Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.384.404
Filtrar
1.
Univ. salud ; 27(1): 1-10, enero-abril 2025.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555921

RESUMEN

Introducción: La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) y los estados de ánimo son indicadores cruciales del bienestar en adolescentes, pero su relación con estudiantes de Antioquia, Colombia, no ha sido ampliamente estudiada. Objetivo: Determinar la CVRS y los estados de ánimo en escolares de Antioquia-Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal con 1957 escolares de 9 a 20 años. Se aplicaron mediciones de CVRS, ansiedad, depresión, hostilidad y alegría, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario, apoyo social de padres y nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: La calidad de vida alta (CVA) es más elevada en hombres, personas con alegría, estudiantes con apoyo de padres, activos físicamente y personas de nivel socioeconómico alto y medio. AL aumentar un año de edad, disminuye en un 15 % la CVA, y al aumentar la depresión, la ansiedad y el comportamiento sedentario disminuye la CVA. Además, los niveles de depresión y ansiedad son mayores en mujeres, estudiantes mayores, sin apoyo de los padres y personas sedentarias. Conclusiones: La CVRS se asocia con estados de ánimo, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario y apoyo de los padres; mientras que los estados de ánimo se asocian con el sexo, el apoyo de los padres, la CVS y el sedentarismo.


Introduction: Even though health-related quality of life (HRQL) and mood states are key indicators of the well-being of adolescents, their relationship has not been analyzed in students from Antioquia, Colombia. Objective: To determine HRQL and mood states in schoolchildren from Antioquia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,957 schoolchildren and adolescents aged between 9 and 20 years. Measurements of HRQL, anxiety, depression, hostility and happiness, physical activity, sedentary behavior, parental social support, and socioeconomic status were applied. Results: A high quality of life (HQL) was observed more frequently in male participants, students with parental support, physically active, and those belonging to medium and high socioeconomic status. HQL decreased 15% as their age increased by one year. Also, HQL was reduced when depression, anxiety, and sedentary behavior increased. Furthermore, depression and anxiety levels were higher in women, older students, as well as in those without parental control and with sedentary behavior. Conclusions: HRQL is associated with mood states, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and parental support. In contrast, mood states are related to gender, parental support, HQL, and sedentary lifestyle.


Introdução: A qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (CVRS) e os estados de humor são indicadores cruciais de bem-estar em adolescentes, mas sua relação com estudantes de Antioquia, Colômbia, não foi amplamente estudada. Objetivo: Determinar a CVRS e os estados de humor em escolares de Antioquia-Colômbia. Materiais e métodos: Estudo transversal com 1.957 escolares de 9 a 20 anos. Foram aplicadas medidas de QVRS, ansiedade, depressão, hostilidade e felicidade, atividade física, comportamento sedentário, apoio social dos pais e nível socioeconômico. Resultados: A alta qualidade de vida (CVA) é maior em homens, pessoas com alegria, estudantes com apoio parental, fisicamente ativos e pessoas de nível socioeconômico alto e médio. À medida que a idade aumenta em um ano, diminui em 15% o CVA, e ao aumentar a depressão, a ansiedade e o comportamento sedentário aumentam, o CVA diminui. Além disso, os níveis de depressão e ansiedade são mais elevados nas mulheres, nos estudantes mais velhos, sem apoio dos pais e nas pessoas sedentárias. Conclusões: A QVRS está associada a estados de humor, atividade física, comportamento sedentário e apoio parental; enquanto os estados de humor estão associados ao sexo, apoio parental, CVS e estilo de vida sedentário.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Salud , Emociones , Felicidad , Hostilidad
2.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 65-83, oct.-dic. 2024.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229229

RESUMEN

La falta de información sobre el uso de la tecnología en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) de diferentes perfiles puede dificultar que docentes y alumnos se estén beneficiando del apoyo tecnológico más eficaz y ajustado a sus necesidades. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar y sintetizar la evidencia científica sobre la eficacia de los recursos tecnológicos en la mejora de la comprensión emocional de estudiantes con TEA con perfiles de alto y bajo funcionamiento. Para ello se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas indexadas en algunas de las bases de datos de mayor relevancia siguiendo los criterios establecidos en la declaración PRISMA. En total se analizaron 38 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión preestablecidos. Los resultados muestran la importancia de diseñar sistemas versátiles que puedan personalizarse y adaptarse en tiempo real y en contextos naturales con un enfoque claramente inclusivo. Pero también sugieren que la tecnología puede no ser una herramienta de intervención complementaria adecuada para todos los niños con TEA. Lo que subraya la necesidad de ensayos adicionales bien controlados sobre las características que permitan identificar qué estudiantes podrían o no beneficiarse de diferentes modalidades de tecnología. (AU)


