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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246463, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355899

RESUMEN

Abstract Quilombola communities are present in many Brazilian states living in precarious health conditions. This is due to geographic isolation, limitations to the access of the area in which they live in, and the lack of quality in the service when it is needed to be provided. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the quality of life of women from a quilombola community in northeastern Brazil. It is an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study. 160 adult women were first interviewed through a form to collect a profile and then it was applied the WHOQOL Quality of Life questionnaire - bref. It was observed that the women were on average 40.7 years old (±17.25), married, self-declared black, who did not finish elementary school, housewife, had no income, with their own masonry house, with up to 6 rooms, supplied by a box of community treated water. Quality of Life had median scores in the domains: physical (3.18), psychological (3.4), social relationships (3.45) and environment (2.59). With this research, it was possible to characterize the quilombola community of Santa Luzia do Norte-AL regarding the difficulties of access to health and income generation, issues that affect their health condition. The problems described in this study can contribute to health actions being planned and carried out in order to improve socioeconomic and health conditions in this community, considering the social, political and environmental context, valuing their traditional knowledge and practices.


Resumo As comunidades quilombolas, estão presentes em diversos estados brasileiros, vivendo em condições de saúde mais precárias. Isto ocorre por conta do isolamento geográfico, das limitações de acesso e da falta de qualidade no serviço quando este é prestado. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do estudo foi analisar a qualidade de vida de mulheres de uma comunidade quilombola do nordeste brasileiro. Estudo observacional, transversal e descritivo. Foram entrevistadas 160 mulheres adultas, através de um formulário para a coleta de perfil e do questionário de Qualidade de Vida WHOQOL - bref. Foi observado que as mulheres tinham em média 40,7 anos (±17,25), casadas, autodeclaradas negras, com fundamental incompleto, do lar, sem renda, com moradia de alvenaria, própria, com até 6 cômodos, abastecidas por caixa de água comunitária, tratada. A Qualidade de Vida, apresentou escores medianos nos domínios: físico (3,18), psicológico (3,4), relações sociais (3,45) e meio ambiente (2,59). Com a realização desta pesquisa foi possível caracterizar a comunidade quilombola de Santa Luzia do Norte-AL quanto as dificuldades de acesso a saúde e geração de renda, fatos que repercutem na sua condição de saúde. Os problemas descritos neste estudo podem contribuir para que ações de saúde sejam planejadas e efetivadas com o intuito de melhorar as condições socioeconômicas e de saúde nessa comunidade, considerando-se o contexto social, político e ambiental, valorizando seus saberes e práticas tradicionais.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Calidad de Vida , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249104, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339389

RESUMEN

Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate the strength of association of raised plasma homocysteine concentration as a risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factor. It was a case control study conducted at Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. A total of 210 subjects aged 25 to 60 years comprising of 105 newly admitted patients of CHD as cases and 105 age and sex matched healthy individuals with no history of CHD as control were recruited for the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from cases and controls. Plasma homocysteine was analyzed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method on automated immunoassay analyzer (Abbott IMX). Total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL cholesterol were analyzed using calorimetric kit methods. The concentration of LDL cholesterol was calculated using Friedewald formula. The patients were also assessed for traditional risk factors such as age, sex, family history of CVD, hypertension, smoking and physical activity, and were compared with control subjects. The collected data was entered in SPSS version 24 for analysis and interpretation.The mean age in controls and experimental groups were 43.00± 8.42 years and 44.72± 8.59 years with statistically same distribution (p- value= 0.144). The mean plasma homocysteine for cases was 22.33± 9.22 µmol/L where as it was 12.59±3.73 µmol/L in control group. Highly significant difference was seen between the mean plasma level of homocysteine in cases and controls (p˂0.001).Simple logistic regression indicates a strong association of coronary heart disease with hyperhomocysteinemia (OR 7.45), which remained significantly associated with coronary heart disease by multivariate logistic regression (OR 7.10, 95%C1 3.12-12.83, p=0.000). The present study concludes that elevated levels of Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factors and can be used as an indicator for predicting the future possibility for the onset of CVD.


Resumo O presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar a força da associação da concentração elevada de homocisteína no plasma como um fator de risco para doença cardíaca coronária independente do fator de risco convencional. Foi um estudo de caso-controle realizado no Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. Um total de 210 indivíduos com idade entre 25 e 60 anos, compreendendo 105 pacientes recém-admitidos de CHD como casos e 105 indivíduos saudáveis ​​pareados por idade e sexo sem histórico de CHD como controle, foi recrutado para o estudo. Amostras de sangue em jejum foram obtidas de casos e controles. A homocisteína plasmática foi analisada pelo método de imunoensaio de polarização de fluorescência (FPIA) em analisador de imunoensaio automatizado (Abbott IMX). Colesterol total, triglicerídeos e colesterol HDL foram analisados ​​usando métodos de kit calorimétrico. A concentração de colesterol LDL foi calculada pela fórmula de Friedewald. Os pacientes também foram avaliados para fatores de risco tradicionais, como idade, sexo, história familiar de DCV, hipertensão, tabagismo e atividade física, e foram comparados com indivíduos de controle. Os dados coletados foram inseridos no SPSS versão 24 para análise e interpretação. A média de idade nos grupos controles e experimentais foi de 43,00 ± 8,42 anos e 44,72 ± 8,59 anos com distribuição estatisticamente igual (p-valor = 0,144). A homocisteína plasmática média para os casos foi de 22,33 ± 9,22 µmol / L, enquanto no grupo controle foi de 12,59 ± 3,73 µmol / L. Diferença altamente significativa foi observada entre o nível plasmático médio de homocisteína em casos e controles (p ˂ 0,001). A regressão logística simples indica uma forte associação de doença cardíaca coronária com hiper-homocisteinemia (OR 7,45), que permaneceu significativamente associada com doença cardíaca coronária por multivariada regressão logística (OR 7,10, 95% C1 3,12-12,83, p = 0,000). O presente estudo conclui que níveis elevados de homocisteína plasmática são fator de risco independente para doença cardíaca coronária, independentemente dos fatores de risco convencionais, e pode ser usado como um indicador para prever a possibilidade futura de aparecimento de DCV.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedad Coronaria/embriología , Hiperhomocisteinemia/diagnóstico , Hiperhomocisteinemia/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Factores de Riesgo , Ayuno
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246385, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339384

RESUMEN

Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although remain controversial, several studies have demonstrated the association of M. pneumoniae infections with atherosclerosis. We evaluated the possible association of mycoplasma infections in patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis by ELISA and PCR methods. Atherosclerotic tissue samples and blood samples were collected for the detection of mycoplasma antibodies (IgA) by ELISA from the 97 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). M. pneumoniae specific IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by using the Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA. Detection of M. pneumoniae targeting the P1 adhesion gene was performed by PCR Acute infection of M. pneumoniae was diagnosed in 43.3% (42) of patients by PCR. The M. pneumoniae specific antibodies were detected in 36.1% (35) of patients. Twenty-five (25.8%) cases had IgG antibodies, 15 (15.5%) cases had IgM antibodies, 3 (3.1%) cases had IgA antibodies, 10 (10.3%) cases had both IgM + IgG antibodies and 1 (1%) case of each had IgM + IgA and IgG + IgA antibodies. None of the cases was positive for all three antibodies. A Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed an excellent correlation between the PCR and the serological results (r=0.921, p<0.001). A majority (17, 40.5%) of the M. pneumoniae positive patients are within the 41-50 years of age group, followed by 10 (23.8%) patients in the age group of 61-70 years and 2 (4.8%) patients were >70 years of age. Our study reported an unusually higher prevalence of M. pneumoniae by serological tests (36.1%) and PCR (43.3%). Although the hypothesis of the association of M. pneumoniae and CAD is yet to be proven, the unusually high prevalence of M. pneumoniae in CAD patients indicates an association, if not, in the development of atherosclerosis.


Resumo A doença coronariana (DCC) tem sido associada a significativa morbidade e mortalidade em todo o mundo. Embora ainda sejam controversos, vários estudos têm demonstrado a associação de infecções por M. pneumoniae com aterosclerose. Avaliamos a possível associação de infecções por micoplasma em pacientes com diagnóstico de aterosclerose pelos métodos ELISA e PCR. Amostras de tecido aterosclerótico e amostras de sangue foram coletadas para a detecção de anticorpos contra micoplasma (IgA) por ELISA de 97 pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC). IgA, IgG e IgM específicos para M. pneumoniae foram medidos usando o Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA / IgG / IgM ELISA. A detecção de M. pneumoniae visando o gene de adesão P1 foi realizada por PCR. A infecção aguda por M. pneumoniae foi diagnosticada em 43,3% (42) dos pacientes pela PCR. Os anticorpos específicos para M. pneumoniae foram detectados em 36,1% (35) dos pacientes. Vinte e cinco (25,8%) casos tinham anticorpos IgG, 15 (15,5%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM, 3 (3,1%) casos tinham anticorpos IgA, 10 (10,3%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM + IgG e 1 (1%) caso de cada um tinha anticorpos IgM + IgA e IgG + IgA. Nenhum dos casos foi positivo para os três anticorpos. A análise do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson revelou uma excelente correlação entre o PCR e os resultados sorológicos (r = 0,921, p < 0,001). A maioria (17, 40,5%) dos pacientes positivos para M. pneumoniae está na faixa etária de 41-50 anos, seguida por 10 (23,8%) pacientes na faixa etária de 61-70 anos e 2 (4,8%) pacientes tinham > 70 anos de idade. Nosso estudo relatou uma prevalência incomumente maior de M. pneumoniae por testes sorológicos (36,1%) e PCR (43,3%). Embora a hipótese da associação de M. pneumoniae e DAC ainda não tenha sido comprovada, a prevalência incomumente alta de M. pneumoniae em pacientes com DAC indica uma associação, se não, no desenvolvimento de aterosclerose.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/epidemiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Inmunoglobulina M , Prevalencia , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

RESUMEN

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Aberraciones Cromosómicas , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiología , Pakistán/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Cariotipificación
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248828, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339354

RESUMEN

Abstract Serum toxic metals have been implicated in development of many diseases. This study investigated the association between blood levels of lead and cadmium with abnormal bone mineral density (BMD) and incidence of osteoporosis. Sixty Saudi male adults age matching were assigned into two groups: A healthy control group (n = 30) and osteoporosis patients diagnosed according to T-score (n = 30). Serum calcium, vitamin D, osteocalcin, lead, cadmium were measured. Osteoporotic group showed a highly significant elevation of blood lead and cadmium levels compared to the control group (p <0.001). BMD was negatively correlated with serum osteocalcin level compared with control. There was a significant negative correlation between the cadmium and lead levels (r=-0.465 and p-value = 0.01) and calcium (p < 0.004). Our findings suggested that high cadmium and lead were negative correlated to BMD and increased the risk factor for osteoporosis.


Resumo Os metais tóxicos do soro têm sido implicados no desenvolvimento de muitas doenças. Este estudo investigou a associação entre os níveis sanguíneos de chumbo e cádmio com densidade mineral óssea anormal (DMO) e incidência de osteoporose. Sessenta adultos sauditas do sexo masculino com idades iguais foram divididos em dois grupos: um grupo de controle saudável (n = 30) e pacientes com osteoporose diagnosticados de acordo com o T-score (n = 30). Cálcio sérico, vitamina D, osteocalcina, chumbo, cádmio foram medidos. O grupo osteoporótico apresentou elevação altamente significativa dos níveis de chumbo e cádmio no sangue em comparação ao grupo controle (p < 0,001). A DMO foi negativamente correlacionada com o nível de osteocalcina sérica em comparação com o controle. Houve correlação negativa significativa entre os níveis de cádmio e chumbo (r = -0,465 ep = 0,01) e cálcio (p < 0,004). Nossos achados sugeriram que cádmio e chumbo elevados foram correlacionados negativamente à DMO e aumentaram o fator de risco para osteoporose.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Osteoporosis/epidemiología , Plomo , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Absorciometría de Fotón , Osteocalcina , Incidencia
6.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 11(2): 165-172, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453416

RESUMEN

Tadalafil is an effective, reversible, and competitive phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor mainly used to treat erectile dysfunction. This study investigated the bioequivalence of generic and marketed formulations of 10-mg tadalafil tablets under fasted and fed conditions. This open-label, randomized, single-dose, 2-period crossover study included 53 healthy Chinese men (aged 20-43 years). Plasma samples were collected from 0.5 hours before treatment to 72 hours after each dose and analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. Safety assessments were performed throughout the study. For the fasted state, the 90% confidence intervals of the geometric mean ratios between the generic and marketed formulations were 86.1% to 99.1% for the maximum plasma concentration and 88.4% to 100.3% for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity, and the corresponding values under the fed state were and 99.9% to 108.4% and 95.7% to 104.3%, respectively. All data were within the accepted bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%. After consuming high-fat, high-calorie meals in the fed condition, the time to the maximum plasma concentration was similar between the formulations, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity and maximum plasma concentration were 10.2% and 6.55% higher, respectively, for the marketed formulation. Thus, food had no clinically relevant effect on tadalafil exposure following a single oral dose in healthy Chinese men. No serious adverse reactions were reported. These results indicated that the analyzed generic and marketed tadalafil tablets were bioequivalent with similar safety profiles.


Asunto(s)
Ayuno , Adulto , China , Estudios Cruzados , Humanos , Masculino , Comprimidos , Tadalafilo/efectos adversos , Equivalencia Terapéutica , Adulto Joven
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5241, 2022 03 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347208

RESUMEN

Serosurveillance helps establish reopening guidelines and determine the immunity levels in different populations to reach herd immunity. Then, there is an urgent need to estimate seroprevalence population wide. In Mexico, information about COVID-19 cases and related deaths is scarce. Also, there is no official serosurveillance, limiting our knowledge of the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we report the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 522,690 unvaccinated people from July 5th to December 31st, 2020. The overall seroprevalence was 32.8% and highest in adults aged 30-39 years (38.5%) than people under 20 years (33.0%) or older (28.9%). Moreover, in a cohort of 1655 individuals confirmed COVID-19 by PCR, we found that symptomatic people (HR = 2.56) increased seroconversion than presymptomatic. Also, we identified that the most discriminative symptoms for COVID-19 that could predict seroconversion were anosmia and ageusia (HR = 1.70), fever, myalgia/arthralgia, and cough (HR = 1.75). Finally, we found that obese people had lower seroconversion (HR = 0.53) than healthy people, but the opposite happens in diabetic people (HR = 1.39). These findings reveal that around one-third of Mexican outpatients had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies before vaccination. Also, some symptoms improve empirically COVID-19 diagnosis and seroconversion. This information could help fine-tune vaccination schemes and the reopening and back-to-work algorithms.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , Prueba de COVID-19 , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , México/epidemiología , Seroconversión , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(12): e95, 2022 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347903

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the drug prescription patterns for men diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Korea. METHODS: We extracted the data of 3% of the national patient samples including men aged ≥ 40 years between 2012 and 2017 from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment database and investigated the drugs prescribed for men with the BPH code N40. Men with a diagnosis of BPH but not receiving treatment were excluded. The primary outcome was the drugs prescribed and the changes in drug prescription pattern over 6 years for men first diagnosed with BPH. RESULTS: Alpha blockers were the most commonly prescribed drugs in men with BPH, and tamsulosin was the most common. The proportion of prescriptions increased steadily. The number of prescriptions for anticholinergics (ACH) increased, but decreased with the start of mirabegron prescriptions in 2015. Prescriptions of mirabegron are increasing rapidly and replacing ACH. Based on the prescription pattern by drug category, alpha blocker monotherapy decreased, whereas combination therapies such as alpha blocker + 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI), and alpha blocker + 5ARI + ACH increased steadily. As for the number of prescriptions by drug ingredient, tamsulosin monotherapy was the most common, and the combination therapy of tamsulosin and mirabegron increased. CONCLUSION: Alpha blockers were the most commonly prescribed drug for men first diagnosed with BPH in Korea from 2012 to 2017, and tamsulosin was the most common alpha blocker. Prescriptions of combination therapy and mirabegron are gradually increasing.


Asunto(s)
Síntomas del Sistema Urinario Inferior , Hiperplasia Prostática , Adulto , Prescripciones de Medicamentos , Humanos , Seguro de Salud , Síntomas del Sistema Urinario Inferior/tratamiento farmacológico , Síntomas del Sistema Urinario Inferior/etiología , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/complicaciones , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamiento farmacológico , Tamsulosina/uso terapéutico
9.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(12): e96, 2022 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347904

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer (SVBT) cycle has been increasingly utilized for assisted reproductive technology. Women of advanced maternal age (AMA) comprise a significant portion of patients who have undergone 'freeze-all' cycles. This study investigated the association between the post-warming extended culture duration and pregnancy outcomes in patients of AMA. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study analyzed the outcomes of 697 SVBT cycles between January 2016 and December 2017. The cycles were divided into 3 groups based on the age of the female partners: group I: < 35 years (n = 407), group II: 35-37 years (n = 176); and group III, 38-40 years (n = 114). Data are shown as the mean ± standard error of the mean. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan's multiple range test. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.001. RESULTS: The blastocyst rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and live birth rate (LBR) was significantly lower in the AMA groups. However, there were no significant differences in LBR in the transfer between the AMA and younger groups according to blastocyst morphology and post-warming extended culture duration. CONCLUSION: Post-warming extended culture of blastocysts is not harmful to patients of AMA. It could be a useful parameter in clinical counseling and decision making for fertility treatments.


Asunto(s)
Blastocisto , Transferencia de Embrión , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Edad Materna , Embarazo , Índice de Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos
11.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 35-48, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637023

RESUMEN

Sixty-nine million people have a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year, and TBI is the most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Traumatic SAH (TSAH) has been described as an adverse prognostic factor leading to progressive neurological deterioration and increased morbidity and mortality. A limited number of studies, however, evaluate recent trends in the diagnosis and management of SAH in the context of trauma. The objective of this scoping review was to understand the extent and type of evidence concerning the diagnostic criteria and management of TSAH. This scoping review was conducted following the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for scoping reviews. The review included adults with SAH secondary to trauma, where isolated TSAH (iTSAH) refers to the presence of SAH in the absence of any other traumatic radiographic intracranial pathology, and TSAH refers to the presence of SAH with the possibility or presence of additional traumatic radiographic intracranial pathology. Data extracted from each study included study aim, country, methodology, population characteristics, outcome measures, a summary of findings, and future directives. Thirty studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were grouped into five categories by topic: TSAH associated with mild TBI (mTBI), n = 13), and severe TBI (n = 3); clinical management and diagnosis (n = 9); imaging (n = 3); and aneurysmal TSAH (n = 1). Of the 30 studies, two came from a low- and middle-income country (LMIC), excluding China, nearly a high-income country. Patients with TSAH associated with mTBI have a very low risk of clinical deterioration and surgical intervention and should be treated conservatively when considering intensive care unit admission. The Helsinki and Stockholm computed tomography scoring systems, in addition to the American Injury Scale, creatinine level, age decision tree, may be valuable tools to use when predicting outcome and death.


Asunto(s)
Conmoción Encefálica , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea Traumática , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea , Adulto , Conmoción Encefálica/complicaciones , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/complicaciones , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/terapia , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea/diagnóstico por imagen , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea/etiología , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea/terapia , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea Traumática/diagnóstico por imagen , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea Traumática/etiología , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea Traumática/terapia
12.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(2): 573-582, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564924

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We characterized and quantified peripheral nerve damage in alcohol-dependent patients (ADP) by magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) in correlation with clinical and electrophysiologic findings. METHODS: Thirty-one adult patients with a history of excessive alcohol consumption and age-/sex-matched healthy controls were prospectively examined. After detailed neurologic and electrophysiologic testing, the patient group was subdivided into ADP with alcohol-related polyneuropathy (ALN) and without ALN (Non-ALN). 3T MRN with anatomical coverage from the proximal thigh down to the tibiotalar joint was performed using dual-echo 2-dimensional relaxometry sequences with spectral fat saturation. Detailed quantification of nerve injury by morphometric (cross-sectional area [CSA]) and microstructural MRN markers (proton spin density [ρ], apparent T2-relaxation-time [T2app ]) was conducted in all study participants. RESULTS: MRN detected nerve damage in ADP with and without ALN. A proximal-to-distal gradient was identified for nerve T2-weighted (T2w)-signal and T2app in ADP, indicating a proximal predominance of nerve lesions. While all MRN markers differentiated significantly between ADP and controls, microstructural markers were able to additionally differentiate between subgroups: tibial nerve ρ at thigh level was increased in ALN (p < 0.0001) and in Non-ALN (p = 0.0052) versus controls, and T2app was higher in ALN versus controls (p < 0.0001) and also in ALN versus Non-ALN (p = 0.0214). T2w-signal and CSA were only higher in ALN versus controls. CONCLUSIONS: MRN detects and quantifies peripheral nerve damage in ADP in vivo even in the absence of clinically overt ALN. Microstructural markers (T2app , ρ) are most suitable for differentiating between ADP with and without manifest ALN, and may help to elucidate the underlying pathomechanism in ALN.


Asunto(s)
Neuropatía Alcohólica , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Periférico , Adulto , Neuropatía Alcohólica/patología , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Periférico/patología , Nervio Tibial
13.
Dermatol Ther ; 35(2): e15231, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820971

RESUMEN

Data on the effectiveness and safety of a drug in real-world clinical practice complement the evidence from clinical trials, which are carried out in a different setting. Little has been published on the effectiveness and safety of guselkumab in the treatment of psoriasis in clinical practice. The ojective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of guselkumab at 24 weeks in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in routine clinical practice. A retrospective, multicentre study of adult patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis treated with guselkumab for at least 24 weeks was carried out in Spain. We studied 343 patients, 249 of whom were followed for 24 weeks. By week 24, the mean (SD) psoriasis area severity index (PASI) had decreased from 11.1 (7.3) to 1.7 (2.8) (-9.3; [-10.2;-8.4]), 85.9% of the patients had achieved PASI score of 4 or less and 77.9% a PASI score of 2 or less. In terms of relative PASI response, 59.4% of the patients achieved a PASI-90 response and 49.0% a PASI-100 response. On multivariate analysis, two factors reduced the probability of a PASI of 2 or less at 24 weeks: a BMI ≥30 (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22-0.88) and a greater previous exposure to biologic therapy (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, [0.56-0.84]). Adverse events were rare (9.9%) and led to withdrawal from treatment in only nine patients (2.6%) by the end of the follow-up period. The results of this study confirm the high efficacy and safety of guselkumab indicated by the clinical trial data. In clinical practice, the absolute PASI score appears to be a better marker of response to treatment than the relative value.


Asunto(s)
Psoriasis , Adulto , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados , Humanos , Psoriasis/diagnóstico , Psoriasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
Dermatol Ther ; 35(2): e15229, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820974

RESUMEN

Carboxytherapy has been used in the treatment of autoimmune skin diseases such as psoriasis and morphea. Carboxytherapy has antioxidant effects, and leads to better tissue oxygenation, and release of growth factors. In this article, we decided to evaluate efficacy of combined carboxytherapy and narrowband-ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) compared to NB-UVB alone in the treatment of vitiligo. This is a prospective, split-body double-blind comparative study performed in patients with generalized stable vitiligo in acral areas and extremities referred to dermatology clinic of Afzalipour hospital in Kerman University of Medical Sciences. NB-UVB was performed three times a week in non-consecutive days for 4 months. In each patient, one lesion was randomly treated with carboxytherapy (weekly sessions for total of 16 sessions). Efficacy of treatment was evaluated by percentage of repigmentation of the lesions. Chi-square test and analysis of variance test (ANOVA) were used to compare efficacy of treatment based on demographic features of the patients and clinical features of the lesions, respectively. Twenty-eight patients with mean age of 32.35 ± 7.37 years old completed the study. At the end of the treatment, 37% of the patients in combination therapy group demonstrated more than 75% improvement compared to 0% in the monotherapy group (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference between either demographic features of the patients (age, sex, and skin phototypes) or duration of disease with efficacy of the treatment in both groups. Combination of carboxytherapy with NB-UVB leads to higher percentage of repigmentation and patients' satisfaction compared to monotherapy with NB-UVB.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Ultravioleta , Vitíligo , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Piel/patología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Terapia Ultravioleta/efectos adversos , Vitíligo/diagnóstico , Vitíligo/tratamiento farmacológico , Vitíligo/radioterapia , Adulto Joven
15.
Psychol Sci ; 33(3): 433-449, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213257

RESUMEN

Moral framing and reframing strategies persuade people holding moralized attitudes (i.e., attitudes having a moral basis). However, these strategies may have unintended side effects: They have the potential to moralize people's attitudes further and as a consequence lower their willingness to compromise on issues. Across three experimental studies with adult U.S. participants (Study 1: N = 2,151, Study 2: N = 1,590, Study 3: N = 1,015), we used persuasion messages (moral, nonmoral, and control) that opposed new big-data technologies (crime-surveillance technologies and hiring algorithms). We consistently found that moral frames were persuasive and moralized people's attitudes, whereas nonmoral frames were persuasive and de-moralized people's attitudes. Moral frames also lowered people's willingness to compromise and reduced behavioral indicators of compromise. Exploratory analyses suggest that feelings of anger and disgust may drive moralization, whereas perceiving the technologies to be financially costly may drive de-moralization. The findings imply that use of moral frames can increase and entrench moral divides rather than bridge them.


Asunto(s)
Principios Morales , Comunicación Persuasiva , Adulto , Ira , Actitud , Emociones , Humanos
16.
Environ Pollut ; 302: 119070, 2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231538

RESUMEN

Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to lung cancer incidence and mortality, but limited evidence existed for other cancers. This study aimed to assess the association between PM2.5 on cancer specific mortality. An ecological study based on the cancer mortality data collected from 5,565 Brazilian cities during 2010-2018 using a difference-in-differences approach with quasi-Poisson regression, was applied to examine PM2.5-cancer mortality associations. Globally gridded annual average surface PM2.5 concentration was extracted and linked with the residential municipality of participants in this study. Sex, age stratified and exposure-response estimations were also conducted. Totalling 1,768,668 adult cancer deaths records of about 208 million population living across 5,565 municipalities were included in this study. The average PM2.5 concentration was 7.63 µg/m3 (standard deviation 3.32) with range from 2.95 µg/m3 to 28.5 µg/m3. With each 10 µg/m3 increase in three-year-average (current year and previous two years) concentrations of PM2.5, the relative risks (RR) of cancer mortality were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.20) for all-site cancers. The PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with several cancer-specific mortalities including oral, nasopharynx, oesophagus, and stomach, colon rectum, liver, gallbladder, larynx, lung, bone, skin, female breast, cervix, prostate, brain and leukaemia. No safe level of PM2.5 exposure was observed in the exposure-response curve for all types of cancer. In conclusion, with nationwide cancer death records in Brazil, we found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 increased risks of mortality for many cancer types. Even low level PM2.5 concentrations had significant impacts on cancer mortality.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Brasil/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidad , Material Particulado/análisis
17.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 67-75, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130567

RESUMEN

Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTHS) is defined as increased thyroxine and triiodothyronine associated with normal or increased thyrotropin. This is usually due to a pathogenic variant of the gene coding for thyroid hormone receptor B (THRB). THRB is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an altered response of target tissue to the thyroid hormone action. Retrospective cross-sectional observational study with diagnosis of RTHS evaluated in secondary and tertiary hospitals for 6 years, from 2014 to 2020, in order to describe variables including age, sex, anthropometric data, clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients, who were divided according to age, in a pediatric group from 0 to 14 years (index cases), and an adult group composed of adult relatives of index cases. A molecular analysis of the THRB gene was performed. The total retrospective cohort included 7 pediatric patients and 15 adults. We found 22 cases with a clear male predominance (14/22). Mean age is 24.8 years old (22 days-70 years). Patients were referred because of symptoms 18.2% (4/22), analysis results 22.7% (5/22), or familial study 59.1% (13/22). About 31.8% (7/22) cases show goiter, 31.8% (7/22) sympathetic symptoms and 13.6% (3/22) abnormalities in behavior. In most cases, 77.3%, (17/22) show familial background of thyroid abnormalities. It is important to remark that 18.2% (4/22) relatives received previous incorrect treatments such as thyroidectomy, because of wrong diagnosis. In conclusion, a better understanding of RTHS, its prompt molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling, could avoid unnecessary tests and inappropriate treatments.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Mutación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Receptores beta de Hormona Tiroidea/genética , Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas/genética , Tirotropina , