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1.
Nature ; 597(7876): 360-365, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526707

RESUMEN

Fish and other aquatic foods (blue foods) present an opportunity for more sustainable diets1,2. Yet comprehensive comparison has been limited due to sparse inclusion of blue foods in environmental impact studies3,4 relative to the vast diversity of production5. Here we provide standardized estimates of greenhouse gas, nitrogen, phosphorus, freshwater and land stressors for species groups covering nearly three quarters of global production. We find that across all blue foods, farmed bivalves and seaweeds generate the lowest stressors. Capture fisheries predominantly generate greenhouse gas emissions, with small pelagic fishes generating lower emissions than all fed aquaculture, but flatfish and crustaceans generating the highest. Among farmed finfish and crustaceans, silver and bighead carps have the lowest greenhouse gas, nitrogen and phosphorus emissions, but highest water use, while farmed salmon and trout use the least land and water. Finally, we model intervention scenarios and find improving feed conversion ratios reduces stressors across all fed groups, increasing fish yield reduces land and water use by up to half, and optimizing gears reduces capture fishery emissions by more than half for some groups. Collectively, our analysis identifies high-performing blue foods, highlights opportunities to improve environmental performance, advances data-poor environmental assessments, and informs sustainable diets.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Alimentos Marinos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias , Cambio Climático , Dieta , Ecología , Política Ambiental , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/métodos , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Humanos , Moluscos , Nitrógeno , Fósforo , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución , Algas Marinas , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias
2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0239503, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606718

RESUMEN

The rate of climate change (CC) has accelerated to the point where it now affects the mid- to long-term sustainability of fishing strategies. Therefore, it is important to consider practical and effective ways to incorporate CC into fisheries advice so that the advice can be considered conditioned to CC. We developed a model to characterise the empirical relationship between a variable affected by climate and fish production. We then used model projections as a foundation for a risk analysis of CC effects on harvesting of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in the Gulf of St Lawrence, Canada. The risk-based approach quantified a) the relative change in risk of a status quo fishing strategy under various CC scenarios, and b) the change in fishery exploitation rates required to achieve a management objective over a specified time period at a level of risk considered acceptable (risk equivalent fishery exploitation advice). This empirical approach can be used to develop risk-based advice for any other external variable that affects stock production in addition to climate-related variables and it can be applied in most situations where there is an index of stock biomass and fisheries catch. Shifting the focus from process-based understanding of the responses of fish stocks to CC to quantification of how CC-contributed uncertainty can alter the risks associated with different fishing strategies and/or management options, can ensure timely delivery of robust scientific advice for fisheries under non-stationary environmental conditions.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura/métodos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias , Canadá , Cambio Climático/economía , Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces , Modelos Teóricos , Dinámica Poblacional , Desarrollo Sostenible/economía , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21878, 2020 12 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318576

RESUMEN

Globally aquaculture contributes 8% of animal protein intake to the human diet, and per capita consumption is increasing faster than meat and dairy consumption. Reports have documented antimicrobial use in the rapidly expanding aquaculture industry, which may contribute to the rise of antimicrobial resistance, carrying potential consequences for animal-, human-, and ecosystem-health. However, quantitative antimicrobial use across a highly diversified aquaculture industry is not well characterized. Here, we estimate global trends in antimicrobial use in aquaculture in 2017 and 2030 to help target future surveillance efforts and antimicrobial stewardship policies. We estimate antimicrobial use intensity (mg kg-1) for six species groups though a systematic review of point prevalence surveys, which identified 146 species-specific antimicrobial use rates. We project antimicrobial use in each country by combining mean antimicrobial use coefficients per species group with OECD/FAO Agricultural Outlook and FAO FishStat production volumes. We estimate global antimicrobial consumption in 2017 at 10,259 tons (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3163-44,727 tons), increasing 33% to 13,600 tons in 2030 (UI 4193-59,295). The Asia-Pacific region represents the largest share (93.8%) of global consumption, with China alone contributing 57.9% of global consumption in 2017. Antimicrobial consumption intensity per species group was: catfish, 157 mg kg-1 (UI 9-2751); trout, 103 mg kg-1 (UI 5-1951); tilapia, 59 mg kg-1 (UI 21-169); shrimp, 46 mg kg-1 (UI 10-224); salmon, 27 mg kg-1 (UI 17-41) and a pooled species group, 208 mg kg-1, (UI 70-622). All antimicrobial classes identified in the review are classified as medically important. We estimate aggregate global human, terrestrial and aquatic food animal antimicrobial use in 2030 at 236,757 tons (95% UI 145,525-421,426), of which aquaculture constitutes 5.7% but carries the highest use intensity per kilogram of biomass (164.8 mg kg-1). This analysis calls for a substantial scale-up of surveillance capacities to monitor global trends in antimicrobial use. Current evidence, while subject to considerable uncertainties, suggests that for some species groups antimicrobial use intensity surpasses consumption levels in terrestrial animals and humans. Acknowledging the fast-growing nature of aquaculture as an important source of animal nutrition globally, our findings highlight the urgent need for enhanced antimicrobial stewardship in a high-growth industry with broad links to water and ecosystem health.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Acuicultura/tendencias , Ecosistema , Salud Global/tendencias , Humanos
4.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 367(16)2020 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766759