The lack of information on the use of technology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of different profiles can make it difficult for teachers and students to benefit from the most effective technology support tailored to their needs. The aim of this review was to analyze and synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of technological resources in improving the emotional understanding of students with high and low functioning ASD profiles. A systematic review of the scientific publications indexed in some of the most relevant databases was carried out following the criteria established in the PRISMA declaration. A total of 38 articles that met the pre-established inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results show the importance of designing versatile systems that can be customized and adapted in real time and in natural contexts with a clearly inclusive approach. But they also suggest that technology may not be an appropriate complementary intervention tool for all children with ASD. This underlines the need for additional well-controlled tests on the characteristics that would allow identifying which students might or might not benefit from different technology modalities. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Tecnología Educacional , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico
3.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 65-83, oct.-dic. 2024.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-559

RESUMEN

La falta de información sobre el uso de la tecnología en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) de diferentes perfiles puede dificultar que docentes y alumnos se estén beneficiando del apoyo tecnológico más eficaz y ajustado a sus necesidades. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar y sintetizar la evidencia científica sobre la eficacia de los recursos tecnológicos en la mejora de la comprensión emocional de estudiantes con TEA con perfiles de alto y bajo funcionamiento. Para ello se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas indexadas en algunas de las bases de datos de mayor relevancia siguiendo los criterios establecidos en la declaración PRISMA. En total se analizaron 38 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión preestablecidos. Los resultados muestran la importancia de diseñar sistemas versátiles que puedan personalizarse y adaptarse en tiempo real y en contextos naturales con un enfoque claramente inclusivo. Pero también sugieren que la tecnología puede no ser una herramienta de intervención complementaria adecuada para todos los niños con TEA. Lo que subraya la necesidad de ensayos adicionales bien controlados sobre las características que permitan identificar qué estudiantes podrían o no beneficiarse de diferentes modalidades de tecnología. (AU)


The lack of information on the use of technology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of different profiles can make it difficult for teachers and students to benefit from the most effective technology support tailored to their needs. The aim of this review was to analyze and synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of technological resources in improving the emotional understanding of students with high and low functioning ASD profiles. A systematic review of the scientific publications indexed in some of the most relevant databases was carried out following the criteria established in the PRISMA declaration. A total of 38 articles that met the pre-established inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results show the importance of designing versatile systems that can be customized and adapted in real time and in natural contexts with a clearly inclusive approach. But they also suggest that technology may not be an appropriate complementary intervention tool for all children with ASD. This underlines the need for additional well-controlled tests on the characteristics that would allow identifying which students might or might not benefit from different technology modalities. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Tecnología Educacional , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico
4.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 236-241, May-Sep, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-232718

RESUMEN

La adicción digital, que se determina como un problema común entre los adolescentes en los últimos años, afecta negativamente la vida de los adolescentes en muchos aspectos. El objetivo del estudio es examinar las relaciones entre la adicción digital, la soledad, la timidez y la ansiedad social de los adolescentes. Gate se reunió con adolescentes que completaron la Escala de adicción digital, la versión corta de la Escala de soledad de UCLA, la Escala de timidez y la Escala de gravedad del trastorno de ansiedad social DSM-5 - Formulario infantil. Las hipótesis sugeridas se han probado utilizando los datos recopilados de 991 adolescentes y un análisis de regresión jerárquica. Los resultados de la investigación encontraron una relación positiva y significativa entre la adicción digital, la soledad, la timidez y la ansiedad social entre los adolescentes. Además, los hallazgos muestran que la adicción digital, la soledad y la timidez predicen la ansiedad social. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que la adicción digital, la soledad y la timidez tienen efecto sobre la ansiedad social. Según los hallazgos, se sugiere aplicar diversas intervenciones educativas por parte de profesionales de la salud mental a adolescentes que presenten signos de adicción digital, soledad, timidez y ansiedad social.(AU)


Digital addiction, which is determined as a common problem among adolescents in the last years, affects the lives of adolescents nega-tively in terms of many aspects. The aim of the study is to examine the re-lationships between adolescents' digital addiction, loneliness, shyness and social anxiety. Gate gathered from adolescents who completed Digital Ad-diction Scale, Short Form of UCLA Loneliness Scale, Shyness Scale, and DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale -Child Form. The suggest-ed hypotheses have been tested using the data gathered from 991 adoles-cents and hierarchical regression analysis. The research findings found a positive and significant relationship between digital addiction, loneliness, shyness and social anxiety among adolescents. Furthermore, the findings show that digital addiction, loneliness, and shyness predict social anxiety. The results obtained prove that digital addiction, loneliness and shyness have an effect on social anxiety. According to the findings, it is suggested to applyvarious educational interventions by mental health professionals to adolescents who show signs of digital addiction, loneliness, shyness, and social anxiety.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Soledad , Timidez , /psicología , Ansiedad
5.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 272-279, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-232721

