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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 505-513, 2022 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143439

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Flaxseed is a rich source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, lignans, and dietary fiber. However, it also contains phytic acid, which inhibits mineral absorption and has the potential to adversely affect the properties of bread. Microfluidization prevents these negative effects, reduces the amount of phytic acid, and improves functional properties. In this study, the possibility of using full-fat and defatted flaxseed flours as well as microfluidized flaxseed flours in bread formulation was investigated. For this purpose, crude and microfluidized flaxseed flours were added to the bread in different proportions (0, 25, 50, and 75 g kg-1 ), and the effects of the partial replacement of wheat flour with flaxseed flours on the functional, quality, and sensory properties of breads were analyzed. The effects of the microfluidization process on the antioxidant properties, phenolic, dietary fiber, and phytic acid content of flaxseed were also observed. RESULT: Flaxseed flours increased the dietary fiber, phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of breads. The crumb color became darker with increasing level of flaxseed flours, and their addition also detrimentally affected the sensory properties of breads. It was seen that the microfluidization process has beneficial effects on functional properties of full-fat and defatted flaxseed flours, as well as on their quality characteristics. CONCLUSION: The study showed that flaxseed flour is a rich source of functional compounds, and it is even possible to further improve these functional properties with microfluidization treatment. Microfluidized flaxseed flour can also be used as a promising alternative functional food to enrich breads. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Pan/análisis , Lino/química , Aditivos Alimentarios/química , Fibras de la Dieta/análisis , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Lino/metabolismo , Harina/análisis , Aditivos Alimentarios/metabolismo , Manipulación de Alimentos , Humanos , Ácido Fítico/análisis , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Semillas/química , Semillas/metabolismo , Gusto , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 644-652, 2022 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151431

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Starch retrogradation and moisture migration of boiled wheat noodles (BWNs) result in quality deterioration and short shelf life. The objective of this research was to investigate whether konjac glucomannan (KGM) could improve the quality of BWNs and further establish the shelf-life prediction model. RESULTS: The moisture distribution, recrystallization, and thermal properties of BWNs during refrigerated or ambient temperature storage were determined. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance data showed that KGM addition induced left-shifts of T21 and T22 values, indicating that KGM limited the mobility of bound and immobile water among noodle matrices. X-ray diffraction spectra revealed that KGM did not change the crystal patterns of BWNs but could inhibit the starch recrystallization after refrigerated storage. The Tp and ΔH values of retrograded samples notably (P < 0.05) decreased with the increase of KGM addition, suggesting the hinderance of starch retrogradation behavior by KGM. The shelf life of BWNs was predicted by accelerated storage test combined with the Arrhenius equation. The present data displayed that the predicted shelf life of vacuum-packed and sterilized BWNs with 10 g kg-1 KGM at 25 °C was 733 days, 2.4-fold that of the control group. CONCLUSION: BWNs with KGM addition could inhibit starch retrogradation and improve the storage stability, consequently promoting noodle quality. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Amorphophallus/química , Aditivos Alimentarios/química , Mananos/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Almidón/química , Triticum/química , Culinaria , Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Calor
3.
Food Chem ; 368: 130849, 2022 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419796

RESUMEN

Umami intensity promotes food flavor blending and food choice, while a universal quantification procedure is still lacking. To evaluate perceived umami intensity (PUI) in seven categories of foods, modified two-alternative forced choice (2-AFC) method with monosodium glutamate as reference was applied. Meanwhile, we explored whether equivalent umami concentration (EUC) by chemical analysis and electronic tongue (E-tongue) are applicable in PUI quantification. The results indicated that EUC was appropriate in quantifying PUI of samples from meat, dairy, vegetable and mushroom groups (r = 1.00, p < 0.05). Moreover, models with a good prediction capacity for PUI and EUC (R2 > 0.99) were established in separated food categories by back propagation neural networks, where E-tongue data were set as input. This study explored the effectiveness of the three methods in evaluating the PUIs of various foods, which provides multiple choices for the food industry.


