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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 318: 92-98, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678399

RESUMEN

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant chemical warfare agent. Recent studies reported alleged use of SM by non-state actors in Syria and Iraq. It has been shown that SM induced immunological and hematological complications. The aim of this study was to determine acute toxic effects of SM exposure on hematological parameters. Blood samples from a group of Syrian exposed to SM in 2016 were taken daily during the follow-up of the patients in intensive care unit. Initial leukocytosis was observed in all patients (100%) on the first 48 h after exposure. Following leukocytosis, isolated lymphopenia was observed in all patients (100%) between 2nd and 4th days. A decrease in hemoglobin level was noted in five patients (62.5%) between 4th and 5th days. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 75% of patients between 4th and 6th days for mild cases and between 9th and 11th days for severe cases. Three patients (37.5%) developed distinct leucopenia/neutropenia on 11th and 12th days. It was observed that human exposure to high dose of SM has direct toxic effect on hematological cells and bone marrow. New strategies on treatment of SM-induced myelosuppression could reduce the effects of hematological complications and could increase the survival rate in these patients.


Asunto(s)
Médula Ósea/efectos de los fármacos , Terrorismo Químico , Sustancias para la Guerra Química/envenenamiento , Leucocitosis/inducido químicamente , Leucopenia/inducido químicamente , Linfopenia/inducido químicamente , Gas Mostaza/envenenamiento , Trombocitopenia/inducido químicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Médula Ósea/patología , Femenino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucocitosis/sangre , Leucocitosis/patología , Leucopenia/sangre , Leucopenia/patología , Linfopenia/sangre , Linfopenia/patología , Masculino , Siria , Trombocitopenia/sangre , Trombocitopenia/patología , Adulto Joven
2.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4739, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553355

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To use magnetic resonance imaging to assess the prevalence of foot and ankle ligament injuries and fractures associated with ankle sprain and not diagnosed by x-ray. METHODS: We included 180 consecutive patients with a history of ankle sprain, assessed at a primary care service in a 12-month period. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were recorded and described. RESULTS: Approximately 92% of patients had some type of injury shown on the magnetic resonance imaging. We found 379 ligament injuries, 9 osteochondral injuries, 19 tendinous injuries and 51 fractures. Only 14 magnetic resonance imaging tests (7.8%) did not show any sort of injury. We observed a positive relation between injuries of the lateral complex, syndesmosis and medial ligaments. However, there was a negative correlation between ankle ligament injuries and midfoot injuries. CONCLUSION: There was a high rate of injuries secondary to ankle sprains. We found correlation between lateral ligament injuries and syndesmosis and deltoid injuries. We did not observe a relation between deltoid and syndesmosis injuries or between lateral ligamentous and subtalar injuries. Similarly, no relation was found between ankle and midfoot injuries.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos del Tobillo/epidemiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Traumatismos del Tobillo/diagnóstico por imagen , Brasil/epidemiología , Cartílago Articular/lesiones , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Ligamentos Laterales del Tobillo/lesiones , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
3.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 179-183, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407082

RESUMEN

From 2013 to 2017, at the Burdenko Institute of Neurosurgery, intra-arterial verapamil for treatment of cerebral vasospasm following intracranial hemorrhage after aneurysm rupture was administered to 35 patients (total 75 procedures). The age is from 8 to 77 years. All ruptured aneurysms were treated: in 26 cases with open approach-clipping-and in 9 cases with endovascular occlusion. The procedure was carried out from 0 to 11 days after the operation. Severity of spasm was assessed by angiography and TCDU. Efficacy of the administration was assessed by TCDU 1 h after the procedure and by clinical evaluation of the patient's condition. The dose of verapamil was 15-50 mg (on average 40 mg) per procedure/per carotid pool and depended on the data of TCDU and clinical and radiological picture. The procedure was performed repeatedly (1-5 times) according to the indications and depending on the patient's condition, with an interval of 24 h. The procedure was effective as a preventive measure for care of patients in the initial stage of cerebral ischemia and was ineffective with a formed focus of ischemia. Endovascular administration of verapamil for treatment of cerebral vasospasm is a safe technique which positively affects the overall recovery of such patients.


Asunto(s)
Aneurisma Roto , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea , Vasodilatadores , Vasoespasmo Intracraneal , Verapamilo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea/tratamiento farmacológico , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea/prevención & control , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vasodilatadores/uso terapéutico , Vasoespasmo Intracraneal/tratamiento farmacológico , Verapamilo/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
4.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 20192803. 59 p. ilus, tab.
Tesis en Portugués | Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1016793

RESUMEN

Introdução: As avaliações usando tecnologia estão presentes nas escolas em vários países, e seu uso se popularizou nas últimas duas décadas, sendo utilizadas no exame para licença médica nos Estados Unidos desde 1999. O potencial que as avaliações aprimoradas por tecnologia trazem para o mundo acadêmico foi o que motivou a realização deste estudo, e o conhecimento advindo de uma conferência específica sobre essas tecnologias trouxe o incentivo para persistir nessa linha de pesquisa. Método: Este estudo tem por objetivo comparar o estresse, a satisfação e o desempenho dos acadêmicos durante o primeiro semestre de 2018, ao realizarem provas escritas convencionais e provas no computador na disciplina de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia do curso de Medicina da Universidade José do Rosário Vellano, campus Alfenas. Foram avaliadas as turmas do décimo segundo período e sétimo período, totalizando uma amostra de 135 alunos. Tratou-se de um estudo experimental randomizado em que os alunos foram divididos em dois grupos para as avaliações e foram-lhes aplicados questionários pré-definidos e presenciais. Antes da prova, foram entregues aos alunos perguntas específicas para avaliar o estresse envolvido em sua realização. Ao término da prova, foram aplicadas as questões que avaliaram a satisfação com o tipo de prova realizada. Foram ainda registradas as notas obtidas nos dois tipos de avaliação. Cada aluno fez uma avaliação escrita convencional e uma avaliação via computador. Resultados: Os acadêmicos avaliados demonstraram maior estresse e menor satisfação com a prova no computador, comparando-a com a prova escrita convencional. O tipo de prova não esteve associado ao desempenho acadêmico. Conclusão: A falta de familiaridade e treinamento com a metodologia, antes da aplicação das avaliações, causou aumento no estresse nos acadêmicos envolvidos no presente estudo, o que interferiu na satisfação, ao fazer a prova usando tecnologia, embora não tenha havido diferença nos escores de desempenho. As informações coletadas serão utilizadas para reestruturação do formato dos testes oferecidos no departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia da UNIFENAS, campus Alfenas, com o intuito de aprimorar a avaliação teórica que se realiza na Universidade.