RESUMEN

Introduction: The scientific evidence regarding the effects of online social media use on the well-being of adolescents is mixed. In gen-eral, passive uses (receiving, viewing content without interacting) and more screen time are related to lower well-being when compared with active uses (direct interactions and interpersonal exchanges). Objectives:This study ex-amines the types and motives for social media usage amongst adolescents, differentiating them by gender identity and sexual orientation, as well as its effects on eudaimonic well-being and minority stress. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1259 adolescents, aged 14 to 19 (M= 16.19; SD= 1.08), analysing the Scale of Motives for Using Social Net-working Sites, eudaimonic well-being, the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory, screen time and profile type. Results:The results found that longer use time is related to finding partners, social connection and friendships; that gay and bisexual (GB) adolescents perceive more distal stressors online;and that females have higher levels of well-being. Discus-sion: The public profiles of GB males increase self-expression, although minority stress can be related to discrimination, rejection or exclusion. Dif-ferentiated socialization may contribute to a higher level of well-being in females, with both active and passive uses positively effecting eudaimonic well-being in adolescents.(AU)


Introduction: The scientific evidence regarding the effects of online social media use on the well-being of adolescents is mixed. In general, passive uses (receiving, viewing content without interacting) and more screen time are related to lower well-being when compared with active uses (direct interactions and interpersonal exchanges). Objectives: This study examines the types and motives for social media usage amongst adolescents, differentiating them by gender identity and sexual orientation, as well as its effects on eudaimonic well-being and minority stress. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1259 adolescents, aged 14 to 19 (M = 16.19; SD = 1.08), analysing the Scale of Motives for Using Social Networking Sites, eudaimonic well-being, the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory, screen time and profile type. Results: The results found that longer use time is related to finding partners, social connection and friendships; that gay and bisexual (GB) adolescents perceive more distal stressors online; and that females have higher levels of well-being. Discussion: The public profiles of GB males increase self-expression, although minority stress can be related to discrimination, rejection or exclusion. Differentiated socialization may contribute to a higher level of well-being in females, with both active and passive uses positively effecting eudaimonic well-being in adolescents.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Redes Sociales en Línea , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Salud del Adolescente , Psicología del Adolescente , Motivación
6.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100491], jul.-sept2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-231873

RESUMEN

Background and objectives: The invention described herein is a prototype based on computer vision technology that measures depth perception and is intended for the early examination of stereopsis. Materials and methods: The prototype (software and hardware) is a depth perception measurement system that consists on: (a) a screen showing stereoscopic models with a guide point that the subject must point to; (b) a camera capturing the distance between the screen and the subject's finger; and (c) a unit for recording, processing and storing the captured measurements. For test validation, the reproducibility and reliability of the platform were calculated by comparing results with standard stereoscopic tests. A demographic study of depth perception by subgroup analysis is shown. Subjective comparison of the different tests was carried out by means of a satisfaction survey. Results: We included 94 subjects, 25 children and 69 adults, with a mean age of 34.2 ± 18.9 years; 36.2 % were men and 63.8 % were women. The DALE3D platform obtained good repeatability with an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between 0.94 and 0.87, and coefficient of variation (CV) between 0.1 and 0.26. Threshold determining optimal and suboptimal results was calculated for Randot and DALE3D test. Spearman's correlation coefficient, between thresholds was not statistically significant (p value > 0.05). The test was considered more visually appealing and easier to use by the participants (90 % maximum score). Conclusions: The DALE3D platform is a potentially useful tool for measuring depth perception with optimal reproducibility rates. Its innovative design makes it a more intuitive tool for children than current stereoscopic tests. Nevertheless, further studies will be needed to assess whether the depth perception measured by the DALE3D platform is a sufficiently reliable parameter to assess stereopsis.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Visión Binocular , Percepción de Profundidad , Visión Ocular , Pruebas de Visión
7.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100514], jul.-sept2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-231876

RESUMEN

Purpose: To analyze binocular vision of individuals aged 18 to 35 years diagnosed with keratoconus, utilizing spectacles and rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lenses. Research was led by the Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, México and Fundación Universitaria del Área Andina Pereira, Colombia. Methods: A single center, prospective non-randomized, comparative, interventional, open-label study, in which the differences in binocular vision performance with both spectacles and RGP contact lenses was carried out from December 2018 to December 2019. Sampling was performed according to consecutive cases with keratoconus that met the inclusion criteria until the proposed sample size was reached. Results: Rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lenses notably enhanced distance and near visual acuity in keratoconus patients compared to spectacles. Visual alignment analysis shows exophoria at both distances and is slightly higher with RGP contact lenses. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05), with 82.5 % presenting compensated phoria with spectacles and pnly 42.50% with RGP contact lenses. Stereoscopic vision improved while wearing RGP contact lenses (42.59 %), although accommodation and accommodative flexibility remained within normal ranges. Conclusions: Patients with keratoconus fitted with RGP contact lenses have improved binocular vision skills such as visual acuity, stereopsis, and accommodative flexibility. However, even when the vergence and motor system is decompensated with respect to normal ranges, the range between break and recovery points for both fusional reserves and the near point of convergence (NPC) improves with the use of RGP contact lenses, giving indications of an adaptive condition of the motor system from the medium to the long term.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Queratocono , Anteojos , Lentes de Contacto , Visión Binocular , Pruebas de Visión , Colombia , México , Oftalmología , Estudios Prospectivos
8.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 299(1): 66, 2024 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980418