RESUMEN

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), including EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) are important nutritional ingredients in fish feed. So far, fish oil has been used as a main source of LC-PUFAs; however, the limited global supply of fish oil is not able to meet the demand of the growing aquaculture sector. Hence, sustainability of aquaculture industry could be supported by searching alternative sources of these compounds. Marine microorganisms represent a sustainable and stable supply source of LC-PUFAs. A collection of 209 bacterial isolates obtained from sediment samples recovered in the Mediterranean Sea was screened in order to select new LC-PUFAs producers. Among 95 putative producers selected based on colourimetric screening, 31 quickly growing were selected for further studies. The detection of LC-PUFAs was confirmed from 15 isolates belonging to the genera Marinobacter, Halomonas and Thalassospira by GC-FID analysis. Among them, the isolate Marinobacter sp. G16.20 was found to be a potentially high LC-PUFA producer exhibiting relatively high levels of DHA in particular (maximum productivity of 1.85 ± 0.371 mg/g, representing 45.89% of the total fatty acids detected and identified). Microorganisms belonging to the genera reported in this study showed biotechnological traits interesting for their potential future application in aquaculture.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/química , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/metabolismo , Acuicultura/tendencias , Biotecnología , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/análisis , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/aislamiento & purificación , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiología , Mar Mediterráneo
5.
Mar Drugs ; 18(1)2019 Dec 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877971

RESUMEN

The growing interest in laver as a food product and as a source of substances beneficial to health has led to global consumer demand for laver produced in a limited area of northeastern Asia. Here we review research into the benefits of laver consumption and discuss future perspectives on the improvement of laver product quality. Variation in nutritional/functional values among product types (raw and processed (dried, roasted, or seasoned) laver) makes product-specific nutritional analysis a prerequisite for accurate prediction of health benefits. The effects of drying, roasting, and seasoning on the contents of both beneficial and harmful substances highlight the importance of managing laver processing conditions. Most research into health benefits has focused on substances present at high concentrations in laver (porphyran, Vitamin B12, taurine), with assessment of the expected effects of laver consumption. Mitigation of chemical/microbiological risks and the adoption of novel technologies to exploit under-reported biochemical characteristics of lavers are suggested as key strategies for the further improvement of laver product quality. Comprehensive analysis of the literature regarding laver as a food product and as a source of biomedical compounds highlights the possibilities and challenges for application of laver products.


Asunto(s)
Manipulación de Alimentos/normas , Porphyra/química , Control de Calidad , Algas Marinas/química , Acuicultura/tendencias , Desecación , Alimentos , Porphyra/microbiología , Algas Marinas/microbiología , Verduras
6.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(2): 409-421, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés, Francés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866685

RESUMEN

Aquaculture will continue to grow, but environmental constraints will interact with changing consumer profiles and regulatory frameworks such that future growth will look somewhat different from the trajectories of the past 30 years. Availability and price of land, fresh water, feeds and energy, and concerns about pollution and the introduction of non-native species will be major constraints to expansion. New technology will evolve in response to these concerns. This new technology will be based on the principle of sustainable intensification so as to reduce the environmental footprint per unit of production and limit volatility in markets precipitated by disease and other production system problems. Markets and consumer demand will be reflected in the economics of the industry under more sophisticated regulatory regimes. More sustainable sources of the proteins and oils in fish diets, improved genetic management, and better health and production systems will continue to underpin the expansion of aquaculture into the 21st century and beyond.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Acuicultura , Enfermedades de los Peces/prevención & control , Peces , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias , Comercio , Dieta , Contaminación Ambiental
7.
Transgenic Res ; 28(Suppl 2): 101-105, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321691

RESUMEN

Gene editing offers opportunities to solve fish farming sustainability issues that presently hampers expansion of the aquaculture industry. In for example Atlantic salmon farming, there are now two major bottlenecks limiting the expansion of the industry. One is the genetic impact of escaped farmed salmon on wild populations, which is considered the most long-term negative effect on the environment. Secondly and the utmost acute problem is the fish parasite salmon lice, which is currently causing high lethality in wild salmonids due to high concentrations of the parasite in the sea owing to sea cage salmon farming. There are also sustainability issues associated with increased use of vegetable-based ingredients as replacements for marine products in fish feed. This transition comes at the expense of the omega-3 content both in fish feed and the fish filet of the farmed fish. Reduced fish welfare represents another obstacle, and robust farmed fish is needed to avoid negative stress associated phenotypes such as cataract, bone and fin deformities, precocious maturity and higher disease susceptibility. Gene editing could solve some of these problems as genetic traits can be altered positively to reach phenotype of interest such as for example disease resistance and increased omega-3 production.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura/tendencias , Resistencia a la Enfermedad/genética , Edición Génica/métodos , Salmo salar/genética , Animales , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Humanos , Fenotipo , Salmo salar/crecimiento & desarrollo
9.
J Biosci ; 44(1)2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837359

RESUMEN

Bacteriophage therapy is a viable proposition for controlling luminous vibriosis caused by Vibrio harveyi in shrimp aquaculture. However, environmental factors influence the growth and activity of phage and affect its efficiency in controlling bacterial diseases. An essential problem in the use of vibrio phage as a therapeutic agent was the development of resistance to phage attachment, rendering them resistant to the lytic action of phage. This problem could be overcome by applying a cocktail of phages. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of salinity and pH on the phage activity and also to study the role of recombinant shrimp lysozyme on the performance of the V. harveyi phage. Out of three different levels of salinity (20, 25 and 30 ppt) and pH (6, 7 and 8) tested, optimum phage activity was observed at a salinity of 25 ppt and at neutral pH. Application of recombinant shrimp lysozyme in combination with V. harveyi phage significantly improved the activity of phage in in vitro assay as well as in microcosm study using seawater. The application of phage along with lysozyme can be a useful approach to overcome the inability of phage to enter the bacteria and thus eliminate or reduce fish/ shrimp pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/terapia , Bacteriófagos/genética , Penaeidae/microbiología , Terapia de Fagos , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/virología , Bacteriófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Bacteriófagos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bacteriófagos/metabolismo , Muramidasa/química , Muramidasa/farmacología , Penaeidae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Penaeidae/virología , Salinidad , Agua de Mar/química , Vibrio/patogenicidad , Vibrio/virología
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878485

RESUMEN

This article serves as an introduction to a Virtual Special Issue of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (CBP) focused on aquaculture. CBP has not traditionally had a focus on aquaculture, and the Editors sought to use this Special Issue to identify opportunities for synergy between traditional comparative physiology and applied physiology, such as aquaculture. Each of the four CBP journals has a dedicated special issue, with manuscripts that span the breadth of vertebrate and invertebrate species cultured around the globe. This overview is intended to identify the major themes of the submissions, as well as articulate a vision for the types of aquaculture-focused research that are well suited for CBP publications.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura/métodos , Acuicultura/tendencias , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto
11.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2(11): 1745-1750, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201967