Introduction: Evaluations using technology are present in schools in several countries and have become popular in the last two decades and have been used in the United States medical license examination since 1999. The potential that improved technology assessments bring to the academic world motivated the carrying out of this study, and the knowledge from a specific conference on these technologies brought the incentive to persist in this research line. Method: This study aims to compare the stress, satisfaction and performance of academics during the first semester of 2018, when conducting conventional written tests and computer tests in the course of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the medical program of the University of José do Rosário Vellano, Alfenas campus, a total sample of 135 students. It was a randomized experimental study in which the students were divided for the evaluations and pre-defined and class-based questionnaires were applied. Prior to the test, specific questions were given to students to assess the stress involved in their achievement. At the end of the test, the questions were answered to evaluate the satisfaction with the type of the test they took. Each student did a conventional written assessment and a computer assessment. Results: The evaluated students showed greater stress and less satisfaction with the computer-based test compared to the conventional written test, although there was no statistical difference in performance when comparing both. Conclusion: Lack of familiarity and training with the methodology prior to test application resulted an increase in students' stress in the present study, which interfered in the satisfaction with the test using technology, even though there was no difference in the performance scores. The collected information will be used to restructure the format of the tests offered in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of UNIFENAS, Campus Alfenas, in order to improve the theoretical evaluation performed at the University.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Educación Médica , Estudiantes de Medicina , Computadores , Evaluación Educacional , Rendimiento Académico
5.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 70-98, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019277

RESUMEN

Abstract Resources are distributed unequally depending on the social status (SS) of people. Researchers have often used experiments to explain the role of SS in economic decisions. However, the diverse ways of inducing SS has produced contradictory results. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of SS on the distribution of monetary resources in students aged 18 to 25 years from Córdoba (Argentina). Three experiments using mixed factorial designs were conducted. Different ways of inducing SS and the effect on decisions in different games were examined. In Experiment 1, the effect of two SS induction techniques on the decisions of the Ultimatum Game (UG) and Dictator Game (DG) was compared. In Experiment 2, the effect of SS on the same games, including Social Value Orientation (SVO) and Subjective Social Status (SSS) as covariates was analyzed. In Experiment 3, the role of SS, SVO and SSS in the DG and the Dictator Game Taking (DGT) was examined. In the three experiments, it was not found that SS had any effect on the decisions of the games. However, more rejection and negative valence was observed (Exp. 1: p < .001, n 2 p =.72; Exp. 2: p < .001, n 2 p = .65) for unfair offers than for fair ones (Exp. 2: p < .001). Also, pro-social individuals made fairer offers in the DG (Exp. 2: p < .05) and participants offered more money in the DGT than in the DG (Exp. 3: p = .01). Those findings showed that the effect of SS on behavioral responses is not robust, which highlights the need to obtain new experimental evidence to investigate its role in those decisions.


Resumo Os recursos são normalmente distribuídos de maneira desigual em função do status social (SS) das pessoas, razão pela qual diversos pesquisadores utilizam experimentos para explicar o papel do SS nas decisões econômicas. No entanto, as diversas formas de induzir o SS geraram resultados contraditórios. No presente trabalho, investigou-se o efeito do SS na distribuição dos recursos monetários em estudantes de 18 a 25 anos da cidade de Córdoba, na Argentina, por meio de três experimentos com desenhos experimentais mistos. Especificamente, foram avaliadas diferentes técnicas para manipular o SS e seu efeito nas decisões econômicas: no Experimento 1 comparou-se o efeito de duas técnicas de manipulação do SS nas decisões do Jogo do Ultimato (JU) e do Ditador (JD); no Experimento 2 analisou-se o efeito do SS nos mesmos jogos, incluindo a orientação de valores sociais (SVO) e o status social subjetivo (SES) como covariáveis e, no Experimento 3, indagou-se o papel do SS, da SVO e do SES no JD e no Ditador de Tomar (do inglês, Dictator Taking Game). Nos três experimentos observou-se que o SS não teve efeito nas decisões dos jogos. Não obstante, evidenciou-se maior rejeição (Exp. 1: p < .001, n 2 p = .72; Exp. 2: p < .001, n 2 p = .65) e valência negativa para as ofertas injustas do que para as justas (Exp. 2: p < .001). Além disso, descobriu-se que quanto maior a pró-socialidade, maior a quantidade ofertada no JD (Exp. 2: p < .05) e que no JDT se oferece mais dinheiro do que no JD (Exp. 3: p = .01). Os resultados observados evidenciam que o efeito do SS nas respostas comportamentais não é robusto, por isso se destaca a importância de continuar investigando seu papel em tais decisões.


Resumen Los recursos son usualmente distribuidos de manera inequitativa en función del estatus social (ES) de las personas, razón por la cual diversos investigadores utilizan experimentos para explicar el rol del ES en las decisiones económicas; sin embargo, las diversas formas de inducir el ES han generado resultados contradictorios. En el presente trabajo se investigó el efecto del ES en la distribución de los recursos monetarios en estudiantes de 18 a 25 años de la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina, por medio de tres experimentos con diseños experimentales mixtos. Específicamente, se evaluaron distintas técnicas para manipular el ES y su efecto en las decisiones económicas: en el Experimento 1 se comparó el efecto de dos técnicas de manipulación del ES en las decisiones del Juego del Ultimátum (JU) y del Dictador (JD); en el Experimento 2 se analizó el efecto del ES en los mismos juegos, incluyendo la orientación de valores sociales (SVO) y el estatus social subjetivo (SES) como covariables; y en el Experimento 3 se indagó el rol del ES, de la SVO y del ESS en el JD y en el Dictador de Tomar (JDT). En los tres experimentos se observó que el ES no tuvo efecto en las decisiones de los juegos. No obstante, se evidenció mayor rechazo (Exp. 1: p < .001, n 2 p = .72; Exp. 2: p < .001, n 2 p = .65) y valencia negativa para las ofertas injustas que para las justas (Exp. 2: p < .001). Además, se encontró que a mayor prosocialidad, mayor cantidad ofertada en el JD (Exp. 2: p < .05), y que en el JDT se ofrece más dinero que en el JD (Exp. 3: p = .01). Los resultados observados evidencian que el efecto del ES en las respuestas comportamentales no es robusto, por lo que se destaca la importancia de continuar investigando su rol en dichas decisiones.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Constitución y Estatutos , Juegos Recreacionales , Jerarquia Social
6.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 99-124, July-Dec. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019278

