effect is 39 more people (95% CI 15 more to 76 more) per 1000 people. Important outcomes • PGIC: cannabinoids probably increase the number of people who report 'very much' or 'much' improvement in health status compared with placebo (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.36; 8 studies, 1215 participants; I² = 0%; moderate-certainty evidence). The absolute effect is 113 more people (95% CI 57 more to 175 more) per 1000 people reporting improvement. • HRQoL: cannabinoids may have little to no effect on HRQoL (SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.02; 8 studies, 1942 participants; I2 = 0%; low-certainty evidence); • SAEs: cannabinoids may result in little to no difference in the number of participants who have SAEs compared with placebo (OR 1.38, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.99; 20 studies, 3124 participants; I² = 0%; low-certainty evidence); • AEs of the nervous system: cannabinoids may increase nervous system disorders compared with placebo (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.53 to 4.44; 7 studies, 1154 participants; I² = 63%; low-certainty evidence); • Psychiatric disorders: cannabinoids may increase psychiatric disorders compared with placebo (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.88; 6 studies, 1122 participants; I² = 0%; low-certainty evidence); • Drug tolerance: the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of cannabinoids on drug tolerance (OR 3.07, 95% CI 0.12 to 75.95; 2 studies, 458 participants; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Compared with placebo, nabiximols probably reduces the severity of spasticity in the short-term in people with MS. We are uncertain about the effect on chronic neurological pain and health-related quality of life. Cannabinoids may increase slightly treatment discontinuation due to AEs, nervous system and psychiatric disorders compared with placebo. We are uncertain about the effect on drug tolerance. The overall certainty of evidence is limited by short-term duration of the included studies.


Asunto(s)
Cannabinoides , Cannabis , Dolor Crónico , Esclerosis Múltiple , Neuralgia , Actividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos/uso terapéutico , Cannabinoides/efectos adversos , Dolor Crónico/tratamiento farmacológico , Dronabinol/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esclerosis Múltiple/complicaciones , Esclerosis Múltiple/tratamiento farmacológico , Neuralgia/tratamiento farmacológico , Neuralgia/etiología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Calidad de Vida , Adulto Joven
7.
Age Ageing ; 51(5)2022 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511728

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: older HIV-positive adults experience a significant burden of geriatric conditions. However, little is known about the association between geriatric conditions and healthcare utilisation in this population. SETTING: outpatient safety-net HIV clinic in San Francisco. METHODS: in 2013, HIV-positive adults ≥50 years of age underwent geriatric assessment including functional impairment, fall(s)in past year, cognitive impairment (MOCA <26) and low social support (Lubben social network scale ≤12). We reviewed medical records from 2013 through 2017 to capture healthcare utilisation (emergency room (ER) visits and hospitalisations) and used Poisson models to examine the association between geriatric conditions and utilisation events over 4 years. RESULTS: among 192 participants, 81% were male, 51% were white, the median age was 56 (range 50-74), and the median CD4 count was 508 (IQR 338-688) cells/mm3. Sixteen percent of participants had ≥1 activities of daily living (ADL) dependency, 58% had ≥1 instrumental activities of daily living IADL dependency, 43% reported ≥1 falls, 31% had cognitive impairment, and 58% had low social support. Over 4 years, 90 participants (46%) had ≥1 ER visit (total of 289 ER visits), 39 (20%) had ≥1 hospitalisation (total of 68 hospitalisations), and 15 (8%) died. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, IADL dependency and falls were associated with healthcare utilisation (adjusted incidence rate ratios IADL (95%CI): 1.73 (1.33-2.25); falls: 1.51 (1.21-1.87)). CONCLUSION: IADL dependency and history of falls were associated with healthcare utilisation among older HIV-positive adults. Although our results are limited by sample size, improved understanding of the association between geriatric conditions and healthcare utilisation could build support for geriatric HIV care models.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Infecciones por VIH , Anciano , Femenino , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud
8.
Mil Med ; 187(5-6): 125-129, 2022 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512084

RESUMEN

Functional data as part of clinical outcomes such as Activities of Daily Living and Quality of Life (QOL) frequently depend on surveys and are thus inherently limited by self-reporting and patient subjectivity. Specifically, the 12-Item Short Form Survey (SF-12), 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), and Carolinas Comfort Scale are validated instruments for assessing medical and surgical QOL outcomes. However, performance-based measures of disability are lacking. We propose the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) as a novel clinical measure of function following surgical intervention. We believe that studies using the APFT as a surgical outcome can potentially provide novel, relevant insights that may guide the utilization of specific surgical interventions and that the use of APFT data in surgical research will meet contemporary ethical standards.


