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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036351

RESUMEN

The new corona virus infection SARS-CoV2 which was later renamed COVID-19 is a pandemic affecting public health. The fear and the constraints imposed to control the pandemic may correspondingly influence leisure activities, such as birding, which is the practice of observing birds based on visual and acoustic cues. Birders are people who carry out birding observations around the globe and contribute to the massive data collection in citizen science projects. Contrasting to earlier COVID-19 studies, which have concentrated on clinical, pathological, and virological topics, this study focused on the behavioral changes of birders. A total of 4484 questionnaire survey responses from 97 countries were received. The questionnaire had an open-ended style. About 85% of respondents reported that COVID-19 has changed their birding behavior. The most significant change in birdwatchers' behavior was related to the geographic coverage of birding activities, which became more local. People focused mostly on yard birding. In total, 12% of respondents (n = 542 cases) reported having more time for birding, whereas 8% (n = 356 cases) reported having less time for birding. Social interactions decreased since respondents, especially older people, changed their birding behavior toward birding alone or with their spouse. Women reported more often than men that they changed to birding alone or with their spouse, and women also reported more often about canceled fieldtrips or society meetings. Respondents from higher developed countries reported that they spend currently more time for birding, especially for birding alone or with their spouse, and birding at local hotspots. Our study suggests that long lockdowns with strict regulations may severely impact on leisure activities. In addition, a temporal and spatial shift in birding due to the pandemic may influence data quality in citizen science projects. As nature-based recreation will be directed more toward nearby sites, environmental management resources and actions need to be directed to sites that are located near the users, e.g., in urban and suburban areas. The results can be applied with caution to other nature-based recreational activities.


Asunto(s)
Ciencia Ciudadana , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Coronavirus , Actividades Recreativas , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Factores Sexuales , Conducta Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200099, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053092

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal trend of practicing physical exercise and sports during leisure time in adults in São Paulo between 2006 to 2016. METHODS: Time series analysis study using the VIGITEL System. Adding up the number of people who participated each year, a total 21,357 people were studied. Analyzes of the physical exercises and sports practiced during leisure time (yes or no) stratified by sex, age and education were performed. The prevalences and the differences for all of the years were calculated using the Prains-Winster regression. RESULTS: Practice of physical exercises or sports increased by 7.9 percentage points in the period (p = 0.003) (from 39.9% 95%CI 37.4 - 42.4 to 47.8% 95%CI 45.2 - 50.4). There was a significant increase for women (p = 0.011), for people between 18-24 years old (p = 0.001), 25-34 years old (p = 0.003), 45-54 years old (p = 0.003), and for people with up to eight years of schooling (p = 0.010). There was a decrease in walking and playing soccer and there was an increase in doing gymnastics. CONCLUSION: There was an increase in the practice of physical exercise and sports during leisure time in adults from São Paulo. These increases were observed mainly in women, in people between 18 and 34 years old, between 45 and 54 years old, and in people with up to eight years of schooling. These results are important, as they have shown an increase in general and in more vulnerable groups, and may be related to environmental changes and interventions that have occurred in the city in the last 15 years.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Actividades Recreativas , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Actividad Motora , Adulto Joven
3.
Rev Prat ; 70(6): 683-686, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058619

RESUMEN

Developmental coordination disorder. The diagnosis of dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder is based on motor coordination skills significantly below the expected level for the age of the child, assessed by a validated and standardized motor skills scale. This deficit must have an impact on activities of daily life, leisure and academic achievement. It should not be secondary to a neurological condition. It is a common disorder with a prevalence around 5%. The diagnosis is based on questioning of the family and the child, a clinical examination and an evaluation with standardized tools of motor skills and writing. It requires the intervention of a doctor, if possible trained in neurodevelopmental disorders, and of an occupational therapist. Interventions should focus on activities that are essential to the child's daily and school life.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Destreza Motora , Niño , Familia , Humanos , Actividades Recreativas , Trastornos de la Destreza Motora/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Destreza Motora/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Destreza Motora/terapia , Prevalencia
4.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 548-554, 2020 May.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058646

