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1.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(2): 88-95, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559552

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 remains a threat for a fear of a second pandemic. Emergency orthopaedic operations are still among the most commonly performed procedures with increased risk of transmission of SARS CoV-2 to the patients and the healthcare workers. The aim of this study was to present the evidence available into best practices limiting the spread of COVID-19 in healthcare setting during current and future pandemics. METHODS: A review of the literature was performed in multiple databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control), using 'COVID-19' with other relevant keywords in different combinations. Owing to the limited and heterogenous evidence available, data were presented in a narrative manner. FINDINGS: From the evidence gathered it was noted that a multimodal approach to minimising pathogen transmission is required. This primarily comprises the wider engineering and administrative controls to reduce the concentration of the pathogen and to separate staff and patients from it. Theatre isolation and traffic control bundling, theatre flow and logistics, ventilation and waste management form a pivotal role in the environmental/engineering controls. Administrative measures include policies for both patients and staff. For patients, isolation and preoperative screening are of utmost value. For staff, testing for COVID-19, risk assessment, redeployment and provision of persona; protective equipment, together with the necessary training are important administrative controls. CONCLUSION: We believe these measures are likely to improve the sustainability of resources and can be carried to elective settings in order to return to some form of normality and help to mitigate the effects of future pandemics.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Servicio de Limpieza en Hospital , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Quirófanos , Equipo de Protección Personal , Ventilación , Administración de Residuos , Flujo de Trabajo , Filtros de Aire , Humanos , Capacitación en Servicio , Admisión y Programación de Personal , Medición de Riesgo , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(2): 69, 2021 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464420

RESUMEN

The objective of this paper is to offer an approach to assess the risk associated with Municipal Solid Wastes, in a geospatial context. Initially, a risk index including hazard, vulnerability and other important variables was built. The built model is based on multi-criteria evaluation techniques and geographic information systems. Subsequently, the constructed index was used to model possible damage in various municipalities of the state of Chiapas, Mexico. The results indicate that the highest levels of risk are found in places with unfavorable conditions, such as high rates of waste generation, low waste collection coverage, steep slopes, etc. that cover 6.22% of the study area. The areas with high risk level are mainly found in the southeast of the municipalities of Villa Corzo and Villaflores, and cover 27.06% of the study area. The places of low and very low risk levels are concentrated in the center and northeast of the study area, in the municipalities of Suchiapa, Chiapa de Corzo and Acala, and cover 38.6% of the area. At the municipal level, Berriozábal, Villaflores and Villa Corzo have the highest levels of risk in most of their territory; the high levels of risk presented in Berriozábal are due to the limited territorial area that it occupies in the study area. In Villaflores and Villa Corzo, the high levels of risk are due to the high population dispersion. A large part of Tuxtla Gutiérrez territory presents low and medium risk levels, especially within the population settlement. The peripheral areas show the highest levels of risk, because the waste collection service is not provided very often. Finally, the Cohen's kappa statistic used to validate the precision of the model gave a value of 0.34, which means that the spatial model can be considered acceptable despite its low value. Although this work is only a general approach to spatial risk modeling at a regional scale, it provides interesting information. Moreover, it adds to the few efforts that exist in the literature to model the risk associated with wastes.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , México , Residuos Sólidos
3.
J Environ Manage ; 282: 111879, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465712

RESUMEN

As the construction sector is shifting towards circular economy models, the role of mineral construction materials as main waste fraction in terms of volumes is crucial. A characterization of this mineral stock, as well as the waste derived from it is decisive in ensuring the application of the best practices of circular economy. This paper describes a methodology for assessing the mineral building stock through a combination of geospatial and image analysis. By analysing old topographic maps, buildings are grouped according to their building age into different typologies and based on these maps the construction and demolition activity is evaluated. The mineral stock is assessed and estimations of the mineral construction and demolition waste (CDW) is generated for different stochastic scenarios. This methodology is applied exemplarily on the country of Luxembourg. It was found that the total mineral construction stock for Luxembourg is 276.75 Mt and has been growing at a rate of 20.81%-24.39% in the last 30 years. Furthermore, the study identified a mean age of the urban building stock of about 60 years and a typical maximum building lifetime of 122 years. Based on the stochastic projections the mineral CDW generated from the existing building stock is expected to be up to 226.9 Mt by 2100, while if future building scenarios are considered, it can be as high as 885.3 Mt. The annual CDW production is expected to be sufficient for a viable concrete recycling activity if regulations on the waste volume flows are made available.