Asunto(s)
Personal Militar , Calidad de Vida , Actividades Cotidianas , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Aptitud Física
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 757841, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514988

RESUMEN

Background: Lymphoplasma exchange (LPE), a technique combining plasma exchange with leukapheresis, is emerging as promising treatment for autoimmune diseases. Data on the efficacy and safety of LPE in myasthenia gravis (MG) therapy are scarce. In this study, we aimed to comprehensively review the clinical efficacy, safety, and immunological characteristics of LPE therapy in MG patients. Study Design and Methods: A Chinese cohort of 276 generalized MG patients in state of exacerbation, including impeding crisis, myasthenia crisis, and preparation for thoracic exsection between January 2014 and December 2020, were evaluated in this study. Results: A total of 276 patients with a median age of 45.5 ± 16.7 years underwent a total of 635 LPE sessions. Clinical scales of Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) scores, Myasthenia Gravis Specific Manual Muscle Testing (MMT) scores, activities of daily living (ADL) scores, and quality of life (QOL) scores were improved during 4 weeks' follow-up. Adverse effects occurred in 20 out of 276 patients, with 14 patients having one adverse event each. Independent predictive factors for good response to LPE therapy were symptom onset before LPE therapy ≤3 days and age on LPE therapy <50 years of age. LPE decreased the serum levels of antibodies, immunoglobulins, and complements 4 weeks after the first replacement, with decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-17A and interferon (IFN)-γ and increased level of IL-10. Conclusion: LPE is an effective treatment for MG patients in state of exacerbation and preparation for thymectomy. Early use of LPE on early-onset MG may have good therapeutic effects. The potential mechanism for LPE is the polarization of cytokines from IL-17A, IFN-γ, into IL-10.


Asunto(s)
Miastenia Gravis , Calidad de Vida , Actividades Cotidianas , Adulto , China , Humanos , Interleucina-10 , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
10.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 389, 2022 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505289

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The rapidly aging population is a major concern for countries, especially where cognitive health in older age is poor. The study examined the socioeconomic and health-related factors associated with cognitive impairment among older adults and the contribution of those factors to the concentration of low cognitive functioning among older adults from economically poor households. METHODS: Data this study were derived from the "Building Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India" (BKPAI) survey, which was carried out in seven major states of India. The effective sample size for the analysis was 9176 older adults aged 60 years and above. Results from descriptive and bivariate analysis were reported in the initial stage. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the associations. Additionally, the concentration index and concentration curve were used to measure socioeconomic inequality in cognitive impairment among older adults. Wagstaff decomposition was employed to explore the key contributors in the concentration index. RESULTS: Nearly 60% of older adults suffered from cognitive impairment in the study. The likelihood of cognitive impairment were higher among older adults with a low level of self-perceived income sufficiency [coefficient: 0.29; confidence interval (CI): 0.07- 0.52] compared to older adults with higher levels of perceived income status. Older adults with more than 10 years of schooling were less likely to be cognitively impaired [coefficient: -1.27; CI: - 1.50- -1.04] in comparison to those with no education. Cognitive impairment was concentrated among older adults from households with the lowest wealth quintile (concentration index (CCI): - 0.10: p < 0.05). Educational status explained 44.6% of socioeconomic inequality, followed by 31.8% by wealth status and 11.5% by psychological health. Apart from these factors, difficulty in instrumental activities of daily living (3.7%), caste (3.7%), and perceived income sufficiency to fulfil basic needs (3.0%) explained socioeconomic inequality in cognitive impairment among older adults. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that older adults with lower perceived income, lower levels of education, poor physical and mental health, and poor physical and social resources were more likely to be cognitively impaired. Education, wealth and psychological health are major contributors in socioeconomic inequality in late-life cognitive impairment, which may be target areas in future policy formulation to reduce the inequality in cognitive impairment in older Indian adults.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Disfunción Cognitiva , Anciano , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Clase Social
11.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 390, 2022 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505297