RESUMEN

Prevention of osteo-articular lesions in amateur and leisure sports. Physical exercise and sport are now recognized by the World Health Organisation and the ministry of Health as non-drug therapy/treatment for many pathologies. Its use implies an increase in the number of sportsmen and therefore, statistically, an increase in the risk of osteoarticular lesions. Before starting, it is advisable to carry out a check-up to determine non-contraindication, as well as particularities and patient's preference for one or more sports. To avoid injuries and allow the regularity necessary for an efficient treatment, preventive measures must be taken. Major preventive measures consist in choosing one or several sports practiced in a safe environment and in well-qualified instructors to teach correct technique, advise on the right equipment, manage the intensity and frequency of each session to allow progression, and give precautions to be followed regarding weather and pollution conditions. Others preventive measures are those of competitive sports: warming-up, stretching, active recovery, sleep, hydration and nutrition also apply to every athlete no matter his or her level. Certain preventive measures are specific according to morphology or traumatic pathologies, such as orthosis, and others to age, young and old, or the level of the athlete.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas , Deportes , Atletas , Traumatismos en Atletas/prevención & control , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Actividades Recreativas
5.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1280-1285, 2020 Aug 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867436

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the associations between perceived built environment attributes and adults' leisure-time physical activity in four cities of China. Methods: Multistage cluster random sampling method was used to select adults aged 25 to 64 in Hangzhou, Suzhou, Chengdu, and Qingdao. Data were collected from June 2017 to July 2018. The perception of the urban built environment was assessed by the neighborhood environment walkability scale-abbreviated (NEWS-A), and the physical activity was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Generalized linear mixed models were used to explore the relationship between the perceived built environment and leisure-time physical activities. Results: A total of 3 789 participants were included in the analysis. After adjusting for potential confounders, better access to public services (OR=1.34, 95%CI: 1.02-1.75) and higher aesthetic quality (OR=1.37, 95%CI: 1.09-1.73) were positively associated with the possibility of engaging in leisure-time physical activity in the past week. Similarly, these two attributes were positively associated with leisure-time walking. Higher scores on the perception of street connectivity were positively associated with leisure-time walking [exp(ß)=1.09, 95%CI: 1.00-1.19]. Higher residential density [exp(ß)=1.000 4, 95%CI:1.000 0-1.000 8], better access to physical activity destinations[exp(ß)=1.09, 95%CI: 1.00-1.19], and better aesthetics [exp(ß)=1.11, 95%CI:1.00-1.22] were associated with higher leisure-time physical activity. Similarly, these three attributes were positively associated with the possibility of meeting the WHO recommendations. Conclusion: Changing some urban built environment attributes may increase leisure-time physical activity.


Asunto(s)
Entorno Construido/estadística & datos numéricos , Ejercicio Físico , Actividades Recreativas , Adulto , China , Ciudades , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad
6.
Euro Surveill ; 25(35)2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885777

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 community-wide transmission declined in Spain by early May 2020, being replaced by outbreaks and sporadic cases. From mid-June to 2 August, excluding single household outbreaks, 673 outbreaks were notified nationally, 551 active (>6,200 cases) at the time. More than half of these outbreaks and cases coincided with: (i) social (family/friends' gatherings or leisure venues) and (ii) occupational (mainly involving workers in vulnerable conditions) settings. Control measures were accordingly applied.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Brotes de Enfermedades , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Notificación de Enfermedades , Humanos , Actividades Recreativas , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , España/epidemiología
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975916

RESUMEN

Background: Due to the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many activities have stopped and individuals have been forced to stay at home for prolonged periods, which can have a negative impact on overall health and trigger stress and psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety. The objective of this study was to highlight 25 cases of unusual frequent urination associated with abnormal sleep and their relation to staying at home for a prolonged period due to the COVID-19 crisis. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study included 25 patients who complained of frequent urination (> 3 times/hour) and abnormal sleep during the last 4 months (January-April 2020). These patients were evaluated for all possible differential diagnoses. Results: All of the patients had frequent urination > 10 times/day and abnormal sleep but had normal kidney function tests and other investigations. None of the patients had been doing any physical activity at home. All of the patients said that both sleep and urination frequency improved after leaving home for a while (eg, to visit friends, walk, or play sports). This improvement occurred within 2 nights of leaving the home; however, the majority of patients improved after the first night. Conclusions: "Home staying syndrome" is an undefined syndrome of unusual symptoms of abnormal sleep (altering sleep time and duration) and frequent urination > 3 times/hour. This syndrome is associated with staying at home for a long period of time and is easily resolved by doing any activity such as sports or visiting friends. While this syndrome is rare, it may be more prevalent now due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which forces people to stay home for infection prevention.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Control de Infecciones , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Conducta Sedentaria , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/etiología , Trastornos Urinarios/etiología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Actividades Recreativas , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
8.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3326, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876284

