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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

RESUMEN

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Leishmaniasis Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Visceral/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Brasil/epidemiología , Incidencia , Modelos Estadísticos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

RESUMEN

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Aberraciones Cromosómicas , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiología , Pakistán/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Cariotipificación
3.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 62(2): 206-219, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435684

RESUMEN

Population pharmacokinetic (PK) and exposure-safety analyses of alisertib were performed in children enrolled in 2 clinical trials: NCT02444884 and NCT01154816. NCT02444884 was a dose-finding study in children with relapsed/refractory solid malignancies (phase 1) or neuroblastomas (phase 2). Patients received oral alisertib 45 to 100 mg/m2 as powder-in-capsule once daily or twice daily for 7 days in 21-day cycles. Serial blood samples were collected up to 24 hours after dosing on cycle 1, day 1. NCT01154816 was a phase 2 single-arm study evaluating efficacy in children with relapsed/refractory solid malignancies or acute leukemias. Patients received alisertib 80 mg/m2 as enteric-coated tablets once daily for 7 days in 21-day cycles. Sparse PK samples were collected up to 8 hours after dosing on cycle 1, day 1. Sources of alisertib PK variability were characterized and quantified using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to support dosing recommendations in children and adolescents. A 2-compartment model with oral absorption described by 3 transit compartments was developed using data from 146 patients. Apparent oral clearance and central distribution volume were correlated with body surface area across the age range of 2 to 21 years, supporting the use of body surface area-based alisertib dosing in the pediatric population. The recommended dose of 80 mg/m2 once daily enteric-coated tablets provided similar alisertib exposures across pediatric age groups and comparable exposure to that in adults receiving 50 mg twice daily (recommended adult dose). Statistically significant relationships (P < .01) were observed between alisertib exposures and incidence of grade ≥2 stomatitis and febrile neutropenia, consistent with antiproliferative mechanism-related toxicities.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Azepinas/farmacocinética , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Azepinas/efectos adversos , Superficie Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Esquema de Medicación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Dosis Máxima Tolerada , Modelos Biológicos , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/patología , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/efectos adversos , Pirimidinas/efectos adversos , Adulto Joven
4.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 86-92, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626946

RESUMEN

This case-control study using baseline data from the population cohort Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® compared lifetime history of concussion between children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD would have a greater lifetime history of concussion than children without ADHD. Children were recruited from schools across the United States, sampled to provide strong generalizability to the US population. The current sample included 10,585 children (age: mean = 9.9; standard deviation = 0.6; range 9-10 years; 48.9% girls; 64.6% White), including 1085 with ADHD and 9500 without ADHD. The prevalence of prior concussion among children with ADHD was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6-7.8%) compared with 3.2% (3.1-3.3%) among children without ADHD, meaning current ADHD status was associated with twice the odds of experiencing a prior concussion [χ2 = 44.54; p < 0.001; odds ratio = 2.34 (1.81-3.03)]. No significant differences were observed in proportion of boys and girls with ADHD who had a prior concussion history. The number of current ADHD symptoms were not meaningfully associated with prior concussion history. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower rates of reported concussion, but not differentially in association with ADHD. ADHD is associated with twice the lifetime prevalence of prior concussion before age 11 among children from the general U.S. population. Boys and girls with ADHD did not differ in proportions with prior concussion and concussion history was not related to the number of ADHD symptoms reported by parents.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Conmoción Encefálica , Adolescente , Atletas/psicología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Conmoción Encefálica/psicología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
5.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(3): 333-339, 2022 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952557

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of gynecomastia, determine mean glandular breast tissue sizes, and evaluate whether there is any difference in the prevalence rate of gynecomastia according to age using three different reference values of glandular breast tissue size (≥5, ≥10, ≥20 mm) in the pediatric age group. METHODS: Glandular breast tissue sizes were measured retrospectively from thoracic computed tomography (CT) images taken for other reasons in 961 boys aged 1-18 years. RESULTS: When each breast was evaluated separately (1,922 breasts), gynecomastia was observed in 1,001 (52.1%), 719 (37.4%), and 216 (11.2%) breasts with ≥5, ≥10, and ≥20 mm considered as reference values, respectively. A significant difference was found in terms of gynecomastia (p<0.001) and mean glandular breast tissue size (p<0.001) with respect to age. CONCLUSIONS: New studies are currently needed to determine the glandular breast tissue size and the prevalence rate of gynecomastia in boys, and thoracic CT images can be used for this purpose.