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is no general agreement on a standard form of functional classification in older adults and is mainly assessed by Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and/or Instrument Activity of Daily Living. A refined classification based on evaluation the limitations of intrinsic capacity, environment and social interaction, could provide a basis to predict the future disability and identify individuals with increased risk of adverse outcomes. METHODS: A new functional classification among older adults aged 60 and over was conducted by latent class analysis and compared with the traditional classifications, based on the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. To further investigate the scientific validity of this new classification, associations with 7-year mortality and ADLs impairments among categories were tested by using Survival curves and Cox proportional hazard models. This was followed by the confirmatory analysis related to the prospective data. Competing risk analysis was also performed to analysis the sensitivity to further support our conclusions. RESULTS: Five categories were identified among 5,992 older adults which gave the best fitting, yielding a significant Bootstrap Likelihood Ratio Test (p < 0.001) and Lo-Mendell-Rubin adjusted likelihood ratio test (p < 0.001), with an entropy over 0.80. The presence of five categories: "health" (34.0%), "sub-disorder status" (36.6%), "acute diseases" (10.3%), "somatic functional disorder" (7.7%), and "viability disorder" (11.4%), which matched well with the functional independence rates by the international classifications. Among them, those in "sub-disorder status" were considered as an intermediate status between disability and health. The findings also revealed that those who were in "acute disease", "somatic functional disorders", "health" and "sub-disorder status" had a significant lower risk of mortality and ADLs limitations than "viability disorder". And the risks gradually increased towards the less functionally independent end of the classification. However, the distribution of characteristics among five categories were in a synchronous change, indicating a stable classification. CONCLUSIONS: A new classification representing the functional heterogeneity of older adults could effectively stratify the risk of mortality and ADLs limitations. Identifying the clusters of functional decline might be useful in predicting subsequent ageing trends, designing personalized intervention, and delaying the progression of disability and preventing its occurrence.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Personas con Discapacidad , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 317, 2022 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509005

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the potential independent association of functional disability with major depression and moderating effects of social support variables including marital status, living arrangement and social participation in such associations. METHODS: Data for the study were drawn from the Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI) wave 1 that was collected during 2017-18 including a sample of 31,464 individuals aged 60 years and above. Descriptive statistics and results from bivariate analysis have been reported. Further, moderated multivariable logistic regression models were used to fulfil the study objective. Major depressive disorder was assessed using the scale of the Short Form Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-SF). RESULTS: It was found that 8.67% of older participants were depressed in this study. Older adults who had difficulty in basic activities of daily living (BADL) (15.34%), difficulty in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) (12.06%), unmarried (10.13%), separate living (9.67%) and socially inactive (10.09) were having higher prevalence of major depression compared to their respective counterparts. The adjusted model-1 revealed that older adults who had difficulty in BADL and IADL were 2.53 times [AOR: 2.53, CI: 2.17-2.95] and 2.27 times [AOR: 2.27, CI: 1.97-2.64] more likely to have major depression than those with no difficulty in BADL and IADL respectively. Further, interaction analyses found that currently unmarried status, separate living and being socially inactive have moderation effects in the observed associations and exacerbate the likelihood of major depression among older adults who are functionally impaired. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the importance of integrating social participation in the daily life of older adults and developing initiatives that promote a healthy surrounding such as social connectedness, co-residential living and special care for those who are physically disabled to protect against late-life depression.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Personas con Discapacidad , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Envejecimiento , Depresión/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Humanos , Vida Independiente , India/epidemiología , Apoyo Social
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e055989, 2022 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501077