RESUMEN

Climate change is an immediate and future threat to food security globally. The consequences for fisheries and agriculture production potential are well studied, yet the possible outcomes for aquaculture (that is, aquatic farming)-one of the fastest growing food sectors on the planet-remain a major gap in scientific understanding. With over one-third of aquaculture produced in marine waters and this proportion increasing, it is critical to anticipate new opportunities and challenges in marine production under climate change. Here, we model and map the effect of warming ocean conditions (Representative Concentration Pathway scenario 8.5) on marine aquaculture production potential over the next century, based on thermal tolerance and growth data of 180 cultured finfish and bivalve species. We find heterogeneous patterns of gains and losses, but an overall greater probability of declines worldwide. Accounting for multiple drivers of species growth, including shifts in temperature, chlorophyll and ocean acidification, reveals potentially greater declines in bivalve aquaculture compared with finfish production. This study addresses a missing component in food security research and sustainable development planning by identifying regions that will face potentially greater climate change challenges and resilience with regards to marine aquaculture in the coming decades. Understanding the scale and magnitude of future increases and reductions in aquaculture potential is critical for designing effective and efficient use and protection of the oceans, and ultimately for feeding the planet sustainably.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura/tendencias , Bivalvos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Cambio Climático , Peces/crecimiento & desarrollo , Agua de Mar/análisis , Animales , Calentamiento Global , Modelos Biológicos , Océanos y Mares
12.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 19(7): 545-555, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091404

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Euryale ferox Salisb. (Makhana) is a rooted macro-hydrophyte, grown as a crop in north Bihar wetlands, India. Makhana refers to yummy pops prepared through mechanical smacking of the baked seeds of E. ferox. New techniques have been evolved to produce pops from seeds at a brisk pace. OBJECTIVE: It is specially associated with marital rituals possibly in view of its spermatogenic properties. It has a high amino acid index but a low glycemic value. The plant carries medicinal values against cardiovascular and diabetes-related diseases. Makhana pops with a high volume to mass ratio, is developed as a reliable system for drug delivery in the recent times. RESULTS: There is a fair prospect of raising multi-faceted industry based on Makhana culture, harvest, post-harvest safety, preparation of pops and various types of food products therefrom and marketing in areas where water-logging is considered as a curse. It may generate employment and strengthen regional economy propping check on population migration primarily due to non-employment and poverty. CONCLUSION: Active research is required to harness this macro-hydrophyte along with co-culture of compatible fish varieties and other hydrophytes into a sustainable livelihood and economic prosperity.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura/métodos , Ciencias de la Nutrición/métodos , Nymphaeaceae/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Semillas/química , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Ciencias de la Nutrición/tendencias , Nymphaeaceae/fisiología , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Semillas/fisiología
13.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 1(9): 1317-1324, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046547

RESUMEN

Marine aquaculture presents an opportunity for increasing seafood production in the face of growing demand for marine protein and limited scope for expanding wild fishery harvests. However, the global capacity for increased aquaculture production from the ocean and the relative productivity potential across countries are unknown. Here, we map the biological production potential for marine aquaculture across the globe using an innovative approach that draws from physiology, allometry and growth theory. Even after applying substantial constraints based on existing ocean uses and limitations, we find vast areas in nearly every coastal country that are suitable for aquaculture. The development potential far exceeds the space required to meet foreseeable seafood demand; indeed, the current total landings of all wild-capture fisheries could be produced using less than 0.015% of the global ocean area. This analysis demonstrates that suitable space is unlikely to limit marine aquaculture development and highlights the role that other factors, such as economics and governance, play in shaping growth trajectories. We suggest that the vast amount of space suitable for marine aquaculture presents an opportunity for countries to develop aquaculture in a way that aligns with their economic, environmental and social objectives.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Organismos Acuáticos , Alimentos Marinos , Acuicultura/estadística & datos numéricos , Acuicultura/tendencias , Organismos Acuáticos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución
14.
Trends Biotechnol ; 35(12): 1119-1121, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28890138