Asunto(s)
Industria de la Construcción , Administración de Residuos , Materiales de Construcción , Residuos Industriales/análisis , Minerales , Reciclaje
4.
J Environ Manage ; 282: 111943, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465720

RESUMEN

This paper aims to establish consumer's perception of electric waste recycling and management on a national scale in Bangladesh. The attitude, willingness to pay (WTP) and consumers' behaviour were explored by conducting a questionnaire-based survey. The conclusions are based on 915 valid responses out of 2000 online survey invitations. Interestingly, 37.9% of the respondents indicated that they would accept to pay for electronic waste recycling. Analysis also shows that the preferred WTP would cover 5-10% of the recycling cost. Factors like environmental awareness, monthly income, and education level affect the consumers' WTP. Nevertheless, most of the participants believe that the Government should share the recycling cost. The study suggests that e-waste recycling can be stimulated by promoting environmental awareness, educating the public about the benefits of recycling e-waste, and making e-waste recycling more convenient. However, additional measures will likely be needed to tackle the e-waste problem. Thus, support for environmental education is imperative in order to promote environmental awareness and increase the WTP of consumers. The study outlines key characteristics of consumer-focused e-waste management archetypes and proposes an effective road map for Bangladesh.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Electrónicos , Administración de Residuos , Bangladesh , Residuos Electrónicos/análisis , Humanos , Reciclaje , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 323: 124626, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418353

RESUMEN

Anaerobic digestion is recognized as promising technology for bioenergy production from biowaste, with huge quantity of digestate being produced as the residual waste. The digestate contains substantial amounts of organic and inorganic matters that be considered highly risky contaminants to the receiving environments if not properly treated, but also potential renewable resources if are adequately recovered. This prospect review summarized the current research efforts on digestate valorization, including aspects of resource recovery and the proposed applications, particularly on the conversion techniques and economic feasibility. The prospects for digestate valorization were highlighted at the end of this review.


Asunto(s)
Administración de Residuos , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos
6.
Waste Manag ; 121: 343-353, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418446

RESUMEN

Around the global construction industry, there is an emerging trend to pursue a "zero-waste" goal at the site level, but little is known about it. This paper aims to shed insights on the waste management concept of "zero waste construction site" by delineating its meaning, system boundary, assessment period, and operation strategies, which are further formulated in an analytical framework. Owing to the nascent nature of the concept, we adopted a qualitative approach including archival study, a series of semi-structured interviews, and two in-depth case studies in Shenzhen, China to sketch the analytical framework. Meanwhile, an analogy between "zero waste construction site" and "net zero building" is continuously made to fine-tune and finalize the framework. This research demonstrates that the zero-waste goal is challenging but achievable on individual construction sites. The system boundary to examine the zero-waste goal is contingent on the project scope, be it a new construction, renovation, or demolition project. The assessment period is dependent on the duration of the construction project. However, it would be too costly, if not entirely impossible, to achieve a "zero waste construction site" by treating it as a closed system. Rather, one needs to consider open, off-site strategies, e.g., engaging third-party recycling services, reusing recycled materials in subsequent projects, or trading it in to a recycled material market. The analytical framework can be utilized to scrutinize existing construction waste management practices. In the long term, the research will contribute positively to a "zero waste" society.