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: There is little in-depth qualitative evidence of how symptoms manifest themselves in outpatients with COVID-19 and how these in turn impact outpatients' daily lives. The objective of the study was therefore to explore the experience of outpatients with COVID-19 qualitatively, concerning the symptomatic experience and its subsequent impact on daily life. SETTING: Qualitative research study comprising virtual in-depth, open-ended interviews with outpatients and clinicians. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty US adult patients with COVID-19 were interviewed within 21 days of diagnosis. Patients were 60% female and 87% white, who had to self-report one of the following: fever, cough, shortness of breath/difficulty breathing, change/loss of taste/smell, vomiting/diarrhoea or body/muscle aches. Five independent clinicians were also interviewed about their experience treating outpatients. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Transcripts were analysed thematically to organise symptoms and impacts of daily life into higher-order overarching categories, and subsequently propose a conceptual model. The adequacy of the sample size was assessed by conceptual saturation analysis. RESULTS: Patient-reported concepts were organised into six symptom themes (upper respiratory, lower respiratory, systemic, gastrointestinal, smell and taste, and other) and seven impact themes (activities of daily living, broad daily activities, leisure/social activities, and physical, emotional, professional and quarantine-specific impacts). Symptom type, severity, duration and time of onset varied by patient. Clinicians endorsed all patient-reported symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The manifestation of symptoms in outpatients is heterogeneous and affects all aspects of daily life. Outpatients offered new detailed insights into their symptomatic experiences, including heterogeneous experiences of smell and taste, and the impacts that symptoms had on their daily lives. Findings of this research may be used to supplement existing knowledge of the outpatient experience of mild-to-moderate COVID-19, to further inform treatment guidelines and to provide an evidence base for evaluating potential treatment benefits.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Actividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Disnea/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación del Resultado de la Atención al Paciente , Investigación Cualitativa
14.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 84, 2022 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501927

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive decline and dysfunction of independent living ability, with huge economic and healthy burden worldwide. However, there is still a lack of effective long-term drugs to improve cognitive function and reduce or halt disease progression. Phase III clinical trials of anti-AD drugs based on different hypotheses were in the pipeline, and this protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis aims to determine what is the most effective direction for the development of drugs on cognitive improvement. METHODS/DESIGN: We will search the following literature databases for eligible studies from inception to December 2021: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, PubMed MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov registration platform, and the AlzForum website will also be searched for additional studies. Studies will be included irrespective of publication status or language. Phase III clinical trials reporting on the effect of anti-AD drugs on participants with AD will be included. Two independent reviewers will screen the hit articles and identify phase III clinical trials, extract data, and assess the quality of each study individually. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool 2 (RoB 2) will be used to assess the risk of bias. For each kind of drugs based on the corresponding hypothesis, we will compare the study design and demographic features of the clinical trials and include appropriate studies in the network meta-analysis. The primary outcomes will be the indicators of cognitive improvement. The secondary outcomes will be activities of daily living, neuroimaging changes, biomarkers, and safety. Through network meta-analysis, we will suggest the hypothesis that most likely to improve cognitive function and provide the ranks of all kinds of drugs. We will give recommendation grade of each comparison using the Confidence In Network Meta-Analysis (CINeMa) tool. DISCUSSION: This study will provide helpful evidence for further drug development and clinical practice for treating Alzheimer's disease. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021251507.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas , Actividades Cotidianas , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/tratamiento farmacológico , Cognición , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Metaanálisis en Red , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
15.
J Hosp Med ; 17(4): 235-242, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535921