RESUMEN

PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) is an umbrella term to describe a diverse range of developmental disorders. Research to date has predominantly emerged from Europe and North America, resulting in a notable scarcity of studies focusing on East Asian populations. Currently, the prevalence and distribution of PIK3CA variants across various genetic loci and their correlation with distinct phenotypes in East Asian populations remain unclear. This study aims to elucidate the phenotype-genotype correlations of PROS in East Asian populations. We presented the phenotypes and genotypes of 82 Chinese patients. Among our cohort, 67 individuals carried PIK3CA variants, including missense, frameshift, and splice variants. Six patients presented with both PIK3CA and an additional variant. Seven PIK3CA-negative patients exhibited overlapping PROS manifestations with variants in GNAQ, AKT1, PTEN, MAP3K3, GNA11, or KRAS. An integrative review of the literature pertaining to East Asian populations revealed that specific variants are uniquely associated with certain PROS phenotypes. Some rare variants were exclusively identified in cases of megalencephaly and diffuse capillary malformation with overgrowth. Non-hotspot variants with undefined oncogenicity were more common in CNS phenotypes. Diseases with vascular malformation were more likely to have variants in the helical domain, whereas phenotypes involving adipose/muscle overgrowth without vascular abnormalities predominantly presented variants in the C2 domain. Our findings underscore the unique phenotype-genotype patterns within the East Asian PROS population, highlighting the necessity for an expanded cohort to further elucidate these correlations. Such endeavors would significantly facilitate the development of PI3Kα selective inhibitors tailored for the East Asian population in the future.


Asunto(s)
Pueblo Asiatico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasa Clase I , Genotipo , Fenotipo , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasa Clase I/genética , Femenino , Masculino , Niño , Preescolar , Pueblo Asiatico/genética , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Lactante , Trastornos del Crecimiento/genética , Trastornos del Crecimiento/patología , Adolescente , Mutación , Asia Oriental , Pueblos del Este de Asia
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(7): e2420090, 2024 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980675

RESUMEN

Importance: Many military service members and veterans report insomnia after sustaining traumatic brain injury (TBI). Limitations of first-line treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), include availability of qualified clinicians, low completion rates, and cost. Objective: To investigate the feasibility and efficacy of internet-guided CBT-I (eCBT-I) in military service members and veterans with insomnia and a history of TBI. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial of fully remote internet-based interventions and evaluations was conducted from September 1, 2020, to June 30, 2021, with 3 months of follow-up. Participants included a volunteer sample of military service members and veterans aged 18 to 64 years with a history of mild TBI/concussion and at least moderately severe insomnia defined as an insomnia severity index (ISI) score of greater than 14 and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index of greater than 4. Self-reported race, ethnicity, and educational level were generally representative of the US military. Data were analyzed from October 21, 2021, to April 29, 2024. Intervention: Internet-based CBT-I delivered over 6 weekly lesson modules with assigned homework activities. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prespecified primary outcome measure was change in ISI score over time. Prespecified secondary outcome measures included self-reported measures of depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, sleep quality, migraine impact, and fatigue. Results: Of 204 people screened, 125 were randomized 3:1 to eCBT-I vs online sleep education, and 106 completed baseline evaluations (83 men [78.3%]; mean [SD] age, 42 [12] years). Of these, 22 participants (20.8%) were Hispanic or Latino and 78 (73.6%) were White. Fifty participants completed postintervention evaluations, and 41 completed the 3-month follow-up. Baseline mean (SD) ISI scores were 19.7 (4.0) in those randomized to eCBT-I and 18.9 (5.0) in those randomized to sleep education. After intervention, mean (SD) ISI scores were 13.7 (5.6) in those randomized to eCBT-I and 16.6 (5.7) in those randomized to sleep education. The difference in the extent of reduction in ISI scores between groups was 3.5 (95% CI,-6.5 to -0.4 [P = .03]; Cohen d, -0.32 [95% CI, -0.70 to -0.04]). In the eCBT-I group, the extent of insomnia improvement correlated with the extent of depressive symptom improvement (Spearman ρ = 0.68 [P < .001]), PTSD symptoms (ρ = 0.36 [P = .04]), sleep quality (ρ = 0.54 [P = .001]), and fatigue impact (ρ = -0.58 [P < .001]) but not migraine-related disability. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this randomized clinical trial suggest that fully remote eCBT-I was moderately feasible and effective for self-reported insomnia and depression symptoms in military service members and veterans with a history of TBI. There is great potential benefit for eCBT-I due to low availability and cost of qualified CBT-I clinicians, although optimization of completion rates remains a challenge. Future studies may use home-based objective sleep assessments and should increase study retention. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04377009.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Humanos , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Masculino , Adulto , Femenino , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/complicaciones , Persona de Mediana Edad , Veteranos/psicología , Veteranos/estadística & datos numéricos , Intervención basada en la Internet , Adulto Joven , Personal Militar/psicología , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Internet , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adolescente
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(7): e2420717, 2024 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980674