RESUMEN

Abstract The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between dysfunctional parenting styles and empathy in Nursing, Human Medicine and Psychology students. The study's sample consisted of 599 students, from both genders, and from different cycles of their university studies. Their ages ranged between 21 and 25 years. To assess them, the Dysfunctional Parenting Styles Scale by Parker, et al. (1979) was used, previously adapted to Peruvian population. The participants were also evaluated with the Personal and Professional Empathy Scale designed by Yaraskavitch (2009), and completed a socio-demographic data sheet created ad hoc. General results showed no significant relationships between the dysfunctional parenting styles and empathy total scores. In contrast, considering the father figure, an inverse relationship between the authoritarian-controlling dysfunctional parenting style and the personal and professional cognitive empathy was found, while the indifference - negligence dysfunctional parenting style was inversely associated with the emotive personal empathy. As to the mother figure, there is a significant and direct relationship between authoritarian-controlling dysfunctional parenting style and personal and professional emotive empathy. It was also found that regarding gender, women have higher levels of empathy. With respect to professional degree courses, Nursing students have a higher level of empathy than Medicine and Psychology students, while Medicine students have more dysfunctional parenting styles than the Nursing and Psychology groups. Finally, students that had taken personal development courses showed a higher level of empathy.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo estabelecer a relação entre os estilos parentais disfuncionais e a empatia em estudantes universitários de Lima, além de comparações de acordo com a carreira profissional (Enfermagem, Medicina Humana e Psicologia). A amostra foi composta por 599 estudantes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 21 e 25 anos, a quem foi aplicada a Escala de Estilos Parentais Disfuncionais -de Parker et a. (1979)-, a Escala de Empatia Pessoal e Profissional -desenhada por Yaraskavitch et al. (2009)-, ambas adaptadas para os fins do estudo, e uma ficha sociodemográfica elaborada pelos autores. Os resultados mostram uma relação não significativa entre as pontuações totais de estilos parentais disfuncionais e de empatia, mas obteve-se uma relação inversa entre a subescala de estilo disfuncional paterno "autoritário-controlador" com as dimensões "empatia pessoal cognitiva" e "empatia profissional cognitiva", e uma relação direta entre a subescala de estilo disfuncional materno com as dimensões "empatia pessoal emotiva" e "empatia profissional emotiva". Além disso, com respeito ao gênero, as mulheres apresentaram maior nível de empatia e, de acordo com o curso, os estudantes de Enfermaria apresentaram maiores níveis de empatia, enquanto os de Medicina mostraram mais estilos parentais disfuncionais. Finalmente, os estudantes que fizeram cursos de desenvolvimento pessoal em sua formação profissional apresentaram maior nível de empatia.


Resumen El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo establecer la relación entre los estilos parentales disfuncionales y la empatía en estudiantes universitarios de Lima, además de comparaciones según su carrera profesional (Enfermería, Medicina Humana y Psicología). La muestra estuvo compuesta por 599 estudiantes de ambos sexos, con edades entre los 21 y 25 años, a quienes se les aplicó la Escala de Estilos Parentales Disfuncionales -de Parker et al. (1979)-, la Escala de Empatía Personal y Profesional -diseñada por Yaraskavitch et al. (2009)-, ambas adaptadas para los fines del estudio, y una ficha sociodemográfica elaborada por los autores. Los resultados muestran una relación no significativa entre los puntajes totales de estilos parentales disfuncionales y de empatía, aunque se obtuvo una relación inversa entre la subescala de estilo disfuncional paterno "autoritario-controlador" con las dimensiones "empatía personal cognitiva" y "empatía profesional cognitiva", y una relación directa entre la subescala de estilo disfuncional materno con las dimensiones "empatía personal emotiva" y "empatía profesional emotiva"; además de que, respecto al género, las mujeres presentaron mayor nivel de empatía, y, según carrera, los estudiantes de Enfermería presentaron mayores niveles de empatía, mientras que los de Medicina mostraron más estilos parentales disfuncionales. Finalmente, los estudiantes que llevaron a cabo cursos de desarrollo personal en su formación profesional presentaron un mayor nivel de empatía.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Empatía , Ciencias de la Salud , Relaciones Familiares
7.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 125-147, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019279

RESUMEN

Abstract The objective of the present study was to analyze whether there are differences between men and women in terms of the influence of personality dimensions on academic procrastination. Participants were 986 students aged between 16 and 40 years (69.8 % women, Mage = 20.81 years), students of different professional careers from two universities located in Lima. The Academic Procrastination Scale (APS) and the Big Five Inventory-15P (BFI-15P) were the instruments administered. An invariance analysis of a structural regression model that indicates the influence of personality on academic procrastination was implemented. The results show that personality explains a significant percentage of the variability of the dimensions of academic procrastination. However, the influence of two dimensions, consciousness and neuroticism, is greater in women. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed, as well as the need to strengthen curricular plans aimed at enhancing resources and reducing those aspects that could negatively affect the academic behavior of the student.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a existência de diferenças entre homens e mulheres com respeito à influência das dimensões de personalidade sobre a procrastinação acadêmica em 986 alunos de 16 a 40 anos (69,8 % mulheres; Midade = 20,81 anos) de diferentes carreiras profissionais de duas universidades localizadas em Lima. Para isso, administrou-se a Escala de Procrastinação Acadêmica (EPA) e o Big Five Inventory-15P (BFI-15P) e implementou-se uma análise de invariância de um modelo de regressão estrutural. Os resultados mostraram que a personalidade explica uma porcentagem significativa da variabilidade das dimensões da procrastinação acadêmica e que a influência das dimensões responsabilidade e neuroticismo foi maior nas mulheres. São discutidas as implicâncias teóricas e práticas das descobertas, bem como a necessidade de fortalecer planos curriculares orientados para potencializar recursos e reduzir os aspectos que poderiam afetar negativamente a conduta acadêmica do estudante.


Resumen El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la existencia de diferencias entre hombres y mujeres en cuanto a la influencia de las dimensiones de personalidad sobre la procrastinación académica en 986 alumnos de entre 16 y 40 años (69.8 % mujeres; Medad = 20.81 años) de distintas carreras profesionales de dos universidades ubicadas en Lima. Para esto, se administró la Escala de Procrastinación Académica (EPA) y el Big Five Inventory-15P (BFI-15P), y se implementó un análisis de invarianza de un modelo regresión estructural. Los resultados mostraron que la personalidad explica un porcentaje significativo de la variabilidad de las dimensiones de la procrastinación académica, y que la influencia de las dimensiones responsabilidad y neuroticismo fue mayor en las mujeres. Se discuten las implicancias teóricas y prácticas de los hallazgos, así como la necesidad de fortalecer planes curriculares orientados a potenciar recursos y reducir los aspectos que podrían afectar negativamente la conducta académica del estudiante.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Personalidad , Procrastinación
8.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 148-177, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019280

RESUMEN

Abstract The objective of the present study was to design, validate and obtain the reliability of the Maternal Attitudes Towards Overweight and Childhood Obesity Scale. The validation of this instrument was carried out in four stages: a) Study 1: Exploratory, with N= 95 mothers and grandmothers aged 20 to 46 years (M age = 32.43, SD = 7.9) which used the semantic networks technique to inquire about the psychological meaning of overweight and obesity; b) Study 2: Content Validity, where 33 items were written and the content validity was obtained through five judges; c) Study 3: First Validation, which included 346 mothers aged 18 to 62 (M age = 33.08, SD = 6.8) with preschool children; 11 items were obtained distributed in three factors denominated: negative attitude (α = .72), meaning (α = .63) and importance (α = .56), with α = .77 of the total scale and an explained variance of 54.50%; d) Study 4: Second Validation, in which 369 mothers and grandmothers (3 %) aged between17 and 63 years (M age = 32.43, SD = 7.9) participated. The final scale was two-dimensional, composed of 11 items with an α =.85 and an explained variance of 46%, which evaluates the negative attitudes perceived towards obesity and its consequences.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi desenhar e validar a Escala de atitudes maternas com respeito ao sobrepeso e à obesidade infantil. Em particular, a validação consistiu de quatro etapas: (a) um estudo exploratório (Estudo 1) com 95 mães e avós de 20 a 46 anos (M idade = 32.43, DP = 7.9), no qual se utilizou a técnica de redes semânticas para conhecer o significado psicológico do sobrepeso e da obesidade; (b) um estudo de validade de conteúdo (Estudo 2), no qual 33 reativos foram escritos e a validade de conteúdo foi obtida por meio do conceito de cinco juizes; (c) um estudo para uma primeira validação (Estudo 3) com 346 mães de 18 a 62 anos (M idade = 33.08, DP = 6.8) com filhos em idade pré-escolar, com a qual foram obtidos 11 reativos distribuidos em três fatores, denominados atitude negativa (α = .72), significado (α = .63) e importância (α = .56), com um α = .77 na escala total e uma variância explicada de 54,50%, e (d) um estudo para uma segunda validação (Estudo 4), no qual participaram 369 mães e avós (3 %) de 17 a 63 anos (M idade = 32.43, DE = 7.9). Como resultado, a escala foi bidimensional, composta por 11 reativos, com um α = .85 e uma variância explicada de 46%, que avalia as atitudes negativas percebidas com respeito à obesidade e suas consequências.


Resumen El objetivo del presente estudio fue diseñar y validar la escala de actitudes maternas hacia el sobrepeso y la obesidad infantil. En particular, la validación consistió en cuatro etapas: (a) un estudio exploratorio (Estudio 1) con 95 madres y abuelas de 20 a 46 años (M edad = 32.43, DE = 7.9), en el que se utilizó la técnica de redes semánticas para conocer el significado psicológico del sobrepeso y la obesidad; (b) un estudio de validez de contenido (Estudio 2), en el que se redactaron 33 reactivos, y la validez de contenido se obtuvo mediante el concepto de cinco jueces; (c) un estudio para una primera validación (Estudio 3) con 346 madres de 18 a 62 años (M edad = 33.08, DE = 6.8), con hijos en edad preescolar, con el cual se obtuvieron 11 reactivos distribuidos en tres factores, denominados actitud negativa (α = .72), significado (α = .63) e importancia (α = .56), con un α = .77 en la escala total y una varianza explicada del 54.50 %; y (d) un estudio para una segunda validación (Estudio 4), en el que participaron 369 madres y abuelas (3 %) de 17 a 63 años (M edad = 32.43, DE = 7.9). Como resultado, la escala fue bidimensional, compuesta por 11 reactivos, con un α = .85 y una varianza explicada del 46 %, que evalúa las actitudes negativas percibidas hacia la obesidad y las consecuencias de esta.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Sobrepeso , Madres , Obesidad
9.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 178-193, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019281

RESUMEN

Abstract Developing programs to prevent alcohol consumption whose impact goes beyond cultural borders represents a challenge since it is necessary to recognize cultural differences that determine consumption. This cross-cultural comparative study was aimed to find the differences in beliefs related to alcohol consumption in a non-randomized stratified sample of 1602 educated teenage men and women and youth (870 Chileans and 732 Colombians) with ages between 14 and 25 years. The instruments used were the Belief Questionnaire Regarding Alcohol Consumption and the Audit Consumption Test. The ANOVA statistic was used to compare the means between countries. Results indicated that Colombians have higher consumption triggers, higher perception of risk and vulnerability, and the highest perception of perceived benefits of consumption. On the other hand, Chileans present significantly greater beliefs regarding the consumption barriers with lower averages in all factors. However, in both populations the averages found indicate moderate and high risk.


Resumo O desenvolvimento de programas de prevenção do consumo de álcool cujo impacto sobrepasse fronteiras culturais representa um desafio importante devido ao fato de que é preciso reconhecer as diferenças culturais determinantes do consumo. O presente estudo comparativo transcultural teve como objetivo conhecer as diferenças nas crenças relacionadas com o consumo de álcool em uma amostra estratificada não aleatorizada de 1602 adolescentes e jovens (870 chilenos e 732 colombianos), homens e mulheres escolarizados com idades entre 14 e 25 anos. Para isso, fez-se uso do Cuestionario de Creencias Referidas al Consumo de Alcohol e o teste AUDIT de consumo. Para comparar as médias entre países, utilizou-se o estatístico ANOVA. Os resultados indicaram que os colombianos têm mais altos gatilhos de consumo, maior percepção de risco e vulnerabilidade, e percepção mais alta de benefícios percebidos com o consumo. Por sua vez, os chilenos apresentaram crenças significativamente maiores com respeito às barreiras de consumo, com menores médias em todos os fatores. Em ambas as populações, as médias reportadas indicaram um risco moderado e alto para o consumo de álcool.


Resumen El desarrollo de programas de prevención del consumo de alcohol cuyo impacto sobrepase fronteras culturales representa un reto importante debido a que se hace necesario reconocer las diferencias culturales determinantes del consumo. El presente estudio comparativo transcultural tuvo como objetivo conocer las diferencias en las creencias relacionadas con el consumo de alcohol en una muestra estratificada no aleatorizada de 1602 adolescentes y jóvenes (870 chilenos y 732 colombianos), hombres y mujeres escolarizados con edades entre los 14 y los 25 años. Para esto, se hizo uso del Cuestionario de Creencias Referidas al Consumo de Alcohol y el test AUDIT de consumo. Para comparar las medias entre países se utilizó el estadístico ANOVA. Los resultados indicaron que los colombianos tienen más altas claves disparadoras de consumo, mayor percepción de riesgo y vulnerabilidad, y percepción más alta de beneficios percibidos con el consumo. Por su parte, los chilenos presentaron creencias significativamente mayores respecto a las barreras de consumo, con menores promedios en todos los factores. En ambas poblaciones las medias reportadas indicaron un riesgo moderado y alto para el consumo de alcohol.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Alcoholismo , Adulto Joven
10.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 194-217, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019282

RESUMEN

Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the divergences in perception of parental practices, positive behavior and problems between parents and children. The participants, parents and adolescents, collaborated voluntarily and were examined in the following dyads: 248 fathers-sons, 241fathers-daughters, 237 mothers-sons, and 241 mothers-daughters. The psychometric instruments used were the Strengths and Difficulties Scale and the Parental Practices Scale for mothers and fathers. To achieve the main objective, correlation analysis, path analysis and differences of means with related samples were performed. The results showed correlations, from moderate to low, between parental practices, problems and prosocial behavior. In addition, different predictive factors of the children's behaviors were obtained, according to the sex of the parents and the parental practices they implemented. Finally, there were divergences between reports of parental practices, prosocial behavior and problems between parents and their children. Therefore, it is concluded that parental behavior is oriented according to the sexual role of their children, which involves social desirability.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como finalidade analisar as divergências na percepção das práticas parentais, no comportamento positivo e nas problemáticas entre pais e filhos. Os participantes, pais e adolescentes, colaboraram de maneira voluntária e foram avaliados nas seguintes díades: 248 pais-filhos, 241 pais-filhas, 237 mães-filhos e 241 mães-filhas. Os instrumentos utilizados foram a Escala de Capacidades e Dificuldades e a Escala de Práticas Parentais para mães e pais. Para alcançar o objetivo principal, realizaram-se análises de correlação, análises de caminhos e diferenças de médias com amostras relacionadas. Os resultados mostraram correlações - de moderadas a baixas - entre as práticas parentais, os problemas e a conduta pró-social, além de diferentes fatores preditivos das condutas dos filhos a partir do gênero dos pais e das práticas parentais exercidas. Houve divergências entre os relatórios de práticas parentais, conduta pró-social e problemas entre os pais e seus filhos. Conclui-se que a conduta parental é orientada de acordo com o gênero dos filhos, o que implica certa desejabilidade social relacionada com seu papel como homens ou como mulheres.


Resumen El presente estudio tuvo como finalidad analizar las divergencias en la percepción de las prácticas parentales, el comportamiento positivo y las problemáticas entre padres e hijos. Los participantes, padres y adolescentes, colaboraron de manera voluntaria y se evaluaron en las siguientes díadas: 248 padres-hijos, 241 padres-hijas, 237 madres-hijos, y 241 madres-hijas. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron la Escala de Capacidades y Dificultades y la Escala de Prácticas Parentales para madres y padres. Para lograr el objetivo principal se realizaron análisis de correlación, análisis de senderos y diferencias de medias con muestras relacionadas. Los resultados mostraron correlaciones -de moderadas a bajas- entre las prácticas parentales, los problemas y la conducta prosocial, además de diferentes factores predictores de las conductas de los hijos a partir del sexo de los padres y las prácticas parentales ejercidas. Se presentaron divergencias entre los reportes de prácticas parentales, conducta prosocial y problemas entre los padres y sus hijos. Se concluye que la conducta parental se orienta según el sexo de los hijos, lo cual implica cierta deseabilidad social relacionada con su rol como hombres o como mujeres.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Conducta , Familia , Comunicación
11.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 218-240, July-Dec. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019283

RESUMEN

Abstract Greater social engagement is commonly associated with more efficient cognitive processing, as it improves cognitive reserve. The aim of this research is to assess the relationship between social engagement (in the dimensions of social contact, support and conflict) and certain cognitive skills (cognitive flexibility, planning, verbal fluency, processing speed, and verbal comprehension) in young college students. This cross-sectional rank correlation study was carried out in a sample of 49 college students. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient showed relationship between: social contact and verbal fluency (r = -.299, p = .037); social support and planning (r = .368, p = .009); and social conflict and processing speed (r = .306, p = .032). The results outline a measurable relationship between social engagement and certain cognitive skills, even when said results are not entirely conclusive. Thus, the need for more detailed studies on these processes becomes clear.


Resumo A literatura científica indica que um maior compromisso social está relacionado com um pensamento cognitivo mais eficiente, devido ao fato de que tal compromisso aumenta a reserva cognitiva. Levando isso em consideração, o objetivo da presente pesquisa foi identificar a relação existente entre o compromisso social (em suas dimensões de contato, apoio e conflito social) e alguns processos cognitivos (como flexibilidade mental, planejamento, fluidez verbal, velocidade de processamento e compreensão verbal) em jovens universitários. Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo correlacional com um desenho transversal em uma amostra de 49 estudantes. A análise de correlação de Spearman revelou correlações entre contato social e fluidez verbal (r = -.299, p = .037), apoio social e planejamento (r = .368, p = .009) e conflito social e velocidade de processamento (r = .306, p = .032). Esses resultados constituem uma associação entre o compromisso social e algumas funções cognitivas. Apesar dos resultados não serem completamente conclusivos, fica clara a necessidade de um estudo mais detalhado desses processos.


Resumen La literatura científica indica que un mayor compromiso social se relaciona con un procesamiento cognitivo más eficiente, debido a que dicho compromiso incrementa la reserva cognitiva. Teniendo esto en cuenta, el objetivo de la presente investigación fue identificar la relación existente entre el compromiso social (en sus dimensiones de contacto, apoyo y conflicto social) y algunos procesos cognitivos (como flexibilidad mental, planeación, fluidez verbal, velocidad de procesamiento y comprensión verbal) en jóvenes universitarios. Para esto, se realizó un estudio correlacional con un diseño transversal en una muestra de 49 estudiantes. El análisis de correlación de Spearman reveló correlaciones entre contacto social y fluidez verbal (r = -.299, p = .037), apoyo social y planeación (r = .368, p = .009), y conflicto social y velocidad de procesamiento (r = .306, p = .032). Estos resultados perfilan una asociación entre el compromiso social y algunas funciones cognitivas. A pesar de que los resultados no son del todo concluyentes, queda claro que se necesita de un estudio más detallado de estos procesos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Psicología Social , Cognición , Relaciones Interpersonales
12.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 61-69, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-183600

RESUMEN

Psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of IPV and is often thought to precede physical IPV. However, psychological IPV often occurs independently of other forms of IPV, and it can often emerge during routine relationship interactions. Using data from imprisoned male offenders we investigate the effect of hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on psychological IPV and the hypothesized mediating role of positive attitudes toward IPV and this effect when accounting for broader risk factors at the levels of community (social disorder), family-of-origin (conflictive climate in family of origin), and personality (antisocial personality traits) variables. The sample involved 196 male inmates of the Penitentiary Center of Villabona (Asturias, Spain). Structural equation models result showed significant total, direct and indirect effect of hostile sexism on psychological IPV, but not of benevolent sexism. When individual, family-of-origin, and community variables were considered, however, hostile sexism showed only an indirect effect on psychological IPV via positive attitudes toward abuse. These results are discussed in light of the debate of the role of sexist attitudes in the psychological IPV explanation when broader models are considered


La violencia de pareja (VP) psicológica es la forma más prevalente de VP y habitualmente suele preceder a la VP física. Sin embargo, la VP psicológica ocurre a menudo independientemente de otras formas de VP y puede darse en interacciones rutinarias con la pareja. Utilizando datos de hombres recluidos en prisión, hemos investigado el efecto del sexismo hostil y benevolente sobre la VP psicológica, así como el rol mediador de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso de la pareja. Hemos investigado también ese efecto cuando están presentes otros factores de riesgo de VP psicológica señalados en la literatura reciente están presentes: comunidad (desorden social), familia de origen (clima conflictivo en la familia de origen) y factores individuales (rasgos de personalidad antisocial). Participaron en el estudio 196 hombres internos en el Centro Penitenciario de Villabona (Asturias, España). Los resultados de los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales estimados indican un efecto total, directo e indirecto significativo del sexismo hostil sobre la VP psicológica, pero no del sexismo benevolente. Cuando las variables de la comunidad, la familia de origen y factores individuales se incorporaron al modelo únicamente el efecto indirecto del sexismo hostil a través de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso siguió siendo significativo. Los resultados se discuten en relación con el debate sobre el rol de las actitudes sexistas sobre la VP psicológica en el marco de modelos más generales de violencia


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Sexismo/psicología , Agresión/psicología , Represión Psicológica , Prisioneros/psicología , Agotamiento Psicológico/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , Violencia contra la Mujer , Conflicto (Psicología) , Homicidio/psicología
13.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 71-79, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-183601

RESUMEN

Priority given to investigating the onset and maintenance of criminal behavior in the past is currently giving way to a new focus on the process of criminal desistance. Early narratives of future desistance are the first step in this process and, although they do not assure withdrawal from crime, they are the beginning of the personal change that precedes a progressive desistance from criminal activity. This study analyzes early desistance narratives of offenders still in prison and whether these narratives differed depending on their personal, criminal, and social characteristics. Participants were 44 imprisoned male offenders, aged between 20 and 50 years old at different stages of their sentence and in three different prison regimes. They were interviewed using Cid and Martí's protocol and their accounts were accordingly coded in three categories: early narratives towards a non-criminal identity, perceived self-efficacy to desist from crime, and will to desist. The results show that participants' early desistance narratives vary depending on their personal, criminal, and social variables. Results on the periods of sentence completion and prison regimes are discussed in terms of how prisons could contribute to enhancing the narratives of desistance from crime


La prioridad otorgada en el pasado a la investigación sobre el inicio y mantenimiento de la conducta delictiva está dando paso actualmente al análisis del proceso de desistimiento delictivo. Las narrativas tempranas del desistimiento futuro son el primer paso en este proceso y, aunque no aseguran dicho desistimiento, son el comienzo del cambio personal que precede al abandono progresivo de la actividad delictiva. Este estudio analiza las narrativas tempranas de desistimiento de delincuentes aún en prisión y si estas narrativas difieren según sus características personales, delictivas y sociales. Los participantes fueron 44 varones encarcelados, con edades comprendidas entre los 20 y los 50 años, en diferentes fases de su sentencia y en tres grados penitenciarios distintos. Fueron entrevistados utilizando el protocolo de Cid y Martí y sus relatos fueron codificados en tres categorías: narrativas tempranas sobre una identidad no delictiva, autoeficacia percibida para desistir del delito y voluntad para desistir. Los resultados muestran que las narrativas tempranas de desistimiento de los participantes difieren según sus características personales, delictivas y sociales. Los resultados relativos a la fase de la sentencia y a los grados penitenciarios se discuten en términos de cómo las prisiones pueden contribuir a potenciar las narrativas de desistimiento delictivo


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducta Criminal , Criminales/psicología , Autoeficacia , Terapia Narrativa/métodos , Evaluación de Eficacia-Efectividad de Intervenciones , Psicología Criminal/métodos
14.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 93-97, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-183603

RESUMEN

Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators were categorized based on whether they were generally violent (GV) or family only violent (FO) using self-report or arrest records. Classification criteria to assess recidivism in perpetrators of IPV were evaluated herein to determine the incremental validity of using a perpetrator's criminal history in addition to their self-report information for categorization purposes. The concordance rates for categorizing subtypes of male perpetrators were compared for two methods, namely, self-report versus criminal history data. Categorizations were made based on self-reported history of violence and federal criminal records separately. Between measures consistency was defined as whether or not the self-report categorizations matched federal criminal record categorizations. It was hypothesized that self-report would not be sufficient as the sole method of categorizing male perpetrators, and the use of criminal history data would add to the validity of the categorization system. Self-reports of aggression were higher than criminal records of aggression. Using data sources together may yield the best outcomes for offenders and society. Implications are discussed


Se clasificaron los varones que ejercen violencia en las relaciones de pareja (VP) en función de si eran violentos en general (VG) o solo en el entorno familiar (VF), empleando registros de autoinformes o de arrestos. Se analizaron los criterios de clasificación para evaluar la reincidencia de los infractores de VP con el fin de determinar la validez incremental del uso de los antecedentes penales del infractor, además de la información procedente de su autoinforme para la clasificación. Se compararon los índices de concordancia para categorizar los subtipos de infractores masculinos para dos métodos: los datos procedentes de autoinforme y los de antecedentes penales. La categorización se basó en la historia de violencia autoinformada y en los antecedentes penales por separado. La congruencia entre medidas se definió como la coincidencia o discrepancia de la categorización de autoinforme con la categorización de antecedentes penales. Se planteó la hipótesis de que el autoinforme no bastaba como único método para clasificar a los infractores masculinos y que el uso de datos procedentes de antecedentes penales aumentaba la validez del sistema de categorización. Hubo más autoinformes sobre agresión que antecedentes penales de agresión. El uso conjunto de ambos podría tener mejores resultados, tanto para los delincuentes como para la sociedad. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos resultados


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Violencia de Género/clasificación , Criminales/psicología , Agresión/clasificación , Conducta Peligrosa , Violencia contra la Mujer , Autoinforme/estadística & datos numéricos
15.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 22(11): 1051-1057, 2019 Nov 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770836

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the short-term efficacy and prognosis of palliative surgical treatment for malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) caused by peritoneal metastasis of colorectal cancer (mCRC). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The inclusion criteria for patients were as follows: (1) primary colorectal cancer; (2) massive peritoneal metastasis; (3)obstructive site located below Treitz ligament by imaging; (4) obstruction refractory to conservative treatment; (5) estimated rese survival time more than 2 months; (6) patients and their families had strong willingness for operation; (7) surgical treatment included stoma/bypass and debulking surgery. In accordance with the above criteria, clinicopathological data of 46 patients undergoing palliative surgery at Peking University Gastrointestinal Cancer Center, Unit III from January 2016 to October 2018 were retrospectively collected. Postoperative symptomatic relief rate, morbidity of complication within 30 days, complication classification (Clavien-Dindo classification), mortality and survival after operation were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate survival and Cox regression analysis was used to identify prognostic factors. Results: Among 46 patients, 30 were male and 16 were female with median age of 63 (19-87) years; 23 patients received stoma/bypass surgery (stoma/bypass group), and 23 cases received tumor debulking surgery (debulking group). The overall symptom relief rate was 76.1% (35/46), while symptom relief rate in the debulking group was 91.3% (21/23), which was significantly higher than 60.9% (14/23) in the stoma/bypass group (χ(2)=4.301, P=0.038). Postoperative complications occurred in 25 patients. The complication rate was 52.2% (12/23) in the debulking group and 56.5% (13/23) in the stoma/bypass group, without statistically significant difference (χ(2)=0.088, P=0.767). Morbidity of complication beyond grade III was 8.7% (2/23) and 13.0% (3/23) in the debulking group and stoma/bypass group respectively, without statistically significant difference (χ(2)=0.224, P=0.636). Four patients died within 30 days after operation, 2 (8.7%) in each group. Twenty-four patients underwent 1-8 cycles of chemotherapy ± targeting therapy (regimens: CapeOX ± Bevacizumab, FOLFOX/FOLFIRI ± Bevacizumab/Cetuximab), including 10 cases in the stoma/bypass group and 14 cases in the debulking group. Two patients of debulking group received postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy (50.6 Gy/22 f, with concurrent oral capecitabine). Till the last follow up of April 2019, 34 patients died (34/46, 73.9%) with a median overall survival time of 6.4 months, and the 6-month and 1-year survival rate was 54.5% and 29.2% respectively. The median survival time in the debulking group was significantly longer than that in the stoma/bypass group (11.5 months vs. 5.2 months, χ(2)=5.117, P=0.024). The median survival time of the 35 patients with symptomatic relief after operation was significant longer than that of 11 patients without relief (7.1 months vs 5.1 months, χ(2)=3.844, P=0.050). Multivariate analysis showed stoma/bypass surgery (HR=2.917, 95%CI:1.357-6.269, P=0.006) and greater omental metastasis (HR=4.060, 95%CI:1.419-11.617, P=0.009) were independent risk factors associated with prognosis of patients with MBO caused by peritoneal mCRC. Conclusions: For patients of MBO caused by peritoneal mCRC, tumor debulking surgery may achieve higher symptom relief rate and prolong survival. Greater omental metastasis indicates poor prognosis.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Obstrucción Intestinal/cirugía , Cuidados Paliativos , Neoplasias Peritoneales/secundario , Neoplasias Peritoneales/cirugía , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos de Citorreducción , Femenino , Humanos , Obstrucción Intestinal/etiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Epiplón , Neoplasias Peritoneales/complicaciones , Neoplasias Peritoneales/tratamiento farmacológico , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(47): 1096-1100, 2019 Nov 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774740

RESUMEN

During August 9-October 31, 2019, 96 patients were classified as having e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) by the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH); other patients are being investigated for case classification and exposures. Among 58 patients interviewed, 53 (91%) reported obtaining tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products from informal sources such as friends, family members, or in-person or online dealers. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), the MDH Public Health Laboratory (PHL) analyzed 46 THC-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products obtained from 12 EVALI patients for various potential toxicants, including vitamin E acetate, which has recently been detected in some THC-containing products and in samples of lung fluid from EVALI patients (1-4). To explore whether vitamin E acetate is a recently added component in THC-containing products, MDH tested ten products seized by law enforcement in 2018, before the EVALI outbreak, and 20 products seized in 2019, during the outbreak. Twenty-four products obtained from 11 EVALI patients from 2019 contained vitamin E acetate. Among the seized products tested by MDH, none seized in 2018 contained vitamin E acetate, although all tested THC-containing products seized in 2019 tested positive for vitamin E acetate. These chemical analyses of products obtained from EVALI patients and of products intended for the illicit market both before and during the outbreak support a potential role for vitamin E acetate in the EVALI outbreak; however, the number of products tested was small, and further research is needed to establish a causal link between exposure to inhaled vitamin E acetate and EVALI. Collaboration between public health jurisdictions and law enforcement to characterize THC-containing products circulating before the recognition of the EVALI outbreak and during the outbreak might provide valuable information about a dynamic market. These Minnesota findings highlight concerns about e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC acquired from informal sources. Because local supply chains and policy environments vary, CDC continues to recommend not using e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC or any e-cigarette, or vaping, products obtained from informal sources. E-cigarette, or vaping, products should never be used by youths, young adults, or pregnant women.* Until the relationship between inhaled vitamin E acetate and lung health is better characterized, vitamin E acetate should not be added to e-cigarette, or vaping, products.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Legislación de Medicamentos , Lesión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Dronabinol/efectos adversos , Dronabinol/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Aplicación de la Ley , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Minnesota/epidemiología , Vitamina E/efectos adversos , Vitamina E/análisis , Adulto Joven
17.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 48(11): 840-845, 2019 Nov 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775431