Asunto(s)
Nariz Electrónica , Gusto , Aromatizantes , Aditivos Alimentarios , Glutamato de Sodio
4.
Food Chem ; 369: 130947, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479015

RESUMEN

Synthetic dyes can cause many health problems, and their use as food additives is rigorously regulated worldwide. Two methods for the determination of synthetic dyes in food are described in this article. The visual qualitative expression method was based on the extraction of synthetic dyes using a liquid anion exchanger (0.01 M solution of trioctylmethylammonium chloride in chloroform). Using this reagent, an optimal transition of 15 anionic synthetic dyes from the aqueous to the organic phase was achieved (R > 99.8%). It was applicable for testing food that must not contain synthetic dyes (wines, juices, etc.) in a very short time (5-10 min). In the case of colouring of the organic phase, identification and quantification was carried out using the HPLC-DAD method described. The rapid and simple method allows for simultaneous determination of 16 synthetic dyes from all food types. The LOD and LOQ ranged from 0.026 to 0.086 µg mL-1 and from 0.077 to 0.262 µg mL-1 respectively, and recovery was 83.7-107.5%. Hypothesis: anionic synthetic dyes have hydrophobic properties, as a result they are retained on the non-polar stationary phase of the chromatographic column and are easily extracted from aqueous solutions by liquid anion exchangers.


Asunto(s)
Colorantes , Aditivos Alimentarios , Aniones , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Indicadores y Reactivos
5.
Food Chem ; 370: 131315, 2022 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788958

RESUMEN

Currently, agricultural production generates large amounts of organic waste, both from the maintenance of farms and crops (agricultural wastes) and from the industrialization of the product (food industry waste). In the case of Actinidia cultivation, agricultural waste groups together leaves, flowers, stems and roots while food industry by-products are represented by discarded fruits, skin and seeds. All these matrices are now underexploited and so, they can be revalued as a natural source of ingredients to be applied in food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical industries. Kiwifruit composition (phenolic compounds, volatile compounds, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, etc.) is an outstanding basis, especially for its high content in vitamin C and phenolic compounds. These compounds possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or antimicrobial activities, among other beneficial properties for health, but stand out for their digestive enhancement and prebiotic role. Although the biological properties of kiwi fruit have been analyzed, few studies show the high content of compounds with biological functions present in these by-products. Therefore, agricultural and food industry wastes derived from processing kiwi are regarded as useful matrices for the development of innovative applications in the food (pectins, softeners, milk coagulants, and colorants), cosmetic (ecological pigments) and pharmaceutical industry (fortified, functional, nutraceutical, or prebiotic foods). This strategy will provide economic and environmental benefits, turning this industry into a sustainable and environmentally friendly production system, promoting a circular and sustainable economy.


Asunto(s)
Aditivos Alimentarios , Frutas , Agricultura , Antioxidantes , Industria de Alimentos , Semillas
6.
Georgian Med News ; (319): 147-151, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749341

RESUMEN

The study of the mechanisms of the effect of various food additives on the human and animal organism is one of the most pressing problems today. The work of physicians, toxicologists, physiologists is aimed at studying the mechanisms of the toxic effect of food additives, as well as studying compensatory-adaptive reactions in response to their ingestion. Monosodium glutamate (E621) is widely used in marketing as a flavor enhancer and is added to many processed foods. Today, about 50% of store products contain this additive, while the average daily human consumption in industrialized European countries is approximately 0.3-1.0 g. The purpose of this work is to analyze the literature data on the effect of monosodium glutamate on various organs and systems of the human body. The research used the bibliosemantic method of analyzing scientific publications. The article assesses 40 literary sources. Special attention is paid to the sources for the last 5 years (2016-2021). This review of the scientific literature proves the importance of further study of food additives and their effect for the development of a scientifically based strategy for increasing the tolerance of humans and animals to xenobiotics by activating genetically fixed mechanisms, as well as by creating new perfect adaptogens.