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence and factors associated with workaholism among stricto sensu graduate nursing professors. METHOD: a cross-sectional study with 333 professors of master's/doctorate degrees from 47 Brazilian public universities. Participants answered a characterization questionnaire and the Dutch Work Addiction Scale, which were analyzed descriptively and by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: the prevalence of workaholism was 10.5%. The factors associated with the dimensions of workaholism were: having a marital relationship, being dissatisfied with work and sleep, indicating low ability to concentrate and few leisure opportunities, belonging to Graduate Programs with grades 3, 4 and 5, receiving a research productivity grant, considering the influence of work on life as negative, showing difficulty in combining work with personal life, to present work-related anxiety, feel pressure for scientific publishing, elaborate more than 11 articles simultaneously, give more than 21 opinions in the last year, work an extra 11 hours a week in addition to the work schedule and dedicate less than 10 hours a week to graduate school. CONCLUSION: there is an indication of workaholism in the investigated professors, and the associated factors were related to working conditions and requirements. Universities must adhere to management models that include occupational health promotion.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Actividades Recreativas , Edición
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111433, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753216

RESUMEN

Sacrificial anodes are attached to the hulls of boats and marine structures to prevent corrosion. Their use inevitably leads to release of zinc as well as impurities in the zinc alloy such as cadmium to the saline environment. Risk assessments and source apportionment exercises require accurate assessments of the potential loads of chemicals into the environment. This research has surveyed a wide variety of zinc anodes for their composition to compare against a reported industry standard as well as using differing methodologies to determine the dissolution rate of zinc and cadmium from anodes. A zinc dissolution rate of 477 g/yr/kg of anode is proposed. Although most anodes tested had concentrations of cadmium within the prescribed limits set by the reported standard, calculated leaching rates from laboratory dissolution experiments suggested as much as 400 g per year of cadmium could leach from zinc anodes used on leisure vessels within UK waters.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio , Zinc , Electrodos , Actividades Recreativas , Aguas Salinas
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237923, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817661

RESUMEN

We are living nowadays in a social paradigm characterized by a high degree of fluidity. From professional career to leisure, from family patterns to neighborhood relationships, from cultural consumption to domestic technology, almost all the components of social reality have changed during recent decades. A given couple's experience is not insulated from these dynamics, or at least from the pressure that new trends constantly put on it. How can functional relationships be preserved in a continuously changing world? What possibilities are there for couples to sustain viable relationships in the face of all the waves of change, involving as they do new content, new rules, and, in many cases, new values? This paper sets out to analyze how the main factors related to marital life interact and what their impact is on individual satisfaction in the dyadic experience. To this end we planned and applied a sociological survey to a national sample (N = 455 participants, error limit 4.7) using a questionnaire focusing on an evaluation of dyadic life experience that included the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS). The major finding is that more liberal sexual attitudes and people's high view of the importance of money are the strongest predictors of a low-quality dyadic experience. The patterns observed also raise the possibility that positive perception of the parental model may serve to compensate for a couple's relatively shorter period of marital experience.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Relaciones Interpersonales , Matrimonio/psicología , Satisfacción Personal , Adulto , Preescolar , Familia/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Actividades Recreativas/psicología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Matrimonio/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Religión y Psicología , Rumanía/epidemiología , Sociología/tendencias
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008380, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797078

RESUMEN

In French Guiana, five species are associated with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). Though infections with Leishmania guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) amazonensis have been extensively described, there are few available clinical and genetic data on L. (V.) lainsoni and L. (V.) naiffi. We determined the clinical and epidemiological features of all cases of CL due to L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni diagnosed in French Guiana between 2003 and 2019. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by sequencing a portion of HSP70 and cyt b genes. Five cases of L. naiffi and 25 cases of L. lainsoni were reported. Patients infected by L. (V.) lainsoni were usually infected on gold camps, mostly along the Maroni river (60%), while L. naiffi was observed in French patients infected on the coast (100%). A high number of pediatric cases (n = 5; 20%) was observed for L. (V.) lainsoni. A mild clinical course was observed for all cases of L. (V.) naiffi. HSP70 and cyt b partial nucleotide sequence analysis revealed different geographical clusters within L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni but no association were found between phylogenetic and clinical features. Our data suggest distinct socio-epidemiological features for these two Leishmania species. Patients seem to get infected with L. (V.) naiffi during leisure activities in anthropized coastal areas, while L. (V.) lainsoni shares common features with L. (V.) guyanensis and braziliensis and seems to be acquired during professional activities in primary forest regions. Phylogenetic analysis has provided information on the intraspecific genetic variability of L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni and how these genotypes are distributed at the geographic level.