RESUMEN

Objective: To study the clinicopathological features, immunohistochemical phenotype, molecular changes, differential diagnosis and prognosis of eosinophilic solid and cystic renal cell carcinoma (ESC RCC). Methods: A total of 15 cases were selected from 2005 to 2019 at Nanjing Jinling Hospital,Nanjing University School of Medicine for clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis, 10 of which were subject to cancer-associated mutation analysis using targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel. A literature review was also performed. Results: The patients' ages ranged from 15 to 68 years (mean, 33 years). The male-to-female ratio was 1.1∶1.0. During a mean follow-up of 22 months, none of the patients developed tumor recurrence, progression or metastasis. Histologically, the tumors typically demonstrated solid and cystic architectures and the neoplastic cells contained voluminous eosinophilic cytoplasm with prominent granular cytoplasmic stippling. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells in all cases were immunoreactive for CK20. Signal pathway related protein mTOR and S6 were positive in 14/15 and 6/15 cases, respectively. Cathepsin K, Melan A and HMB45 were at least focally positive in 12/15, 6/15 and 2/15 cases, respectively. CK7 and CD10 showed focal immunostain positivity in some cases, while TFE3, TFEB, CA9 and CD117 were negative in all cases. NGS demonstrated TSC1/TSC2 mutations in all tested cases (10/10). Conclusions: ESC RCC is a rare tumor that tends to occur in young patients with an indolent behavior. Diagnosis can be established by its distinct clinical and histopathologic findings, immunohistochemical phenotype and molecular genetics. The tumor may be considered as a new subtype of RCC.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Renales/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renales/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Biomarcadores de Tumor/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renales/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renales/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Pronóstico , Adulto Joven
18.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 57, 2019 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775807

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coaches are considered as an important source of nutrition information by their athletes. However, their knowledge in this area is often insufficient for proper guidance and may lead to the dissemination of misinformation regarding sports nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess coaches' intentions as well as psychosocial determinants underlying their intentions to provide sports nutrition recommendations to their high school athletes. METHODS: Coaches (n = 47) completed a Web-based questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour, to assess their intentions to provide three different sports nutrition recommendations and their determinants. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the variables that were most strongly related to the intentions. RESULTS: Forty-six, 44.7 and 91.9% of coaches had the intention to recommend a higher consumption of foods rich in carbohydrates, foods rich in proteins and an increase in hydration to their athletes, respectively. Subjective norm was the only significant determinant of coaches' intention to recommend a higher consumption of foods rich in carbohydrates (R2 = 53.7%, ß = 0.73 ± 0.12, P < 0.0001). Subjective norm and perceived behavioural control were significantly associated with coaches' intentions to recommend a higher consumption of foods rich in proteins (R2 = 25.9%, ß = 0.50 ± 0.16, P = 0.002 and R2 = 17.2%, ß = 0.39 ± 0.17, P = 0.01, respectively) and an increase in hydration (R2 = 26.8%, ß = 0.38 ± 0.13, P = 0.001 and R2 = 46.3%, ß = 0.58 ± 0.11, P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that subjective norm and perceived behavioural control represent important determinants of coaches' intentions to provide recommendations on sports nutrition. These findings should be considered in future interventions aimed at facilitating proper general sports nutrition recommendations provided by coaches to their athletes.


Asunto(s)
Intención , Tutoría , Mentores , Fenómenos Fisiológicos en la Nutrición Deportiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Dieta , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Necesidades Nutricionales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778391

RESUMEN

Bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing and transbronchial biopsy are of fundamental importance in the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the lungs of immunosuppressed patients, especially those infected with HIV. This was a descriptive and retrospective study, in which the results of bronchoalveolar lavages, bronchial brushings and transbronchial biopsies of HIV-positive patients attended at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro from 1999 to 2015 were reviewed to determine the most frequent findings in these patients, to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these procedures and to correlate bronchoscopy results with clinical and radiological findings. Serological tests for HIV were confirmed and cases with negative or unverified serology were excluded. Medical records were reviewed for correlation with clinical and radiological findings. A total of 1,423 patients with a mean age of 50 years were initially selected; 727 cases had no serology for HIV; 696 had serology for HIV and 64 were positive. Of these, 47 were men, aged 24 to 84 years, and 17 women, aged 31 to 69 years. Biopsies and cytological tests were positive in 20 (31.25%) of the 64 patients and the most frequent diagnosis was pneumocystosis, found in 8 cases (12.5%). Of the 20 bronchofibroscopy-positive patients, only 2 did not show agreement between histopathological and clinical-radiological diagnoses. The analysis of the cytological tests and biopsy specimens obtained by bronchofibroscopy seems to be valuable for the etiological diagnosis of pulmonary infections in HIV- positive patients; however, negative results do not always exclude the diagnosis. In these cases, clinical symptoms and imaging findings may help to guide the best therapy.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Enfermedades Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Biopsia , Lavado Broncoalveolar , Broncoscopía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
20.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 114(5): 639-649, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670640

RESUMEN

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are rare and characterized by widely variable clinical presentation and often challenging surgical management. Methods: Retrospective study conducted during the last 15 years at the First Surgical Clinic of the Iasi St Spiridon University Hospital, and which included all the patients diagnosed with pancreatic endocrine tumors by immunohistochemistry. Results: There were 26 cases diagnosed with PNET. The male/female ratios was 7/19 and mean age 41.93 +- 2.48 years (range 20-79 years). Of the PNET cases 13 were insulinomas, 5 gastrinomas, 2 gastrinomas associated with other endocrine neoplasms (Wermer syndrome), 5 non-functional endocrine pancreatic tumors and 1 ACTHoma. Clinical manifestations depended on tumor type: hypoglycemia and Whipple triad for insulinoma, Zollinger Ellison syndrome and complicated peptic ulcer (hemorrhage, perforation) for gastrinoma, Cushing syndrome for ACTHoma. Biological diagnosis included biological markers (e.g. insulin, gastrin and cortisol). Tumor site and size at diagnosis were determined by ultrasound, CT-scan, angiography, PETscan, octreoscan and intraoperative ultrasound. Surgical procedures for PNET insulinomas were: tumor resection - 6 cases; left splenopancreatectomy - 3 cases; left spleen-preserving pancreatectomy - 2 cases; pancreaticoduodenectomy - 2 cases. We also present 4 cases of gastrinoma with multiple ulcers and multiple surgical interventions for hemorrhage and perforation with peritonitis. The two patients with Wermer syndrome also had ulcers complicated with hemorrhage and peritonitis and parathyroid adenoma. Nonfunctional pancreatic endocrine tumors were diagnosed in 5 women of which in 3 the tumors were located in the pancreatic tail (in which splenopancreatectomy and left pancreatectomy with spleen preservation were performed) and in 2 in the pancreatic head (in which pancreaticoduodenectomy and Beger type operation were performed). Conclusions: Knowledge of clinical signs of secreting tumors and exploring the patients are of crucial importance for management of PNETs. Immunohistochemistry is mandatory for confirming the diagnosis and assessing the proliferation and biological behavior of the tumor, thus facilitating the administration of specific therapy. Aggressive surgical treatment is indicated, even in advanced stages.


Asunto(s)
Tumores Neuroendocrinos/cirugía , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirugía , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/diagnóstico , Pancreatectomía/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
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