Asunto(s)
Aditivos Alimentarios , Glutamato de Sodio , Animales , Aromatizantes/toxicidad , Aditivos Alimentarios/efectos adversos , Humanos , Glutamato de Sodio/toxicidad
7.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(3): 335-343, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730312

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to determine the effects of feed addition of LAVIPAN PL5 probiotic preparation containing compositions of microencapsulated lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus) on production parameters and post-vaccinal immune response in pigs under field condition. The study was performed on 400 pigs in total and 60 pigs from this group were used to evaluate the effect of the product tested on the post-vaccinal response. The animals were divided into two groups: control group, fed without additive of LAVIPAN PL5 and the study group, receiving LAVIPAN PL5 at doses recommended by manufacturer from weaning to the end of fattening. The following parameters were recorded: main production parameters, including weight gains, fattening time (slaughter age) and animal health status during the study (mortality), and specific humoral post-vaccinal response after vaccination against swine erysipelas. The results indicate that the application of LAVIPAN PL5 had positive influence on the animals` productivity and did not significantly affect the post-vaccinal antibody levels and the development and maintenance of the post-vaccinal response, albeit the levels of antibodies were slightly higher in the animal receiving the test preparation. The higher average daily weight gains (by over 3%) which resulted in a 2 kg higher average weight at slaughter and a reduction of the fattening period by 5 days, undoubtedly contributed to significant economic benefits.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Composición de Medicamentos , Lactobacillaceae , Probióticos , Porcinos , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Erisipela/prevención & control , Erisipela/veterinaria , Aditivos Alimentarios , Inmunidad Humoral , Aumento de Peso
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 4): e20210571, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706010

RESUMEN

Several works have shown different aspects of the use of the plant Moringa oleifera. However, few review studies bring an approach to its use in food preparation, specifying its role as a functional food and its use as a natural additive, focusing on food biochemistry and including sensory acceptance and safety. Composed by multiple bioactive substances, Moringa oleifera has the potential to be used as a food additive, mainly as a preservative with the potential to prevent lipid oxidation and other unwanted chemical reactions that lead to product deterioration. Furthermore, it can improve the physicochemical characteristics of food, increasing its quality and shelf life. It also promotes nutritional improvement, elevating protein, mineral, and vitamin levels. Despite this, the sensorial characteristics of this plant result in a low consumer acceptance of the fortified products, which is a problem for the food industry. Apart from inconclusive works, some data involving Moringa's safety are contradictory, resulting in its commercialization prohibition in Brazil in 2019. This review focused on important data about Moringa use to contribute to the literature and to the food industry, describing information about this medicinal plant effects on food products.


Asunto(s)
Moringa oleifera , Brasil , Aditivos Alimentarios , Alimentos Funcionales , Minerales , Extractos Vegetales , Hojas de la Planta
9.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684400

RESUMEN

Carrageenan (CGN) is a high molecular weight polysaccharide extracted from red seaweeds, composed of D-galactose residues linked in ß-1,4 and α-1,3 galactose-galactose bond, widely used as a food additive in processed foods for its properties as a thickener, gelling agent, emulsifier, and stabilizer. In recent years, with the spread of the Western diet (WD), its consumption has increased. Nonetheless, there is a debate on its safety. CGN is extensively used as an inflammatory and adjuvant agent in vitro and in animal experimental models for the investigation of immune processes or to assess the activity of anti-inflammatory drugs. CGN can activate the innate immune pathways of inflammation, alter the gut microbiota composition and the thickness of the mucus barrier. Clinical evidence suggests that CGN is involved in the pathogenesis and clinical management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), indeed food-exclusion diets can be an effective therapy for disease remission. Moreover, specific IgE to the oligosaccharide α-Gal has been associated with allergic reactions commonly referred to as the "α-Gal syndrome". This review aims to discuss the role of carrageenan in inflammatory bowel diseases and allergic reactions following the current evidence. Furthermore, as no definitive data are available on the safety and the effects of CGN, we suggest gaps to be filled and advise to limit the human exposure to CGN by reducing the consumption of ultra-processed foods.