Asunto(s)
Industria de la Construcción , Administración de Residuos , China , Materiales de Construcción , Residuos Industriales/análisis , Reciclaje
7.
Waste Manag ; 121: 441-451, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450650

RESUMEN

Proper management of urban waste might support sustainable and circular development, while mismanagement increases both costs and socio-environmental negative outcomes. In particular, the organic fraction constitutes the largest share of urban waste. In the circular economy framework, it is described as a valuable resource, to be converted into soil improver, biogas and energy. The aim of the paper is to propose a Decision Support System (DSS) for policymakers, based on linear programming techniques. This model is expected to improve the current methodologies for planning and managing organic fraction of municipal solid waste and provide useful insights about public resources allocation. The proposed optimization model is tested on Campania Region (Italy), which is a clear example of the negative implications of improper waste management. Based on the goals recently set by Campania regional government, the model allows to select the most cost-effective and sustainable solutions for treating organic waste. Results show three different scenarios associated to the impacts that each possible outcome has on the stated objectives. The "Ideal Solution" is not achievable, but it is used as a benchmark; the "Max NPV Solution" is feasible, but it reports several major drawbacks. Finally, the "Best Compromise Solution" allows to increase regional composting capability by six time and biogas availability by seven times, with environmental implications that are very similar to the ideal ones.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Italia , Residuos Sólidos/análisis
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(9): 10488-10502, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426587

RESUMEN

The environmental impact of waste glass (WG) is one of the major challenges crippling sustainable waste management and mitigation. Reclamation of recycled materials from waste glass remains a tedious task amidst complex technological approaches. The challenge as seen in the global containment measures increase the proportion of waste glass and minimize the existing capacity of landfill space. In many works, findings have shown how best to minimize the impact of waste glass as evidenced in their inclusion as building materials such as cement, mortars, concretes and blocks. The concept of this paper is to appraise previous studies carried out on the use of waste glass as key contributing factor in structural building. The scope of this paper will be broaden to include various successes recorded in the evolution of concrete mixtures containing different proportion of recycle glass. Part of the setbacks noted in the inclusion of these recycled materials as matrix, filler or fibre are also reported in this paper. Also discussed is the durability of glass materials in varying conglomerate involving cement in reinforcement of building and structures. Thermal insulating properties of recycled glass are also considered in this work where considerable energy is saved due to their low thermal conductivity. Based on the analysis of various studies and other factors considered in this paper, it is established that recycled glass materials can be accommodated in structural buildings, while continuous research is necessary to adapt waste glass to high pH value of Portland cement.


Asunto(s)
Reciclaje , Administración de Residuos , Materiales de Construcción , Ambiente , Vidrio
10.
Waste Manag ; 122: 124-131, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513532

RESUMEN

Approximately 90% of medical waste generated in the operating room (OR) is considered to be non-infectious and non-regulated (Wyssusek, Keys & van Zundert, 2019). Frequently, this waste is inappropriately disposed of into infectious regulated medical waste containers. Due to differences in waste treatment, improper segregation can lead to the misuse or inappropriate allocation of resources, environmental pollution, and increased cost for institutions. A waste segregation initiative was instituted in a tertiary care medical center in the anesthesia work-space of 35 ORs. This initiative included education of medical waste management to increase anesthesia staff knowledge and compliance with waste segregation and optimization of existing waste disposal containers to decrease waste disposal costs. After implementation, there was an increase in overall provider knowledge (p < 0.001) particularly in the categories of medication vial disposal, medication disposal and identification of items for disposal in the sharps containers (p ≤ 0.05). Data suggests a 34.7% increase in providers reporting to always practice waste segregation (p ≤ 0.05). Additionally, there was a statistically significant decrease in overall weight of regulated medical waste items from 0.33 kg/case to 0.09 kg/case (p < 0.001). This decrease in regulated waste supports an improvement in waste segregation and inappropriate items being disposed of in the general trash container. The omission of inappropriate waste was further confirmed by a segregation audit that showed an overall increase in correctly segregated regulated waste of 65%. Collectively, this lead to a cost savings of $15.60 per OR per week, or $28,392 annually.


Asunto(s)
Anestesia , Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios , Residuos Sanitarios , Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Humanos
11.
Waste Manag ; 122: 1-14, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476957

RESUMEN

The Italian financing system for waste collection and disposal services, still far from a price-based system at the national level, is similar to a real property tax system. Among other concerns, this raises equity issues. The aim of this paper is threefold. First, the structure of the waste tax in its components (i.e., fixed and variable) is analysed at the provincial level. This allows to investigate the magnitude of the two tax components in Italian provinces, while showing the differences among macro-areas in the financing system for waste collection and disposal services. Second, the regressivity (progressivity) of the tax system adopted is investigated, so as to highlight the differences among geographical areas. Third, an alternative base for the waste tax is proposed, in order to avoid regressivity and achieve higher equality. For these purposes, official data referring to 2017 are used and a Geographically Weighted Regression is implemented. The results highlight the importance of an alternative base of the waste tax to design an equal and non-regressive tax, more similar to a Pay-As-You-Throw scheme.