Asunto(s)
Ginecomastia , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Ginecomastia/diagnóstico por imagen , Ginecomastia/epidemiología , Humanos , Hallazgos Incidentales , Lactante , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos
6.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 50(4): 401-412, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35201548

RESUMEN

A recent innovation in scoliosis monitoring is the use of ultrasonography, which provides true 3D information in one scan and does not emit ionizing radiation. Measuring the severity of scoliosis on ultrasonographs requires identifying lamina pairs on the most tilted vertebrae, which is difficult and time-consuming. To expedite and automate measurement steps, this paper detailed an automatic convolutional neural network-based algorithm for identifying the laminae on 3D ultrasonographs. The predicted laminae were manually paired to measure the lateral spinal curvature on the coronal view, called the Cobb angle. In total, 130 spinal ultrasonographs of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis recruited from a scoliosis clinic were selected, with 70 for training and 60 for testing. Data augmentation increased the effective training set size to 140 ultrasonographs. Semi-automatic Cobb measurements were compared to manual measurements on the same ultrasonographs. The semi-automatic measurements demonstrated good inter-method reliability (ICC3,1 = 0.87) and performed better on thoracic (ICC3,1 = 0.91) than lumbar curves (ICC3,1 = 0.81). The mean absolute difference and standard deviation between semi-automatic and manual was 3.6° ± 3.0°. In conclusion, the semi-automatic method to measure the Cobb angle on ultrasonographs is feasible and accurate. This is the first algorithm that automates steps of Cobb angle measurement on ultrasonographs.


Asunto(s)
Escoliosis , Columna Vertebral , Adolescente , Humanos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Escoliosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Columna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía/métodos
7.
AIDS Care ; 34(2): 227-231, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625933

RESUMEN

HIV-associated functional impairment may cause cognitive impairment secondary to the viral infection, hence, associations between cognitive impairment and functional impairment in youth living with HIV are important to assess. We sought to determine whether cognitive impairment is associated with functional impairment and if it carries higher risk for also having functional impairment. We collected parent-rated information regarding youth functional impairment on four different measures and administered a cognitive battery to youth to determine cognitive impairment, 203 HIV-infected youth and 44 HIV-uninfected controls. Degree of cognitive impairment correlated strongly with decreased function: CBCL, r = -.17, p = .01; VABS2, r = -.28, p < .001; repeated-grades, r = .26, p < .001. Presence of cognitive impairment was associated with increased risk of functional impairment: 3.47 (CIS); 1.71 (CBCL); 2.17 (VABS2); 2.97 (repeated-grades). Repeated-grades strongly associated with cognitive impairment and functional impairment. We found strong associations between HIV-infected youth functional impairment on CBCL, VABS2 and repeated-grades with degree of cognitive impairment; and that when cognitive impairment was present youth had higher risk of experiencing functional impairment as well. Asking whether youth have repeated a grade at school could be a helpful screening question for assessing potential functional impairment and provide clinicians with an indication as to whether a further in-depth assessment is required.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Infecciones por VIH , Adolescente , Disfunción Cognitiva/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo
8.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 67-75, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130567