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The effects of extracranial hemorrhage (ECH), or bleeding outside the brain, are often considered transient. Yet, there are few data on the long-term and functional consequences of ECH. OBJECTIVE: Define the association of ECH hospitalization with functional independence and survival in a nationally representative cohort of older adults. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from the Health and Retirement Study from 1995 to 2016, a nationally representative, biennial survey of older adults. Adults aged 66 and above with Medicare linkage and at least 12 months of continuous Medicare Part A and B enrollment. INTERVENTION: Hospitalization for ECH. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Adjusted odds ratios and predicted likelihood of independence in all activities of daily living (ADLs), independence in all instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and extended nursing home stay. Adjusted hazard ratio and predicted likelihood for survival. RESULTS: In a cohort of 6719 subjects (mean age 77, 59% women) with average follow-up time of 8.3 years (55,767 person-years), 736 (11%) were hospitalized for ECH. ECH was associated with a 15% increase in ADL disability, 15% increase in IADL disability, 8% increase in nursing home stays, and 4% increase in mortality. After ECH, subjects became disabled and died at the same annual rate as pre-ECH but never recovered to pre-ECH levels of function. In conclusion, hospitalization for ECH was associated with significant and durable declines in independence and survival. Clinical and research efforts should incorporate the long-term harms of ECH into decision-making and strategies to mitigate these effects.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Medicare , Anciano , Femenino , Hemorragia , Hospitalización , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
16.
Stem Cells ; 40(1): 2-13, 2022 03 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511862

RESUMEN

The degeneration of motor neurons is a pathological hallmark of motor neuron diseases (MNDs), but emerging evidence suggests that neuronal vulnerability extends well beyond this cell subtype. The ability to assess motor function in the clinic is limited to physical examination, electrophysiological measures, and tissue-based or neuroimaging techniques which lack the resolution to accurately assess neuronal dysfunction as the disease progresses. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are all MNDs with devastating clinical outcomes that contribute significantly to disease burden as patients are no longer able to carry out normal activities of daily living. The critical need to accurately assess the cause and progression of motor neuron dysfunction, especially in the early stages of those diseases, has motivated the use of human iPSC-derived motor neurons (hiPSC-MN) to study the neurobiological mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis and to generate platforms for therapeutic discovery and testing. As our understanding of MNDs has grown, so too has our need to develop more complex in vitro models which include hiPSC-MN co-cultured with relevant non-neuronal cells in 2D as well as in 3D organoid and spheroid systems. These more complex hiPSC-derived culture systems have led to the implementation of new technologies, including microfluidics, multielectrode array, and machine learning which offer novel insights into the functional correlates of these emerging model systems.


Asunto(s)
Esclerosis Amiotrófica Lateral , Células Madre Pluripotentes Inducidas , Enfermedad de la Neurona Motora , Atrofia Muscular Espinal , Actividades Cotidianas , Esclerosis Amiotrófica Lateral/patología , Humanos , Células Madre Pluripotentes Inducidas/patología , Enfermedad de la Neurona Motora/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad de la Neurona Motora/patología , Neuronas Motoras/patología , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/patología
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e051480, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523499

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The access barrier to medication has been a persistent and elusive challenge in the US healthcare system and around the globe. Cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN) is an important measure of medication non-adherence behaviours that aim to avoid costs. Longitudinal study of CRN behaviours for the ageing population is rare. DESIGN: Longitudinal study using the Health and Retirement Study to evaluate self-reported CRN biennially. SETTING: General population of older Americans. PARTICIPANTS: Three cohorts of Americans aged between 50 and 54 (baby boomers), 65-69 (the silent generation) and 80 or above (the greatest generation) in 2004 who were followed to 2014. INTERVENTION: Observational with no intervention. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Longitudinal CRN rates for three generational cohorts from 2004 to 2014. Population-averaged effects of a broad set of variables including sociodemographics, income, insurance status, limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and comorbid conditions on CRN were derived using generalised estimating equation by taking into account repeated measurements of CRN over time for the three cohorts, respectively. RESULTS: The three cohorts of baby boomer, the silent generation and the greatest generation with 1925, 2839 and 2666 respondents represented 12.3 million, 8.2 million and 7.7 million people in 2004, respectively. Increasing age was associated with decreasing likelihood of reporting CRN in all three generational cohorts (p<0.05), controlling for demographics, income, insurance status, functional status and comorbid conditions. All three generational cohorts had a higher prevalence of diabetes, cancer, heart conditions, stroke, a higher percentage of respondents with Medicare-Medicaid dual eligibility and lower percentage with private insurance in 2014 compared with 2004 (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The paradox of decreasing CRN rates, independent of disease burden, income and insurance status, suggests populations' CRN behaviours change as Americans age, bearing implications to social policy.