RESUMEN

Fulfilling the promise of marine biotechnology as a source for environmental and biomedical applications remains challenging. New technologies will be necessary to harness marine biodiversity, and collaboration across government, academic, and private sectors will be crucial to create mechanisms of technology transfer and promote the development of new marine biotechnology companies.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Biotecnología/economía , Biotecnología/tendencias , Países en Desarrollo/economía , Biología Marina/economía , Biología Marina/tendencias , Acuicultura/economía , Acuicultura/tendencias , Organismos Acuáticos , Tecnología Biomédica/economía , Tecnología Biomédica/tendencias , Salud Ambiental/economía , Salud Ambiental/tendencias , Humanos , Océanos y Mares , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Transferencia de Tecnología
15.
Biotechnol Adv ; 35(6): 832-844, 2017 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28602961

RESUMEN

The history of transgenesis is marked by milestones such as the development of cellular transdifferentiation, recombinant DNA, genetic modification of target cells, and finally, the generation of simpler genetically modified organisms (e.g. bacteria and mice). The first transgenic fish was developed in 1984, and since then, continuing technological advancements to improve gene transfer have led to more rapid, accurate, and efficient generation of transgenic animals. Among the established methods are microinjection, electroporation, lipofection, viral vectors, and gene targeting. Here, we review the history of animal transgenesis, with an emphasis on fish, in conjunction with major developments in genetic engineering over the past few decades. Importantly, spermatogonial stem cell modification and transplantation are two common techniques capable of revolutionizing the generation of transgenic fish. Furthermore, we discuss recent progress and future biotechnological prospects of fish transgenesis, which has strong applications for the aquaculture industry. Indeed, some transgenic fish are already available in the current market, validating continued efforts to improve economically important species with biotechnological advancements.


Asunto(s)
Animales Modificados Genéticamente/genética , Peces/genética , Técnicas de Transferencia de Gen/tendencias , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(3): 733-742, 2017 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27558451

RESUMEN

The global expansion in aquaculture production implies an emerging need of suitable and sustainable protein sources. Currently, the fish feed industry is dependent on high-quality protein sources of marine and plant origin. Yeast derived from processing of low-value and non-food lignocellulosic biomass is a potential sustainable source of protein in fish diets. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, the hexose and pentose sugars of lignocellulosic substrates and supplementary nutrients can be converted into protein-rich yeast biomass by fermentation. Studies have shown that yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus have favourable amino acid composition and excellent properties as protein sources in diets for fish, including carnivorous species such as Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. Suitable downstream processing of the biomass to disrupt cell walls is required to secure high nutrient digestibility. A number of studies have shown various immunological and health benefits from feeding fish low levels of yeast and yeast-derived cell wall fractions. This review summarises current literature on the potential of yeast from lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative protein source for the aquaculture industry. It is concluded that further research and development within yeast production can be important to secure the future sustainability and economic viability of intensive aquaculture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Acuicultura , Peces/crecimiento & desarrollo , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Proteínas Fúngicas/administración & dosificación , Salud Global , Levaduras/aislamiento & purificación , Aminoácidos/análisis , Alimentación Animal/economía , Animales , Acuicultura/economía , Acuicultura/tendencias , Biomasa , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/tendencias , Producción de Cultivos/economía , Digestión , Fermentación , Peces/metabolismo , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/economía , Agricultura Forestal/economía , Proteínas Fúngicas/biosíntesis , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/economía , Humanos , Residuos Industriales/análisis , Residuos Industriales/economía , Lignina/química , Lignina/aislamiento & purificación , Lignina/metabolismo , Desnutrición/economía , Desnutrición/prevención & control , Ciclo del Nitrógeno , Levaduras/química , Levaduras/crecimiento & desarrollo , Levaduras/metabolismo
17.
Mar Environ Res ; 122: 67-75, 2016 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27686389