RESUMEN

Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTHS) is defined as increased thyroxine and triiodothyronine associated with normal or increased thyrotropin. This is usually due to a pathogenic variant of the gene coding for thyroid hormone receptor B (THRB). THRB is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an altered response of target tissue to the thyroid hormone action. Retrospective cross-sectional observational study with diagnosis of RTHS evaluated in secondary and tertiary hospitals for 6 years, from 2014 to 2020, in order to describe variables including age, sex, anthropometric data, clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients, who were divided according to age, in a pediatric group from 0 to 14 years (index cases), and an adult group composed of adult relatives of index cases. A molecular analysis of the THRB gene was performed. The total retrospective cohort included 7 pediatric patients and 15 adults. We found 22 cases with a clear male predominance (14/22). Mean age is 24.8 years old (22 days-70 years). Patients were referred because of symptoms 18.2% (4/22), analysis results 22.7% (5/22), or familial study 59.1% (13/22). About 31.8% (7/22) cases show goiter, 31.8% (7/22) sympathetic symptoms and 13.6% (3/22) abnormalities in behavior. In most cases, 77.3%, (17/22) show familial background of thyroid abnormalities. It is important to remark that 18.2% (4/22) relatives received previous incorrect treatments such as thyroidectomy, because of wrong diagnosis. In conclusion, a better understanding of RTHS, its prompt molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling, could avoid unnecessary tests and inappropriate treatments.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Mutación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Receptores beta de Hormona Tiroidea/genética , Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas/genética , Tirotropina , Tiroxina , Triyodotironina , Adulto Joven
9.
Cell Biol Int ; 46(3): 336-343, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941001

RESUMEN

Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor that often occurs in adolescents. There is an urgent need for new treatment options for osteosarcoma due to its poor prognosis after metastasis. Cancer stem cell (CSC) theory states that CSCs represent a small proportion of cancer cells. These CSC have self-renewal ability and are closely associated with cancer growth and metastasis as well as chemotherapy resistance. Similarly, osteosarcoma stem cells (OSCs) play an important role in the growth, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance of osteosarcoma cells. Targeting OSCs may represent a future treatment of osteosarcoma. Furthermore, some genes have been shown to regulate the growth, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance of osteosarcoma cells by altering the stemness of OSCs. Targeting these genes may help in the treatment of osteosarcoma. This review mainly discusses recent advances in the research of OSCs and their related genes.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Óseas , Osteosarcoma , Adolescente , Neoplasias Óseas/patología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular , Humanos , Células Madre Neoplásicas/patología , Osteosarcoma/patología
10.
Early Hum Dev ; 165: 105541, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065415

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Outcomes for infants who survive mild-moderate hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) into adolescence is relatively uncharted. AIMS: We examined neuropsychological and behavioral outcomes in adolescents with mild and moderate HIE, using both parent and self - informants, and including healthy peers and nearest age siblings as controls. PARTICIPANTS: 23 adolescents with a history of mild-moderate HIE (M age = 14.45 years, SD = 1.03; 14 boys and 9 girls) were recruited from an original cohort of 53. A group of their nearest - age siblings (n = 13), and healthy peers (n = 14) were recruited as controls. OUTCOME MEASURES: A number of neuropsychological sub-tests, taken from the WISC-V.UK, Children's Memory Scale, NEPSY, WIAT-III.UK, Rey Complex Figure Copy Test and British Picture Vocabulary Scale were administered. Behavioral adjustment was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the competence subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: No differences in neuropsychological and behavioral outcomes were observed between mild and moderate HIE cohorts. Together they had significantly lower scores on tests of attention/executive functioning, verbal reasoning and sensory-motor ability compared to healthy peers, with moderate to large effect sizes. Remedial provision at school was greater in the HIE group. Parents reported elevated levels of peer problems in the HIE group compared to both siblings and healthy peers. Reduced competencies were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence that both mild and moderate survivors of HIE experience neuropsychological, school and peer relationship problems in adolescence.