Asunto(s)
Carragenina/efectos adversos , Dieta , Aditivos Alimentarios/efectos adversos , Hipersensibilidad/etiología , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/etiología , Animales , Carragenina/inmunología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad/inmunología , Inflamación
10.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684411

RESUMEN

High sodium/salt intake is a risk factor for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Excess sodium intake has been associated with high coronary heart disease, stroke and high blood pressure. The sodium daily intake is above the recommendations in the world as well as in Spain. Reducing salt content in processed foods and ready meals is one of the main strategies for reducing sodium intake. The aim of the present work is to characterise the presence of sodium in foods sold in the Spanish market. We also study a possible shift in sodium content in products over the last few years. For this purpose, 3897 products included in the BADALI food database were analysed, classified into 16 groups (G). We found that 93.3% of all foods displayed the sodium/salt content in the nutrition declaration. Meat-processed and derivatives (G8) had the highest mean and median values for sodium content, followed by snacks (G15) and sauces (G14). Only 12.7% of foods were sodium-free (≤5 mg/100 g or 100 mL), 32.4% had very low sodium (≤40 mg/100 g or 100 mL) and 48.2% were low in sodium (≤120 mg/100 g or 100 mL). On the contrary, 47.2% were high in sodium according to the Pan American Health Organisation Nutrient Profile Model (PAHO-NPM), while there were 31.9% according to the Chile-NPM. The agreement between the two NPMs was considered 'substantial' (κ = 0.67). When sodium content was compared over the years, no decrease was observed. This analysis was performed in the entire food population, by food group and in matched products. Therefore, more effort should be made by all parties involved in order to decrease the sodium/salt intake in the population.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de los Alimentos , Ingredientes Alimentarios/análisis , Sodio en la Dieta/análisis , Sodio/análisis , Comida Rápida/análisis , Aditivos Alimentarios/análisis , Carne , Nutrientes/análisis , Bocadillos , España
11.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684570

RESUMEN

Dietary treatment in chronic kidney disease (CKD) recommends limiting the consumption of foods rich in potassium to reduce risk of hyperkalemia. Currently, the increased supply of processed foods on the market could be a new "hidden" source of potassium for these patients, which is causing concern among health professionals who treat them. The aim of this study was to check which EU authorized food additives contain potassium, its conditions of use and classified them according to their risk for CKD patients. In addition, the frequency of appearance of potassium additives in processed foods in a European sample through the analysis of 715 products labeling from France, Germany, and Spain were evaluated. Results showed 41 potassium-containing additives allowed in the European Union, but only 16 were identified, being the most frequent: E202; E252, E340, E450, E452, E508, and E950. The 37.6% of the processed products analyzed contained at least one potassium additive. The food categories that showed the greatest presence of additives were breaded products, meat derivatives, non-alcoholic beverage, ready-to-eat products, and cereal derivatives. Potassium additives are widely distributed in processed foods and therefore pose a risk of hidden sources of potassium in CKD dietary management. These results could be really useful for developing educational tools for CKD patients.


Asunto(s)
Aditivos Alimentarios/efectos adversos , Potasio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/inducido químicamente , Europa (Continente) , Alimentos , Humanos
12.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-19.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55057

RESUMEN

This publication explores the subject of front-of-package labeling (FOPL) for food products as a means to help combat the trend toward unhealthy eating. It analyzes the methods, tools, and procedures of research into FOPL with a view to enhancing its role in regulations governing food products in the Region of the Americas. The publication makes recommendations relating to FOPL research – how it should be conducted, how results should be communicated, how FOPL schemes should be selected, and what the priorities should be. It also contains useful annexes that include, for example, a focus group discussion guide, a questionnaire, and a protocol for FOPL research. The Americas is the region of the world with the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity in the world. In 2016, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) were responsible for 78% of all deaths in the Region. Thirty-four percent of these NCD-related deaths occurred prematurely in people between the ages of 30 and 69 years. This implies that NCDs have a huge economic impact on societies. Unhealthy eating is the main modifiable factor that is driving this situation. In particular, consumption of ultra-processed products and of processed products that are nutrient poor and energy-dense and contain excessive levels of nutrients associated with NCDs has been identified as a main contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity. From a public health perspective, the efficacy and effectiveness of FOPL labeling will mainly depend on its ability to encourage consumers to make healthier food choices and to reduce the purchase and consumption of products that impair diets and health.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Nutrición, Alimentación y Dieta , Embalaje de Alimentos , Ingestión de Alimentos , Aditivos Alimentarios , Conservantes de Alimentos , Contaminación de Alimentos , Calidad de los Alimentos
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1225-1236, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | ID: biblio-1345275