RESUMEN

Importance: Air pollution is associated with structural brain changes, disruption of neurogenesis, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The association between prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of cerebral palsy (CP), which is the most common motor disability in childhood, has not been thoroughly investigated. Objective: To evaluate the associations between prenatal residential exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of CP among children born at term gestation in a population cohort in Ontario, Canada. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada using linked, province-wide health administrative databases. Participants were singleton full term births (≥37 gestational weeks) born in Ontario hospitals between April 1, 2002, and March 31, 2017. Data were analyzed from January to December 2022. Exposures: Weekly average concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter with a diameter 2.5 µm (PM2.5) or smaller, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) during pregnancy assigned by maternal residence reported at delivery from satellite-based estimates and ground-level monitoring data. Main outcome and measures: CP cases were ascertained by a single inpatient hospitalization diagnosis or at least 2 outpatient diagnoses for children from birth to age 18 years. Results: The present study included 1 587 935 mother-child pairs who reached term gestation, among whom 3170 (0.2%) children were diagnosed with CP. The study population had a mean (SD) maternal age of 30.1 (5.6) years and 811 745 infants (51.1%) were male. A per IQR increase (2.7 µg/m3) in prenatal ambient PM2.5 concentration was associated with a cumulative hazard ratio (CHR) of 1.12 (95% CI, 1.03-1.21) for CP. The CHR in male infants (1.14; 95% CI, 1.02-1.26) was higher compared with the CHR in female infants (1.08; 95% CI, 0.96-1.22). No specific window of susceptibility was found for prenatal PM2.5 exposure and CP in the study population. No associations or windows of susceptibility were found for prenatal NO2 or O3 exposure and CP risk. Conclusions and relevance: In this large cohort study of singleton full term births in Canada, prenatal ambient PM2.5 exposure was associated with an increased risk of CP in offspring. Further studies are needed to explore this association and its potential biological pathways, which could advance the identification of environmental risk factors of CP in early life.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Parálisis Cerebral , Material Particulado , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Humanos , Embarazo , Femenino , Parálisis Cerebral/epidemiología , Parálisis Cerebral/etiología , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Ontario/epidemiología , Adulto , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis , Lactante , Preescolar , Recién Nacido , Niño , Exposición Materna/efectos adversos , Exposición Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Cohortes , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Adolescente , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/efectos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis
11.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol ; 45(1): 2375718, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38975957

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the effects of eating and emotions on reproductive axis function in patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA).Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to summarize the clinical and endocrine characteristics of 58 patients with FHA at initial diagnosis and to follow up the recovery of ovulation and spontaneous menstruation in the patients to investigate these biochemical indicators and their effects on recovery outcomes.Results: Among patients with FHA, 13.8% (8/58) and 15.5% (9/58) had above moderately severe depressive and severe anxiety symptoms respectively, and 25.9% (15/58) were at high risk for eating disorders. 34.5% (20/58) were included assessed as having recovered. The non-recovered group had higher scores on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) (p = .022) and higher scores on the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) (p = .03) as well as bulimia and food preoccupation (p = .041). Follicle diameter >5 mm at initial diagnosis was an independent factor influencing recovery of reproductive axis function (odds ratio = 7.532; 95% confidence interval, 1.321-42.930; p = .023).Conculsions: Mood disorders and a certain risk of eating disorders were present in FHA.These, together with weight loss, endocrine and follicle size, could influence the outcome.


Asunto(s)
Amenorrea , Enfermedades Hipotalámicas , Humanos , Femenino , Amenorrea/fisiopatología , Amenorrea/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enfermedades Hipotalámicas/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Hipotalámicas/complicaciones , Enfermedades Hipotalámicas/psicología , Adulto Joven , Emociones/fisiología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiopatología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Depresión/fisiopatología , Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Ansiedad/psicología , Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Adolescente
12.
Minerva Pediatr (Torino) ; 76(4): 507-516, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38975958

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are rare metabolic diseases that impair respiratory function leading to respiratory failure. This study aimed to compare maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP) obtained in children with MPS and compare with predicted values from previous studies involving healthy children. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, in which the chest deformity was evaluated; MIP, MEP through digital manometer, and lung function through spirometry. MIP and MEP were compared with five different predict equations and with a control group of healthy children. Agreement between respiratory muscle weakness regarding absolute values of MIP and MEP in relation to predictive values by the equations included in the study were assessed by Kappa coefficient. RESULTS: MPS group was composed of 22 subjects. 45.5% had pectus carinatum, 36.4% pectus excavatum, and presented lower MIP (37.14±36.23 cmH2O) and MEP (60.09±22.3 cmH2O) compared with control group (22 healthy subjects) (MIP: 91.45±35.60; MEP: 95.73±22.38). Only the MEP equations proposed by Tomalak et al. were close to those found in our MPS children (P=0.09). In the MPS group it was observed a weak agreement between inspiratory weakness through absolute and predicted values in only two equations: Tomalak et al. and Domenèch-Clar et al. (for both: k=0.35, P value =0.03); and for MEP a moderate agreement was found using all predictive equations. CONCLUSIONS: In MPS children MRP data should not be normalized using the reference equations for healthy ones, is more coherent to longitudinally follow absolute pressures and lung volumes in this group.