Asunto(s)
Hipoxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Escalas de Wechsler
11.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226288, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1366204

RESUMEN

Aim: To describe the pattern of toothache experience in a cohort of children aged 2-5 over 21 years and to find the relationship between previous toothache experience and later reports of toothache to get finding on the most critical period of toothache as a problem in life. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS). A total of 1,927 children from IFLS-1 with complete data were included as baseline participants. They were followed up four times within 21 years (age 6-9y, age 9-12y, age 16-19y, age 23- 26y). Toothache was based on the question of self-reported toothache experience during the last four weeks. After 21 years, a total of 1,098 individuals could be traced and completed every cohort of the survey. Toothache experiences were reported for frequencies in every cohort and accumulative experiences over 21 years. Logistic regression tests were performed to analyze the association of previous toothache experience and later toothache experience. Results: Almost 40% of the respondents reported toothache at least once in their life. The age of 6-9 years is the period when a high percentage of children had teeth-related pain. The experience of toothache at this period was significantly related to every period of age in life. Conclusions: The period of early mixed dentition is important. Oral health status in this period is associated with future oral health. A comprehensive dental health prevention program targeting this population is essential to increase the quality of life


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Odontalgia/epidemiología , Salud Bucal , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas de Salud Bucal , Prevalencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Indonesia/epidemiología
12.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225388, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1366211

RESUMEN

Genetic and environmental factors are essential in occlusal variations and malocclusion and have been of considerable interest to orthodontists. Studies on twin pairs are one of the most effective methods for investigating genetically determined occlusal variables. Many studies have focused on distances between first molars or between canines but malocclusions can also occur in other regions of the dental arch. Aim: To evaluate the characteristics of the dental arch between pairs of Monozygotic (MZ) and Dizygotic (DZ) twins from Southern India. Methods: A random sample of 51 twin pairs (12­18years old) participated in this study. The zygosity of twin pairs was recorded by facial appearance. The occlusion of the first permanent molars was recorded according to Angle's classification. Study models were prepared to assess dental arch characteristics (i.e., arch form, arch perimeter, arch length; intercanine, intermolar width, and teeth size discrepancy). The obtained data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software 19.0. The student's t-test (two-tailed, independent) and Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of studied parameters. Results: Angle's Class I molar relation was more commonly observed followed by the Class II molar relationship among twins. The measured dental arch dimensions did not show a statistically significant difference among twin pairs. The ovoid arch form was commonly observed among Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins. There was a similarity among MZ and DZ twins in the anterior and overall Bolton's ratio. Conclusion: There were similar occurrences of measured parameters among twins, which showed genetic predominance in the expression of measured dental arch traits


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Gemelos Dicigóticos , Gemelos Monocigóticos , Arco Dental/anatomía & histología , India
13.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Online) ; 43(2): 21-24, maio-ago. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1361989

RESUMEN

Traumas na região da face são comuns devido a sua topografia e à grande exposição do local. As lesões na região maxilofacial são normalmente causadas devido a traumas por acidentes de trânsito, agressão física, acidentes cotidianos como queda da própria altura e de nível. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar um caso clínico de trauma facial com a presença de corpo estranho impactado na face, bem como o tratamento cirúrgico empregado. Paciente do sexo feminino, 17 anos, foi regulada para o Hospital Geral Cleristón Andrade com histórico de queda de cavalo, cursando com fragmento de madeira (galho de arbusto) tranfixado em região maxilofacial. A paciente foi encaminhada ao centro cirúrgico para a remoção do galho de arbusto transfixado. O procedimento foi rápido, e sua remoção se deu por meio do movimento contrário ao mecanismo de trauma. Lesão como esta possui aspectos singulares e devem ser avaliados multidisciplinarmente na emergência. A remoção desses objetos deve ser realizada de forma a preservar as estruturas dentro do possível, levando em consideração também os fatores estéticos e funcionais envolvidos(AU)


Traumas in the face region are common due to its topography and the great exposure of the place. Injuries in the maxillofacial region are usually caused due to trauma from traffic accidents, physical aggression, everyday accidents such as falling from height and level. The aim of this paper is to report a clinical case of facial trauma with the presence of a foreign body impacted on the face, as well as the surgical treatment used. A 17-year-old female patient was treated at the Cleristón Andrade General Hospital with a history of falling from a horse, taking a wood fragment (shrub branch) transfixed in the maxillofacial region. The patient was referred to the operating room for removal of the transfixed bush branch. The procedure was quick, and its removal took place through a movement contrary to the trauma mechanism. Injuries like this have unique aspects and must be evaluated multidisciplinary in an emergency. The removal of these objects must be carried out in order to preserve the structures as much as possible, also taking into account the aesthetic and functional factors involved(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Traumatismos Maxilofaciales/cirugía , Traumatismos Maxilofaciales/terapia , Cirugía Bucal , Traumatismos Faciales , Traumatismos Maxilofaciales
14.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48815