RESUMEN

Aquaculture of higher trophic level species is increasingly dependent on the use of terrestrial oil products. The input of terrestrially derived n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) into marine environments has subsequently increased, with unknown consequences for recipient species. We exposed a sea urchin, Heliocidaris erythrogramma to three experimental diets for 78 days: a high n-3 PUFA marine imitation treatment, a high n-6 PUFA "future aquafeed" treatment and an intermediate "current aquafeed" treatment. Female urchins fed the high n-6 PUFA diet produced larvae with lower survival rates than all other treatments. Males fed the high n-6 PUFA diet produced no viable sperm. Fatty acid composition in reproductive material revealed comprehensive biosynthetic and dietary sparing capabilities in H. erythrogramma. Despite this, the ratio of n-6 PUFA to n-3 PUFA in reproductive tissue increased significantly with diet. We suggest alterations to this ratio is the likely mechanism of negative impact on larval development.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Acuicultura/métodos , Dieta/métodos , Invertebrados/fisiología , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3 , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados , Femenino , Masculino , Reproducción
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(2): 525-534, mar.-abr. 2016. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-779783

RESUMEN

A aquicultura moderna é um dos setores de produção de alimentos que mais cresce no mundo. A tilápia, além de possuir grandes vantagens produtivas, origina produtos com grande aceitação pelo mercado. Em sua nutrição, podem ser utilizados aditivos com finalidades zootécnicas, pigmentantes ou antioxidantes. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito da suplementação da dieta de tilápias com biomassa de Rubrivivax gelatinosus sobre o desempenho zootécnico e a saúde dos animais (histologia e hematologia) e sobre as características de qualidade dos filés (pH, composição químico-bromatológica, cor e rancidez). O experimento contou com seis tratamentos, compostos de um grupo controle, sem aditivos, um grupo contendo pigmentante comercial e quatro grupos com a biomassa nas concentrações de 175, 350, 700 e 1400mg/kg. Peixes pesando 21,42±5,65g foram criados por 74 dias em sistema com recirculação de água e, posteriormente, foram abatidos para a realização das análises. Não foram encontradas diferenças para os resultados das análises de desempenho, histológicas e hematológicas. Os filés dos grupos alimentados com os aditivos apresentaram menor umidade que o grupo controle, e os filés dos grupos alimentados com biomassa apresentaram as maiores teores proteicos. Não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos para os valores de pH, lipídeos e cinzas. Quanto à cor dos filés, todos os tratamentos com aditivos aumentaram a intensidade de vermelho. Em todos os tratamentos, a rancidez dos filés foi crescente durante o armazenamento, embora em menores valores nos filés dos grupos tratados com as maiores concentrações de biomassa. A biomassa de R. gelatinosus não promoveu alterações no desempenho nem na saúde animal e mostrou-se capaz de melhorar os aspectos de qualidade e conservação dos filés.


Modern aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food sectors in the world. Beyond having productivity advantages, tilapia fish yields products with great market acceptance. For its nutrition, additives aiming at increasing zootechnical, pigmenting or antioxidant features may be used. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of tilapia diets with Rubrivivax gelatinosus biomass on the performance and the health of animals (histology and hematology), and on the quality of fillets (pH, proximate composition, color and rancidity). The experiment comprised six treatments, made of a control group with no additives, a group containing commercial pigments and four groups with biomass at 175, 350, 700 and 1400 mg/kg. Fish weighing 21.42±5.65g were reared for 74 days in a system with water recirculation and slaughtered for analyzes. No differences were detected for performance, histological and hematological analyzes. Fillets of the groups fed additives had lower moisture content than the control group while the fillets of the groups fed the biomass had the highest protein percentages. No differences were detected among treatments for pH​, lipids and ash values. Regarding to the color of the fillets, all treatments with additives increased redness. For all treatments, rancidity in the fillets increased during storage, although the groups treated with the highest biomass concentrations had the lowest values. R. gelatinosus biomass did not change performance and animal health, and proved to be capable of improving fillets quality features and conservation.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Alimentación Animal , Antioxidantes , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Biomasa , Cíclidos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Acuicultura/tendencias , Industria Pesquera , Conservación de Alimentos , Calidad de los Alimentos , Pigmentos Biológicos/toxicidad
19.
Curr Biol ; 25(22): R1064-5, 2015 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26583891

RESUMEN

John Lucas introduces aquaculture, the cultivation of aquatic organisms and its role in human food production for a sustainable future.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura/métodos , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias , Organismos Acuáticos , Carpas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos
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