RESUMEN

As an essential trace element for animals, copper significantly contributes to the growth and health of animals. Compared to inorganic trace elements, organic trace elements are better supplements; notably, they are acquired through microbial transformation. Therefore, we screened for copper-enriched microorganisms from high copper content soil to obtain organic copper. Sodium diethyldithio carbamate trihydrate was applied as a chromogenic agent for determining micro amounts of intracellular copper through spectrophotometry. In total, 50 fungi were isolated after the successful application of the screening platform for copper-rich microbes. Following morphological and molecular biology analyses, the N-2 strain, identified as Aspergillus niger sp. demonstrated showed better copper enrichment potential than others. Notably, the strain tolerance to copper was nearly thrice that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, up to 1600mg/L. The content of the organic bound copper was 22.84mg Cu/g dry cell. Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) response surface method, we optimized the fermentation condition (inoculation amount, 13%; temperature, 28(C; pH, 5.0). Compared to the original strain results under the single factor fermentation condition, we reported an increase by 24.18% under the optimized conditions. Collectively, these findings provide a reference for uncovering new and low-cost organic copper additives.(AU)


Como elemento traço essencial para os animais, o cobre contribui significativamente para o crescimento e saúde dos animais. Comparado aos oligoelementos inorgânicos, os oligoelementos orgânicos são melhores suplementos; notavelmente, eles são adquiridos através de transformação microbiana. Portanto, nós selecionamos microorganismos enriquecidos com cobre de solos com alto teor de cobre para obter cobre orgânico. O carbamato de sódio diethyldithio trihidratado foi aplicado como agente cromogênico para a determinação de micro quantidades de cobre intracelular através da espectrofotometria. No total, 50 fungos foram isolados após a aplicação bem sucedida da plataforma de triagem para micróbios ricos em cobre. Após análises morfológicas e de biologia molecular, a cepa N-2, identificada como Aspergillus niger sp. demonstrou um melhor potencial de enriquecimento de cobre do que outras. Notavelmente, a tolerância da estirpe ao cobre foi quase três vezes maior que a da Saccharomyces cerevisiae, até 1600mg/L. O conteúdo de cobre ligado orgânico era de 22,84mg Cu/g de célula seca. Usando o método de superfície de resposta Central Composite Design (CCD), nós otimizamos a condição de fermentação (quantidade de inoculação, 13%; temperatura, 28C; pH, 5,0). Em comparação com os resultados da deformação original sob a condição de fermentação de fator único, relatamos um aumento de 24,18% sob as condições otimizadas. Coletivamente, estas descobertas fornecem uma referência para descobrir novos aditivos de cobre orgânico de baixo custo.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Análisis del Suelo , Cobre , Aditivos Alimentarios , Aspergillus , Microbiología del Suelo , Tratamiento del Suelo , Sus scrofa
14.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4354-4364, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519038

RESUMEN

This study investigated the effects of different yerba mate (YM) proportions (1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 g YM/100 g whole wheat flour (WWF) and particle sizes (245, 415.5, and 623.9 µm) on dough rheological properties, antioxidant activity, and bread characteristics. The addition of YM leaves led to a possible interaction between its phenolic compounds and the gluten network within the dough, without negative effects on dough formation. However, the larger YM particle size (623.9 µm) caused a weakening of the protein network, resulting in lower quality product compared to the other samples. Improved bread quality was found when the YM leaves were added at 2.5 g YM/100 g WWF. The total amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity increased as the proportion of YM increased in both flour and bread. Moreover, the phenolic compounds in 2.5 g YM/100 g WWF breads were stable during baking, showing no significant losses in the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. These results suggest the YM can be successfully incorporated into baked product, improving its functional characteristics. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study evaluates the technological quality of bakery product made by incorporating yerba mate leaves in whole wheat flour. The results will contribute to the production of a bread with greater functional properties due to the presence of polyphenols and phytochemicals.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Pan , Aditivos Alimentarios , Calidad de los Alimentos , Ilex paraguariensis , Hojas de la Planta , Pan/análisis , Pan/normas , Harina/análisis , Aditivos Alimentarios/normas , Ilex paraguariensis/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Triticum/química
15.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4303-4315, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496055