RESUMEN

Embora a Covid-19 tenha provocado mais casos graves e mortes entre pessoas idosas vivendo com comorbidades, como diabetes, hipertensão e obesidade, a doença também ocasionou esses quadros em pessoas abaixo dos 60 anos e sem doenças crônicas


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Planes y Programas de Investigación en Salud
16.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 200, 2022 05 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643459

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Experiencing perimenstrual symptoms is a major health concern for young women. Women in the reproductive age experience menstruation about once a month, and many experience perimenstrual symptoms. Drug therapies such as painkillers (commonly used) and hormonal medications help to achieve symptomatic relief from perimenstrual symptoms. However, many women are concerned about tolerance and compliance of the drugs used to treat perimenstrual symptoms and lack awareness on how to cope with perimenstrual symptoms. If the association between exercise habits and the severity of symptoms is emphasized in young women, methods for coping with perimenstrual symptoms can be established, not relying only on pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the severity of perimenstrual symptoms in young Japanese women with and without a regular exercise habit. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using an online survey was sent among 500 Japanese women aged 18-25 years. The severity of perimenstrual symptoms was assessed using the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ). The differences in MDQ scores between those with and without exercise habits (exercise for more than 30 min for 2 days a week) were compared using the chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test. The logistic regression analysis detected subscales of the premenstrual and menstrual symptoms affected by an exercise habit. RESULTS: 282 (56.4%) young Japanese women were answered this survey. Respondents were divided into the exercise group (n = 157) and the non-exercise group (n = 125). The exercise group had significantly low premenstrual and menstrual MDQ scores. The results of the logistic regression analysis stated that the subscale related to negative emotion before menstruation was associated with an exercise habit. In the analysis performed during menstruation, a statistically significant association was detected between an exercise habit and a behavioral change such as avoiding interaction with others. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that exercise habits may reduce the severity of perimenstrual symptoms and could help to develop a non-pharmacological coping strategy. In addition, this study provides useful information for young women who want to prevent perimenstrual symptoms but do not have an exercise habit. Further, it may encourage young women to start exercising.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Premenstrual , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Hábitos , Humanos , Japón , Síndrome Premenstrual/psicología , Adulto Joven
17.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 203, 2022 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650621

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the prevalence of smoking in women has increased significantly. This study aimed to explain the effective factors in the tendency to smoke in female adolescents, employing a qualitative method of content analysis in Mashhad, Iran. METHODS: The data for this conventional content analysis were obtained by conducting semi­structured interviews with 20 female adolescent smokers. For open coding, integrating codes, creating main category and subcategories, and extracting quotation associated with codes and subcategories, MAXQDA software version 10 was used. RESULTS: Based on the results of the study, one main category and six subcategories were identified to influence the decision to smoke. The main category was interconnection of psychological and gender experiences. The subcategories included self-management weakness, ignoring the side effects, gender orientation, negative psychological experiences, the attraction of cigarettes, and positive psychological experiences. CONCLUSION: Psychological and gender factors play an important role in initiating people's behavior and tendency to smoke and smoking prevention programs in educational settings need to focus efforts around what is known about young women smokers.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Fumar/epidemiología
18.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 206, 2022 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655201