Asunto(s)
Impuestos , Administración de Residuos , Italia
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111913, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493721

RESUMEN

Effective management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is essential for the conservation of ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Considering the landfill is the major method of MSW management, the factors influencing groundwater contamination near MSW landfill sites in the QTP were studied, based on field investigations, environmental impact assessment, and meteorological and hydrogeological analyses. Results indicated that the groundwater was contaminated heavily by nitrate (PI = 7.5), particularly in the landfill without an anti-seepage system, followed by nitrite (PI = 3.5) and heavy metals including arsenic (PI = 4.1) and hexavalent chromium (PI = 2.8). Total hardness, total dissolved solids, nitrate, and lead in the groundwater near the investigated landfill sites were significantly different between the monsoon and the cold seasons. Both the rainfall infiltration and the leachate infiltration were considerably limited by environmental characteristics in the QTP, including high evaporation, low rainfall, and the presence of permafrost. Soil sample contamination near landfill sites was considered as moderate (28.6% of the soil samples) and moderate to heavy (71.4% of the soil samples), based on the geoaccumulation index of mercury. However, comparatively low generation and concentrations of leachate and good topsoil quality (PI = 0.84) reduced the quantity of pollutants infiltrating into the groundwater. The alkaline leachate (pH = 7.45-9.23) and soil (pH = 7.08-8.72) also considerably decreased the concentrations of contaminants dissolved in the infiltrated rainfall and leachate. Additionally, low groundwater level can delay preferential flow and enhance attenuation. Therefore, the groundwater contamination near the landfill sites was simply point pollution, which was influenced by leachate, soil, climate, and hydrogeology characteristics in the QTP. The anti-seepage system is a potential strategy for use in the prevention of groundwater contamination by MSW landfills in the QTP.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agua Subterránea/química , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Ecosistema , Agua Subterránea/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis , Nitratos/análisis , Eliminación de Residuos/métodos , Estaciones del Año , Suelo , Residuos Sólidos/análisis , Tibet , Administración de Residuos
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 325: 124706, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485081

RESUMEN

This study examined the environmental impacts and energy consumption of three solid digestate treatment scenarios to quantify their impacts on the entire food waste (FW)-based biogas system: (1) incineration; (2) composting, and; (3) landfill. The results showed that composting had the largest net energy consumption, but least total environmental impact of 57.3 kWh and 8.75 E-03, respectively, whereas landfill showed the opposite pattern. Moreover, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) and relatively high contributions between the digestate treatment subunits among the three scenarios. The most significant contributions of digestate subunits in methods 1-3 to the 100-year global warming potential (GWP100) were 70.5%, 52.5%, and 103.4%, respectively. The results indicated that solid digestate treatment had a significant impact, and reasonable disposal of solid digestate could significantly reduce the environmental impacts and energy consumption of the entire FW-based biogas system.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Biocombustibles , Ambiente , Alimentos , Residuos Sólidos/análisis
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(2): 64, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33447942

RESUMEN

This work seeks to perform a baseline study to determine the implementation area for a management system of oily waste generated by artisanal fishing boats within the Peruvian context. This explanatory study, conducted based on quantitative and cross-sectional considerations, includes a regulatory review; content analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) both in seawater and sediments; and metal assessment in sediments and waste oil, with the corresponding result correlations. In this study, the results reveal that while regulations are adequate, their implementation is not evident. In addition, no evidence of contamination by PAH and TPH was found. However, traces of metal contamination were found in sediments, and, after being correlated with the metal values from waste oil, a Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient of 0.619480 was reported. Hence, we can conclude that the regulations to prevent marine pollution from oily waste contained in the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships MARPOL agreement have been accepted and approved for implementation. In fact, they can even be applied to different activities that fall out of the scope of the agreement. Finally, the baseline study reveals oily waste generation indicators, as well as a correlation between waste oil metals and marine sediment metals that merits the implementation of an oily waste management system within the study area.