Asunto(s)
Mucopolisacaridosis , Fuerza Muscular , Músculos Respiratorios , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Niño , Masculino , Músculos Respiratorios/fisiopatología , Femenino , Adolescente , Mucopolisacaridosis/diagnóstico , Mucopolisacaridosis/fisiopatología , Mucopolisacaridosis/complicaciones , Espirometría , Presiones Respiratorias Máximas , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas
13.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 409(1): 207, 2024 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976070

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the results of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) for the treatment of 1-2 cm kidney stones in pediatric patients. METHODS: The records of patients under the age of 18 years who were diagnosed with unilateral 1-2 cm kidney stones for the first time and underwent endoscopic surgery between February 2008 and April 2022 were retrospectively examined. The patients were divided into two groups: mini-PCNL and RIRS surgery. Parameters such as age, gender, number of stones, side, size and localization were examined. The main endpoint of the study was to compare stone-free rates (SFR) one month after both surgeries. Surgery and fluoroscopy times, postoperative hospital stay, hemoglobin decrease and complication rates were compared between the groups. SFR was evaluated one month after surgery by direct urinary system radiography and USG or CT. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients were included in the study. There were 35 patients in the mini-PCNL group and 23 patients in the RIRS group. Table 1 shows the demographic and clinical characteristics of both groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, gender, stone size, location, side and density. Calcium oxalate stones were observed at a higher rate in both groups. Mean fluoroscopy time was higher in the mini-PCNL group (p = 0.001). The mean surgery time was lower in the mini-PCNL group (p = 0.024). The mean hemoglobin decrease was greater in the percutaneous group (p = 0.039). There were no differences between the groups in terms of postoperative hospital stay, complication rates, and SFR one month after surgery. CONCLUSION: Although mini-PCNL seems to be more advantageous in terms of operation time compared to RIRS, it is disadvantageous in terms of average fluoroscopy time, radiation received and average hemoglobin decrease.


Asunto(s)
Cálculos Renales , Nefrolitotomía Percutánea , Humanos , Cálculos Renales/cirugía , Femenino , Masculino , Niño , Estudios Retrospectivos , Nefrolitotomía Percutánea/métodos , Nefrolitotomía Percutánea/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Resultado del Tratamiento , Preescolar , Tempo Operativo , Tiempo de Internación , Fluoroscopía
14.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 30(7): 480-486, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38967527

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis (AA) is the primary cause of acute abdomen in patients presenting to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Limited studies have explored the relationship between serum hepcidin levels and AA. This study aimed to measure serum hepcidin levels in patients undergoing surgery with a preliminary diagnosis of AA and to assess whether these levels can serve as a biochemical marker for diagnosing AA. METHODS: This study included patients aged 18 or older who presented to the emergency department between April 2018 and May 2019 and underwent surgery with a diagnosis of AA. The cohort comprised 94 patients with surgical pathology results compatible with AA (Group A), 16 patients with results not compatible with AA (Group B), and 42 healthy controls. Serum hepcidin levels were measured from venous blood samples. RESULTS: Mean hepcidin levels were 1750±285 pg/mL in Group A, 1349±381 pg/mL in Group B, and 1066±225 pg/mL in the control group. Statistically significant differences in serum hepcidin levels were observed between Group A and the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Hepcidin levels were significantly higher in patients with AA compared to both the control group and patients with surgically confirmed non-AA pathology. Therefore, hepcidin may serve as a useful adjunct in diagnosing acute appendicitis.


Asunto(s)
Apendicitis , Biomarcadores , Hepcidinas , Humanos , Apendicitis/sangre , Apendicitis/diagnóstico , Apendicitis/cirugía , Hepcidinas/sangre , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Adulto Joven , Enfermedad Aguda , Adolescente , Anciano
15.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0304240, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968312

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Half of the world's children experience violence every year, but the meaning of violence is not universally agreed. We may therefore risk failing to measure, and address, the acts that matter most to children and adolescents. In this paper, we describe and synthesise evidence on how children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa conceptualise different behavioural acts which are deemed violence in childhood under WHO and UN CRC definitions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies. We searched PsychINFO, CINAHL, Embase, Global Health, Medline and ERIC for all publications released prior to March 2023. 30 papers met inclusion criteria. We synthesised primary data from children and adolescents and drew upon theoretical and contextual interpretations of authors of included studies. Only 12 of more than 45 sub-Saharan African countries were represented with relevant research. Of the 30 included papers, 25 came from three countries: South Africa, Uganda and Ghana. Only 10 of 30 papers reported data from young children (pre-adolescence), and 18 of 30 papers primarily focused on sexual violence. 14 studies used child friendly and/or participatory methods. From this limited evidence, we identified six overarching themes in how children and adolescents conceptualised their experiences of acts internationally recognised as violence: 1) adults abusing or neglecting responsibility; 2) sexual violence from peers, family and community members; 3) violence in established intimate relationships; 4) emotional violence surrounding sex from peers and community members; 5) fighting and beating between peers; 6) street and community dangers. No studies meeting our inclusion criteria specifically examined children or adolescents' conceptualisations of homophobic or transphobic violence; violence against children with disabilities; boys' experiences of sexual violence from male perpetrators; trafficking, modern slavery or conflict; child labour; or female genital mutilation. We found that three dimensions were important in how children and adolescents constructed conceptualisations of violence: their age, relationship to the perpetrator, and the physical location of acts they had experienced. These dimensions were interrelated and gendered. CONCLUSION: The current limited evidence base suggests children and adolescents' conceptualisations of violence overlapped with, but were also distinct from, the WHO and UNCRC definitions of violence. Currently international survey tools focus on measuring types and frequencies of particular acts and neglect to focus on children's understandings of those acts. Relationship to perpetrator, age of child, physical location are all important in how children conceptualise their experiences of acts internationally recognised as violence, and therefore might be important for their health and social outcomes. Those developing measures should account for these dimensions when developing items for testing.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Cualitativa , Violencia , Humanos , Adolescente , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Niño , Violencia/psicología , Femenino , Masculino
16.
BMJ Open ; 14(7): e080778, 2024 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969372