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Though the harmful impacts of child marriage have been evaluated across several domains, evidence on the relationship between child marriage and health behaviors over the life course is limited. In this paper, we examined whether getting married as a child is associated with one of the most common risky health behaviors, tobacco use, in adulthood. METHODS: Using nationally representative data from India, we compared the odds in favor of tobacco use among early adult (age 22-34) and early middle-aged (age 35-44) women who were married before age 18 with that of those who were married as youths (age 18-21). We estimated univariate and multivariable logistic regressions to obtain odds ratios in favor of any tobacco-use and relative risk ratios in favor of mutually exclusive types of tobacco use (smoking-only, smokeless-only, and dual-use). We also explored the intensive margin of the relationship by assessing if the odds of tobacco use in adulthood were affected by how early (13 or less, 14-15, or 16-17) a child bride was married. RESULTS: We find that the adjusted odds of tobacco use for those who were married as a child were 1.3 and 1.2 times that of those who were married as a youth among early adult and early middle-aged women, respectively. The younger was the child bride when married, the higher were the odds of tobacco use as an adult. The relative risks of different types of tobacco use were also higher for child brides than their peers. CONCLUSIONS: These results are the first evidence of the association between child marriage and a major risky health behavior, tobacco use, over the life course. These findings will inform policies to strengthen child marriage prevention efforts and targeted tobacco control initiatives in the low-and-middle income countries.


Asunto(s)
Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Matrimonio , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 211, 2022 06 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672692

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2014, the Thai government launched a free-of-charge long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) program for Thai female adolescents. However, its acceptance had not been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to describe contraceptive use among women of reproductive age before and after the program was implemented. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out from the medical records of 9000 women of reproductive age, who attended the Family Planning Clinic at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital between 2009 and 2018. The Chi-square test was used to compare the contraceptive methods administered before and after the program was implemented, and binary logistic regression was used to find the factors associated with implant use after completion of the program. RESULTS: Depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) injection was the most popular contraceptive method used among 40.9% of the women. The rates of subdermal implant use were increased significantly after the program was implemented (2.3-9.3%, p < 0.001). Implant use for adolescents aged less than 20 years increased from 2.6% to 56.4%, while DMPA was the most popular method used among adult women at 36.4%. Factors associated significantly with implant use after implement of the program included age of less than 20 years (aOR = 4.17 (CI: 1.84-9.44); p = 0.001) and nulliparity (aOR = 8.55 (CI: 3.77-19.39); p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study showed a significant increase in contraceptive implant use after the free-LARC program for adolescents had been applied. STATEMENT OF IMPLICATIONS: Contraceptive implant is the most effective hormonal reversible contraception. Its use rate is low among all age groups, but increased clearly after the free-of-charge program was applied for adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Anticonceptivos Femeninos , Anticoncepción Reversible de Larga Duración , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepción/métodos , Anticonceptivos Femeninos/uso terapéutico , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tailandia
20.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 210, 2022 06 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672817

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intimate Partner violence (IPV) among pregnant women is a significant problem of public health importance. Nevertheless, there are relatively few studies which have examined the phenomenon in sub-Saharan settings. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the prevalence, perpetrators, and associated factors of IPV during pregnancy in Kenya. METHODS: We were making use of the 2014 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) data and included women and girls of reproductive age (15-49 years) who have ever been pregnant ([Formula: see text]). A weighted sample of respondents who have experienced violence during pregnancy ([Formula: see text]) were selected for further bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses in order to examine the association between IPV and socio-demographic factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of violence among pregnant women in Kenya was 9.2%, perpetrated mostly by the current husband or partner (47.6%), followed by the former husband or partner (31.5%). Physical violence was the most common (78.6%), followed by emotional (67.8%) and sexual (34.8%). Having one or two children ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]), having secondary or higher education ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) and being 18 years and above at first cohabitation ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) and at sexual debut ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) were significantly associated with fewer reports of violence during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were divorced, separated or widowed ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]), who were employed ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]), who had witnessed their fathers beat their mothers ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) and who had primary education ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) were significantly more likely to experience violence. CONCLUSIONS: To prevent violence among pregnant women in Kenya, training health care providers should go hand in hand with interventions sensitising and mobilising community members, both addressing the socio-demographic drivers of IPV during pregnancy and directing a particular attention to the most vulnerable ones.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Mujeres Embarazadas , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Adulto Joven
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