Asunto(s)
Petróleo , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Administración de Residuos , Estudios Transversales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Petróleo/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis
15.
Waste Manag ; 122: 26-35, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476959

RESUMEN

In an effort to regulate waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) recycling, the Chinese government has issued China-WEEE regulations and a fund policy. In accordance with the 2012 fund policy, the government collects funds from producers and subsidizes recycling enterprises. However, this policy has encountered difficulties. The 2016 White Paper on WEEE Recycling, Treatment and Reuse states that while the funds collected from producers were 2.61 billion Yuan, the subsidies provided to recycling enterprises were 4.714 billion Yuan, which is a gap of 2.104 billion Yuan. In addition, this policy did not incentivize producers to invest in WEEE recycling. Our paper aims to answering the following questions: (1) What is the impact of the current WEEE processing fund policy? (2) How can producers' green innovation in WEEE recycling be promoted? We use evolutionary game theory to investigate the strategies used by producers and recyclers and explore their evolutionary behaviors under two policies: the 2012 fund policy (the current policy) and the Fund Relief Policy (a newly designed policy). The results indicate that the Fund Relief Policy can motivate producers' green innovation behavior, improve the profitability of recyclers, and alleviate the financial pressure on government to a certain extent.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Electrónicos , Administración de Residuos , China , Residuos Electrónicos/análisis , Electrónica , Teoría del Juego , Reciclaje
16.
Waste Manag ; 122: 71-80, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486305

RESUMEN

Food waste management in Korea has become increasingly important as the country continues to champion the transition into a circular economy among the OECD countries to achieve sustainable development target goals. However, reliable primary data on food waste quantity and composition to achieve its prevention and managementtargets by understanding food waste patterns among Korean households is poorly documented. This study investigates the quantity and composition of food waste generation rates among the sampled households by considering two important influencing factors of seasonality and housing types in the Buk-gu province of Daegu, South Korea. The food waste generation rates from three different housing types during four representative seasons were assessed, considering the availability of different food types at different seasons. The identified 46 food waste items from sampled data were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis statistical test. The results showed that food waste generation rates were 0.88 ± 0.37 kg/household/day (0.26 ± 0.11 kg/capita/day), which varied seasonally. Significant seasonal variations (P < 0.002) in food waste generated from the selected housing types were shown by K-W mean rank analysis. The food waste generation rate followed the seasonal order of summer > autumn > winter > spring. The effect of housing type was also a pivotal factor affecting the food waste generation. This study adds to the ground-level insights of food waste generation trends in different seasons and housing types of Korea.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Composición Familiar , Alimentos , República de Corea
17.
Waste Manag ; 122: 100-112, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508530

RESUMEN

Waste disposal technology selection is a key problem in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW). This decision may have long-term impacts on environmental development and economic growth. The literature suggests using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods to address this problem. MCDM techniques commonly require decision makers to assign weightings of importance to the decision criteria based on which, the available technologies are ranked. However, this technology selection problem is concerned with selecting a technology to be used for a relatively long period of time. It is important to take into consideration any uncertainty the decision maker may have with regard to the weightings of the criteria in the future. To take this uncertainty into consideration, this study suggests utilizing a recently developed MCDM technique, namely the stratified MCDM. This technique is designed to help decision makers structure the uncertain future through the consideration of a set of states, which are placed in different strata. The paper shows how the stratified MCDM technique in combination with the best-worst method (labelled stratified BWM) can be employed to compute the ranking of the available technologies. This research is expected to stimulate future applications of the stratified BWM to facilitate long-term decision making.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Toma de Decisiones , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Residuos Sólidos/análisis , Tecnología , Incertidumbre
18.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 232: 113690, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434878

RESUMEN

Countries with abundant solar radiation have the potential to invest in simple technologies for deactivation of many bacteria and viruses in medical solid waste. In addition to the traditional Infection and Prevention Control (IPC) measures, these simple technologies contribute to better protection of health care workers in countries with compromised solid management schemes. Monitoring of temperature, relative humidity and ultraviolet inside containers soundly designed to collect disposal infectious waste illustrated to deactivate several viruses and bacteria. Casanova et al., 2010, used some surrogate viruses to overcome the challenges of working with SARS-CoV, concluded that by temperature above 40 °C most of viruses become below levels of detection after 90 min. Here we are proposing a model of a simple transparent container almost 200 L in volume that allow solar energy to be accumulated inside. In summer conditions in the testing site, temperature inside the container reached above 50 °C when the ambient air temperature was around 30 °C. The container was built using epoxy glass to guarantee maximum heat penetration. Actual temperature measurement inside the container was measured in real time against ambient air temperature. We present a mathematical model for predication of maximum temperature at different positions inside the container and their relation to different ambient air temperature scenarios. The mathematical formulas used are based on the conservation laws and a good agreement of a full month of field measurements were obtained. Even in winter conditions in many of developing countries air temperature can maintain levels above 20 °C, which will produce temperature around 30 °C and viruses can reach levels below detection limit in maximum 3 h.


Asunto(s)
Descontaminación/métodos , Residuos Sanitarios , Residuos Sólidos , Luz Solar , Administración de Residuos/métodos , Países en Desarrollo , Humedad , Modelos Teóricos , Temperatura
19.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111672, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309110

RESUMEN

The aim of this paper is to assess whether and to what extent income and the stringency and enforcement (S&E) of environmental regulation influence compliance with the EU Waste Hierarchy (EWH), i.e., how EU member states treat waste. The EWH prioritizes waste prevention and re-use over recycling, which is ranked above waste to energy (WtE), while incineration and landfilling are the least preferred options. Biennial panel data for the period 2010-2016 is used to create a compliance index based on the waste treatment alternatives in the EWH. Waste (excluding major mineral waste) of 26 European Union countries is examined. This study is the first of its kind to regress an EWH compliance index on income, stringency and enforcement of environmental regulation, and other variables that are also expected to affect the relative benefits and costs of waste treatment, such as population density, heating demand, and electricity prices. The shares of landfilling, incineration, WtE, and recycling are also modeled to capture the effect of these variables in the waste treatment mix. The stringency and enforcement of environmental regulation are found to have a positive effect on compliance with the EWH, which has increased over time.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Unión Europea , Calefacción , Incineración , Reciclaje , Residuos Sólidos
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 142259, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207488

RESUMEN

Currently, there is no effective vaccine for tackling the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 with the occurrence of repeat waves of infection frequently stretching hospital resources beyond capacity. Disease countermeasures rely upon preventing person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV2 so as to protect front-line healthcare workers (HCWs). COVID-19 brings enormous challenges in terms of sustaining the supply chain for single-use-plastic personal and protective equipment (PPE). Post-COVID-19, the changes in medical practice will drive high demand for PPE. Important countermeasures for preventing COVID-19 transmission include mitigating potential high risk aerosol transmission in healthcare setting using medical PPE (such as filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs)) and the appropriate use of face coverings by the general public that carries a lower transmission risk. PPE reuse is a potential short term solution during COVID-19 pandemic where there is increased evidence for effective deployment of reprocessing methods such as vaporized hydrogen peroxide (30 to 35% VH2O2) used alone or combined with ozone, ultraviolet light at 254 nm (2000 mJ/cm2) and moist heat (60 °C at high humidity for 60 min). Barriers to PPE reuse include potentially trust and acceptance by HCWs. Efficacy of face coverings are influenced by the appropriate wearing to cover the nose and mouth, type of material used, number of layers, duration of wearing, and potentially superior use of ties over ear loops. Insertion of a nose clip into cloth coverings may help with maintaining fit. Use of 60 °C for 60 min (such as, use of domestic washing machine and spin dryer) has been advocated for face covering decontamination. Risk of virus infiltration in improvised face coverings is potentially increased by duration of wearing due to humidity, liquid diffusion and virus retention. Future sustained use of PPE will be influenced by the availability of recyclable PPE and by innovative biomedical waste management.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Administración de Residuos , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control
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