RESUMEN

Polycaprolactone (PCL)was used via double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique for the encapsulation of polyphenols olive leaves (OLs) extracts. In this study, the PCL-microcapsules loaded with OLs polyphenols extract powder were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectrometry analysis. Their total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS), and polyphenols stability were measured after oral, gastric, and intestinal steps of in vitro digestion. PCL-microcapsules were utilized in formulating novel functional yogurt containing 0, 25, 50, and 75 mg of TPC estimated as mg GAE (added as PCL-microcapsules) per 100g yogurt. All yogurt samples were evaluated for their pH, acidity, syneresis, viscosity, and color during storage. In vitro digestion significantly affected the phenolic composition in non-encapsulated extract whereas it had a lower impact on encapsulated phenolics. Higher protection was provided for encapsulated OLs extract and their higher release was observed at the intestinal phase. Unlike the undigested OLs extract, which had a TPC of 490 mg GAE/100 g, lower values of TPC (136 and 289 mg GAE/100 g) were obtained for non-encapsulated and encapsulated OLs extract, respectively, in the intestinal fluids. Yogurt with PCL-microcapsules had lower viscosity, syneresis, and color parameters, compared to control yogurt. Thus, OLs represent a valuable and cheap source of polyphenols that can be successfully applied in microencapsulated form, in formulating functional yogurt.


Asunto(s)
Olea , Extractos Vegetales , Polifenoles , Yogur , Antioxidantes/química , Aditivos Alimentarios/análisis , Aditivos Alimentarios/normas , Olea/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/química , Polifenoles/farmacología , Yogur/análisis
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5018, 2021 08 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465789

RESUMEN

Chocolate manufacture includes a complex tempering procedure to direct the crystallization of cocoa butter towards the formation of fat crystal networks with specific polymorphism, nano- and microstructure, melting behavior, surface gloss and mechanical properties. Here we investigate the effects of adding various minor non-triglyceride lipidic components to refined cocoa butter and chocolate on their physical properties. We discover that addition of saturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine to neutralized and bleached cocoa butter or molten and recrystallized commercial chocolate at 0.1% (w/w) levels, followed by rapid cooling to 20 °C in the absence of shear, accelerates crystallization, stabilizes the desirable Form V polymorph and induces the formation of chocolate with an optimal microstructure, surface gloss and mechanical strength. Final chocolate structure and properties are comparable to those of a commercial tempered chocolate. Minor lipidic component addition represents an effective way to engineer chocolate material properties at different length scales, thus simplifying the entire tempering process.


Asunto(s)
Chocolate/análisis , Grasas de la Dieta/análisis , Aditivos Alimentarios/química , Lípidos/química , Cacao/química , Cristalización , Manipulación de Alimentos
17.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578952

RESUMEN

Leiomyoma is the most common benign uterine tumor in reproductive-age women. Increasing numbers of studies are focusing on the effects of environmental exposure on the incidence and progression of tumors. One major step taken in the food industry is the addition of food preservatives to maintain freshness. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a synthetic phenolic antioxidant, which is widely used as an additive to develop fat-soluble characteristics, as well as in cosmetics and rubber. Previous studies also highlighted that BHT may be related to increased fibrosis capacity and carcinogenic effects. In this study, we explored the effects of the commonly used food additive BHT on leiomyoma progression, and the related mechanism. The exposure of the ELT-3 leiomyoma cell line to BHT for 48 h increased the proliferative effect. Since leiomyoma progression is related to increases in extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), BHT could effectively increase ECM-related protein expression, as well as MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expression. This increase in ECM, in response to BHT, may be linked to the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Through PI3K inhibition, BHT's effect on leiomyoma progression could be partially modulated. These results suggest the harmful effect of BHT exposure on leiomyoma progression may relate to PI3K modulation. However, an in vivo study is necessary to confirm these findings.


Asunto(s)
Hidroxitolueno Butilado/metabolismo , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentarios/metabolismo , Leiomioma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Uterinas/metabolismo , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/efectos adversos , Línea Celular Tumoral , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Matriz Extracelular/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Aditivos Alimentarios/efectos adversos , Humanos
18.
Acta amaz ; 51(3): 207-213, set 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353494

RESUMEN

O pirarucu, Arapaima gigas é um peixe carnívoro nativo da bacia amazônica. Como peixes carnívoros possuem baixa atividade de amilase, enzimas exógenas melhoram a digestibilidade de carboidratos em rações para aquacultura. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a digestibilidade de níveis crescentes de complexo enzimático em dietas para juvenis de pirarucu (65,2 ± 0,4 g). O desenho experimental foi randomizado com quatro tratamentos [dietas contendo 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 e 1 g kg-1 de complexo enzimático adicionado (Allzyme® SSF®, EUA)] e um controle, com três réplicas com densidade de cinco peixes por unidade e 30 dias de duração. A digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e energia bruta foi calculada por quantificação de nutrientes e óxido de cromo nas dietas e fezes. A atividade enzimática, o glicogênio hepático e a proteína total foram determinados a partir de amostras do fígado e intestino anterior. A dieta com 1 g kg-1 de complexo enzimático resultou em um aumento da digestibilidade aparente de proteina bruta, energia bruta, matéria seca, glicogênio hepático e proteínas totais no fígado e intestino, mostrando a eficácia do complexo enzimático na dieta dos pirarucus. A acumulação mais alta de matéria seca, energia bruta e extrato etéreo na carcaça indicou o aumento de peso dos peixes tratados com complexo enzimático. A redução da atividade enzimática endógena (protease, lipase e amilase) sugeriu um aumento da eficácia do processo digestivo. Nossos resultados indicam que a inclusão de 1 g kg-1 do complexo enzimático na dietas de juvenis de pirarucu pode ser recomendada para obter maior digestibilidade de nutientes e performance produtiva. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Enzimas , Peces/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentarios , Metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255569, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370763

RESUMEN

Existing research shows that evaluations of the risks and benefits of various hazards (i.e., technologies and activities) are inversely related. The affect heuristic explains the negative relation between risks and benefits, as based on the strength of positive or negative affect associated with a hazard. Research on the affect heuristic previously investigated under which conditions people judge risk and benefits independently, focusing on expertise as a factor that might exempt from inversely related judgements of risk and benefits. Measurements within Dual Process Theories have been found to be associated with rational, analytical decision making and accurate judgments. In this paper we investigated the extent to which rational information processing styles can predict the risk-benefit relation of technologies in a medical and food applications and whether the attitudes influence the strength or direction of the relationship. Using the Need for Cognition Scale (NFC), a psychometric-based risk scale and an explicit measure of attitude, in a representative sample of 3228 Swedes, we found that the high NFC group judged the risks and benefits of technologies to be inversely related. In contrast, the low NFC group judged the risks and benefits to be positively related. These results were confirmed across all studied technologies by applying moderation analysis. We discuss the results in light of recent research on cognitive processing and polarization over technologies' risks.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Aditivos Alimentarios/efectos adversos , Técnicas de Transferencia de Gen/psicología , Juicio , Fitomejoramiento , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Vacunación/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Células Madre/citología , Adulto Joven
20.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361753

RESUMEN

The popularity and consumption of fermented milk products are growing. On the other hand, consumers are interested in health-promoting and functional foods. Fermented milk products are an excellent matrix for the incorporation of bioactive ingredients, making them functional foods. To overcome the instability or low solubility of many bioactive ingredients under various environmental conditions, the encapsulation approach was developed. This review analyzes the fortification of three fermented milk products, i.e., yogurt, cheese, and kefir with bioactive ingredients. The encapsulation methods and techniques alongside the encapsulant materials for carotenoids, phenolic compounds, omega-3, probiotics, and other micronutrients are discussed. The effect of encapsulation on the properties of bioactive ingredients themselves and on textural and sensory properties of fermented milk products is also presented.


Asunto(s)
Queso/análisis , Tecnología de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Funcionales/análisis , Kéfir/análisis , Leche/metabolismo , Yogur/análisis , Animales , Carotenoides/administración & dosificación , Carotenoides/química , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/administración & dosificación , Fermentación , Aditivos Alimentarios/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Lactobacillaceae/fisiología , Micronutrientes/administración & dosificación , Leche/química , Leche/microbiología , Fenoles/administración & dosificación , Fenoles/química , Probióticos/administración & dosificación
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