Asunto(s)
Leishmania/clasificación , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/tratamiento farmacológico , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Citocromos b/genética , Femenino , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , Proteínas HSP70 de Choque Térmico/genética , Humanos , Lactante , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania/patogenicidad , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/patología , Actividades Recreativas , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Minería , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Filogenia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
12.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 28(10): 1020-1024, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771312

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore older people's use of the Internet for coping with stress posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online survey with a random sample of 407 Internet users aged 60 years and over (Mean = 69.14). RESULTS: Participants reported a significant increase in 7 of 12 Internet-based functions following the pandemic onset. Stress levels were moderate-to-high and participants appeared more worried about others than about themselves. Significant positive associations were found between stress and increase in Internet use for interpersonal communication and online errands. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant negative association between stress and subjective wellbeing, but it was only increased Internet use for leisure that associated significantly with enhanced wellbeing. CONCLUSION: The changes in Internet use clearly reflected coping efforts that were apparently ineffective in enhancing wellbeing. Paradoxically, the only online functions that could improve wellbeing, Internet use for leisure, are precisely those whose use hardly increased.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Comercio , Comunicación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Actividades Recreativas , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Betacoronavirus , Correo Electrónico , Femenino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiología , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Redes Sociales en Línea , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200070, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638850

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the associations between changes in the level of leisure-time physical activity in adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: This is a population-based study conducted with 818 adults aged 20 years or older from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, between 2009 and 2014. We tested the association of maintenance and/or changes in the level of physical activity with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, adjusted for sociodemographic variables (gender, age, schooling, income, marital status, and ethnicity) and smoking habits. We used logistic regression and estimated the odds ratios (OR) and their respective confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 30.9% (95%CI 27.2-34.7). Regardless of adjustment variables, adults who ceased to be active and/or remained physically inactive during leisure time in the study period presented, respectively, 108 and 124% higher odds of developing metabolic syndrome (OR=2.08; 95%CI 1.30-3.33 and OR=2.24; 95%CI 1.38-3.65). Women and individuals younger than 45 years showed lower odds of having metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: This sample presented a significant association between remaining or becoming inactive and a greater chance of developing metabolic syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Actividades Recreativas , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sedentaria
14.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 35(3): 291-310, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648075

RESUMEN

After migrating to the United States, older Korean immigrants may increase their gambling participation and be at higher risk for problem gambling. However, not much is known about their experiences and beliefs on gambling. The purpose of the present study was to explore gambling behaviors and shared beliefs about gambling among older Korean immigrants residing in New York City. A total of 20 semi-structured in-depth interviews (10 men and 10 women) were conducted in Korean. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. The findings revealed three major categories among older Korean immigrants. The first category, cultural beliefs, has three subcategories (i.e., gambling is unethical, fear of addiction, and losing everything) and refers to negative beliefs about gambling. The second category, adaptation, refers to positive attitudes they acquired as they adjusted to the new gambling environment (i.e., harmless leisure, coping strategies, and excitement in life). Last, they revealed ambivalence about gambling (i.e., changes in gambling environment, 'my gambling' is different, and gambling in secrecy). Overall, older Korean immigrants have retained their cultural beliefs about gambling, even as they have embraced the legalized gambling environment and changed social norms of the U.S. However, they have trouble reconciling the differences between their beliefs, behaviors, values, and newly acquired norms. Findings point to a need for healthy and affordable leisure pursuits, and for culturally appropriate intervention programs to help problem gamblers.


Asunto(s)
Americanos Asiáticos/psicología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Juego de Azar/etnología , Aculturación , Adaptación Psicológica , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Juego de Azar/psicología , Humanos , Actividades Recreativas , Masculino , Ciudad de Nueva York , Investigación Cualitativa , República de Corea/etnología
15.
Pediatr Ann ; 49(7): e285-e289, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674164

RESUMEN

The arrival of summer brings more sunshine, more time outside, and more opportunities for recreation and play. Although these activities may look a little different this summer as a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, they also allow us to get outside, interact safely with others, and remain connected to our friends and communities. Along with fun activities and exercise, there also comes a need for heightened awareness of summertime safety. Because so many childhood activities occur during the summer, precautions must be taken to ensure the safety and health of our children. From appropriate sun protection and water safety to insect exposure and recreational precautions, it is important to review key safety points to ensure a happy and healthy season. As the COVID-19 pandemic is still very active, there will also be an added layer of complexity to staying safe this summer, including adapting activities to meet the guidelines of social distancing. This article addresses some of the most common dangers encountered during the summer months and offers protective measures to decrease risk and promote safety. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(7):e285-e289.].