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study explores the association between vaccine hesitancy, vaccine knowledge and psychological well-being with (1) receipt of/willingness to receive an initial vaccine against COVID-19, and (2) willingness to get vaccinated yearly against COVID-19. The importance of different vaccine attributes (eg, vaccine technology, effectiveness, side effects) to choose a specific COVID-19 vaccine was also assessed. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey administered during May to June 2021 on vaccine hesitancy, vaccine knowledge, psychological well-being, willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccines, sociodemographics and COVID-19-related factors. SETTING: UK. PARTICIPANTS: A self-selected sample of 1408 adults. OUTCOME MEASURES: Receipt of/willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine for the first time and yearly. RESULTS: Receipt of/willingness to receive a vaccine against COVID-19 initially and yearly were high (97.0% and 86.6%, respectively). Vaccine hesitancy was negatively associated with receipt of/willingness to receive vaccine initially/yearly (adjusted OR (aOR)=0.09, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.26, p<0.001/aOR=0.05, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.09, p<0.001). Vaccine knowledge and psychological well-being were positively associated with willingness to receive a yearly vaccine (aOR=1.81, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.29, p<0.001 and aOR=1.25, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.51, p=0.014, respectively), and general vaccine knowledge also with receipt of/willingness to receive vaccine initially (aOR=1.69, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.42, p=0.004). Vaccine effectiveness was the most important attribute for participants to choose a specific COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Improving vaccine knowledge and emphasising vaccine efficacy may minimise vaccine hesitancy and increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Vacilación a la Vacunación , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Transversales , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/psicología , Femenino , Vacilación a la Vacunación/psicología , Vacilación a la Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Reino Unido , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , SARS-CoV-2 , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación/psicología , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Anciano , Adolescente , Bienestar Psicológico
17.
BMJ Open ; 14(7): e081853, 2024 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969368

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are disorders of the musculoskeletal system that have the highest prevalence among workers worldwide. Workers in gas stations usually work in poor ergonomic working conditions, including prolonged standing and repetitive posturing. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of WMSDs and fatigue and to identify the predictors of WMSDs among gas station workers. DESIGN: The present study was a cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 2962 gas station workers from an oil and gas company in China, with ages ranging from 17 to 75 years old, 55.47% female. RESULTS: The prevalence of WMSDs within the 12 months prior to the study was 73.23%, with the highest prevalence in the neck, shoulders, ankles and feet. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between fatigue, stress and WMSDs. Fatigue and job role were the strongest predictors of WMSDs, with an OR range of 2.211-3.413. CONCLUSIONS: This research identified the detrimental impact of WMSDs and fatigue on gas station workers, indicating the critical need for interventions to reduce WMSDs and relieve fatigue.


Asunto(s)
Fatiga , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas , Enfermedades Profesionales , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fatiga/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología , Adulto Joven , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiología , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas/etiología , Prevalencia , Adolescente , Anciano , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Industria del Petróleo y Gas
18.
BMJ Open ; 14(7): e085681, 2024 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969374

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Suicidal ideation (SI) is a common and severe cause of morbidity in adolescents. Patients frequently present to the emergency department (ED) for care, yet there is no acute therapeutic intervention for SI. A single dose of intravenous ketamine has demonstrated efficacy in rapidly reducing SI in adults; however, ketamine has not been studied in paediatrics. We aim to determine the feasibility of a trial of a single intravenous ketamine dose to reduce SI for patients in the paediatric ED. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a single-centre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm pilot trial of intravenous ketamine for ED treatment of SI in a paediatric population. INTERVENTION: one intravenous dose of 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine (max 50 mg), over 40 min. Placebo: one intravenous dose of 0.5 mL/kg (max 50 mL) of normal saline, over 40 min. Participants will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio. SI severity will be measured at baseline, 40 min, 80 min, 120 min, 24 hours and 7 days. We aim to recruit 20 participants. The primary feasibility outcome is the proportion of eligible patients who complete the study protocol. We will pilot three SI severity tools and explore the efficacy, safety and tolerability of the intervention. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study will be conducted according to Canadian Biomedical Research Tutorial, international standards of Good Clinical Practice and the Health Canada, Food and Drug Act, Part C, Division 5. The study documents have been approved by the CHEO Research Institute Research Ethics Board (CHEO REB (23/02E)). Participants must provide free and informed consent to participate. If incapable due to age, assenting participants with parental/legal guardian consent may participate. On completion, we will endeavour to present results at international conferences, and publish the results in a peer-reviewed journal. Participants will receive a results letter. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05468840.