Asunto(s)
Costos de los Medicamentos , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Medicare , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e054230, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523503

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the predictors of vision impairment in old age and how impaired vision is associated with cognitive impairment among the ageing population. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a large country-representative survey data. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This study used data from the 'Building a Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India' survey, conducted in 2011. Participants included 9541 older adults aged 60 years and above. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome variables were vision impairment and cognitive impairment. Descriptive statistics along with bivariate analysis were presented. Additionally, multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was performed to fulfil the objectives. RESULTS: A proportion of 59.1% of the respondents had vision impairment. Nearly 60% of the participants had cognitive impairment. Those who had vision impairment were 11% more likely to have cognitive impairment compared to their counterparts (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.23). low psychological health (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.36 to 1.77), low activities of daily living (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.43 to 2.27), low instrumental activities of daily living (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.40), poor self-rated health (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.41) and chronic morbidity (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.41) were found to be risk factors for cognitive impairment among older adults. CONCLUSIONS: Additional efforts in terms of advocacy, availability, affordability and accessibility especially in a country with big illiteracy issue are mandatory to increase the reach of eye-care services and reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment and vision losses that lead to cognitive deficits among the older population.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Disfunción Cognitiva , Anciano , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Trastornos de la Visión/complicaciones , Trastornos de la Visión/epidemiología
19.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 397, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524168

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Visual impairment frequently occurs amongst older people. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of visual impairment on functioning, quality of life and mortality in people aged 85 years. METHODS: From the Leiden 85-plus Study, 548 people aged 85 years were eligible for this study. Visual acuity was measured at baseline by Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study charts (ETDRS). According to the visual acuity (VA) three groups were made, defined as no (VA > 0.7), moderate (0.5 ≤ VA ≤ 0.7) or severe visual impairment (VA < 0.5). Quality of life, physical, cognitive, psychological and social functioning were measured annually for 5 years. For mortality, participants were followed until the age of 95. RESULTS: At baseline, participants with visual impairment scored lower on physical, cognitive, psychological and social functioning and quality of life (p < 0.001). Compared to participants with no visual impairment, participants with moderate and severe visual impairment had an accelerated deterioration in basic activities of daily living (respectively 0.27-point (p = 0.017) and 0.35 point (p = 0.018)). In addition, compared to participants with no visual impairment, the mortality risk was 1.83 (95% CI 1.43, 2.35) for participants with severe visual impairment. DISCUSSION: In very older adults, visual impairment predicts accelerated deterioration in physical functioning. In addition, severely visually impaired adults had an increased mortality risk. A pro-active attitude, focussing on preventing and treating visual impairment could possibly contribute to the improvement of physical independence, wellbeing and successful aging in very old age.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Baja Visión , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Humanos , Trastornos de la Visión/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Visión/epidemiología , Agudeza Visual
20.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 53, 2022 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525956

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The delayed retirement initiative and population aging have led to a growing group of late retirees. However, it remains unclear whether the existing employment-based health insurance system can effectively match the recently proposed initiative and support late retirees, especially those with pre-existing function limitations. Thus, this study aims to investigate the influencing mechanism of China's Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI), physical functioning limitation (PFL) and difficulty in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) on labour participation of late retirees in China. METHODS: This study uses data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) survey, which tracks the quality of life among older adults in China (valid sample size = 5560). RESULTS: Empirical results show that China's employment-based health insurance (i.e. UEBMI) and health conditions (i.e. PFL and difficulty in IADLs) are positively associated with late retirees' withdrawal from late career participation. In addition, a higher level of difficulty in IADLs could strengthen the effect of PFL on late retirees' withdrawal from late career participation, which could be further buffered by UEBMI beneficiary status. CONCLUSION: In the formulation of delayed retirement policies, it is necessary to consider the influencing mechanism of the social health insurance system and health conditions on late career participation of older workers to ensure policy effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Calidad de Vida , Anciano , Empleo , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Seguro de Salud , Estudios Longitudinales
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