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Actividades Recreativas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Estaciones del Año , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Prevención Primaria/métodos , Seguridad , Deportes , Estados Unidos
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(10): 2499-2501, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633713

RESUMEN

At least 246 cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been linked to nightclubs in Seoul, South Korea. During the April 30-May 5 holiday, young adults from across the country who visited nightclubs in Seoul contracted COVID-19 and spread it nationally. Nightclubs were temporarily closed to limit COVID-19 spread.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Actividades Recreativas , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Prevalencia , República de Corea/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
18.
Am J Occup Ther ; 74(4): 7404397010p1-7404397010p48, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602457

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Demand is increasing for activity- and occupation-based interventions to address occupational performance and support maximal participation of children and youth. OBJECTIVE: This Practice Guideline was developed to guide decision making and support best practices in service delivery for children and youth ages 5-21 yr at home, at school, and in the community. METHOD: The results from three systematic reviews (SRs) of activity- and occupation-based interventions for children and youth ages 5-21 yr were reviewed, synthesized, and translated into recommendations for education, practice, and research. RESULTS: One hundred eighty-five articles were included in the three SRs examining the evidence for interventions to promote activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, play and leisure, and rest and sleep; to improve mental health, positive behavior, and social participation; and to enhance learning, academic achievement, and successful participation in school. The reviews provide evidence for interventions associated with typical concerns addressed by occupational therapy practitioners. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: On the basis of the evidence, this guideline recommends that occupational therapy practitioners consistently collaborate with families and caregivers and provide services in the natural context of the desired occupation. The evidence also supports group service models and models that include peer mediation; these models can promote participation across areas of occupation. Skills-based training and therapeutic practice in the context of valued occupations are recommended over isolated sensorimotor approaches. Technology, manualized programs, and sports activities can be effective but should be evaluated and matched to age, diagnosis, and outcomes as guided by the evidence. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: When guided by evidence, activity- and occupation-based interventions are effective in promoting participation and enhancing performance in valued occupations of children and youth ages 5-21 yr.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Ocupacional , Actividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Actividades Recreativas , Salud Mental , Participación Social , Adulto Joven
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635673

RESUMEN

In the context of education, this study examined the relationship between perceiving a transformational physical education (PE) teacher and student's leisure-time physical activity (PA). Furthermore, we tested the potential mediation role of motivational learning climate, passion and self-determined motivation in this relationship. The sample was composed of 2210 high-school PE students (1145 males, 1065 females) between 16 and 20 years of age. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that the perceived transformational PE teacher-PA outcomes relationship was stronger when students perceived a task-involving climate, when they were harmoniously passionate, and when they were self-determined. We conclude that students' health-enhancing behaviours could be improved if their PE teachers use transformational teaching style and created a task-oriented learning climate.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Motivación , Autonomía Personal , Educación y Entrenamiento Físico , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Actividades Recreativas , Masculino , Cultura Organizacional , Enseñanza , Adulto Joven
20.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(10): 867-872, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725916

RESUMEN

AIM: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) have attracted attention in recent years in relation to the early stages of dementia. However, it is not clear whether SMC are related to social and leisure activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate SMC in relation to activities in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: A questionnaire inquiring about SMC and social and leisure activities was sent to 14 850 people aged ≥65 years residing in Toyoake City, as part of the Toyoake Integrated Care Study. After a preliminary analysis, we targeted respondents aged ≥70 years. Therefore, 6685 people were included in the analysis. Three question items were used detecting SMC: the feeling of a memory problem (SMC-1), memory loss pointed out by others (SMC-2) and difficulty in recalling today's date (SMC-3). Logistic regression was carried out to determine the relationship between SMC and activities. RESULTS: In response to SMC-1, 2 and 3, 45.3%, 13.3% and 23.5% participants, respectively, agreed with the statement. Social and leisure activities were negatively associated with SMC-2 and SMC-3, after controlling for confounding factors (SMC-2: odds ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.65-0.89; SMC-3: odds ratio 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.70-0.90). However, a significant increase in participation in social and leisure activities was associated with a positive response to SMC-1 (SMC-1: odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.38). Conclusion A relationship was observed between SMC and social and leisure activities in community-dwelling older people, although differences in the impact of SMC were seen depending on the question asked. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 867-872.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Recreativas/psicología , Trastornos de la Memoria/epidemiología , Memoria/fisiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Disfunción Cognitiva/complicaciones , Estudios Transversales , Demencia/complicaciones , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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