Asunto(s)
Administración Intravenosa , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Ketamina , Ideación Suicida , Humanos , Ketamina/administración & dosificación , Ketamina/uso terapéutico , Método Doble Ciego , Proyectos Piloto , Adolescente , Niño , Masculino , Femenino , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Estudios de Factibilidad
19.
BMJ Open ; 14(7): e084120, 2024 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969377

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The escalating consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) among school-aged children in developing countries poses a significant threat to public health, contributing to the dual burden of malnutrition. In Malawi, where undernutrition coexists with a burgeoning obesity epidemic, understanding the determinants of UPF consumption and its impact on children's nutritional status is imperative. This study, conducted in Lilongwe, Malawi, aimed to investigate the association between UPF consumption, sociodemographic factors and the nutritional status of school-aged children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 511 children aged 7-14 were recruited from 2 densely populated townships using systematic random sampling. Data on sociodemographic factors, UPF consumption and nutritional status were collected through face-to-face interviews and anthropometric measurements. UPF consumption was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire while multinomial logistic regression was employed to analyse associations. RESULTS: Results revealed alarmingly high UPF consumption among children, particularly those high in sugar. Multinomial logistic regression identified significant predictors of malnutrition outcomes. Notably, children consuming UPFs more than three times a week were more likely to be malnourished. Overweight status was positively associated with sausage intake (ß=0.226, adjusted OR 1.254, 95% CI 1.004 to 1.566, p=0.046) and age (ß=0.020, adjusted OR=0.257, 95% CI 0.156 to 0.28, p=0.003). Conversely, underweight status was linked with residential location (ß=4.507, adjusted OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.000 to 0.281, p=0.006) and fizzy drinks (ß=1.071, adjusted OR 2.919, 95% CI 1.413 to 6.028, p=0.004). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of UPF consumption among school-aged children is significantly associated with malnutrition. Moreover, sociodemographic factors influence UPF consumption, highlighting the need for targeted interventions to reduce malnutrition. These findings may inform public health policies to mitigate malnutrition among children in Malawi's urban communities.


Asunto(s)
Comida Rápida , Desnutrición , Obesidad Infantil , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiología , Niño , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , Comida Rápida/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Obesidad Infantil/epidemiología , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado Nutricional , Factores Socioeconómicos , Modelos Logísticos , Alimentos Procesados
20.
BMJ Open ; 14(7): e078548, 2024 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969386

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Online-based interventions provide a low-threshold way to reach and support families. The mentalisation-based Lighthouse Parenting Programme is an established intervention aimed at preventing psychopathological development in children. The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of an online adaptation of the Lighthouse Parenting Programme (LPP-Online), evaluating (a) recruitment capability, compliance, acceptability and satisfaction with the intervention; (b) the psychometric properties of and the acceptability regarding the adjunct psychological evaluation; and (c) the employed materials and resources. The study will also obtain a preliminary evaluation of participants' responses to the intervention. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: In this monocentric, one-arm, non-randomised feasibility trial, n=30 psychologically distressed parents with children aged 0 to 14 years will participate in the LPP-Online for a duration of 8 weeks. The intervention consists of online group sessions and individual sessions, 38 smartphone-based ecological momentary interventions (EMI), and psychoeducational materials (website, booklet). At baseline (T0) and the end of the intervention (T1), parents complete self-report questionnaires as well as 7-day ecological momentary assessments (EMA) via smartphone. During the intervention, additional EMA are completed before and after the daily EMI. An interview regarding parents' subjective experience with the intervention will be conducted at T1. The feasibility of the intervention, the psychological evaluation and the resources will be examined using descriptive and qualitative analyses. The preliminary evaluation of the parents' response to the intervention will be conducted by analysing pre-post changes in questionnaire measures and the 7-day EMA as well as data of additional EMA completed before and after the daily EMI. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval of the study has been obtained from the local ethics board (Faculty of Behavioural and Cultural Studies, University of Heidelberg). Consent to participate will be obtained before starting the assessments. Results will be disseminated as publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals and at international conferences. REGISTRATION DETAILS: German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00027423), OSF (https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/942YW).


Asunto(s)
Estudios de Factibilidad , Intervención basada en la Internet , Responsabilidad Parental , Padres , Humanos , Padres/psicología , Padres/educación , Niño , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Preescolar , Adolescente , Lactante , Masculino , Distrés Psicológico , Femenino , Adulto , Recién Nacido
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...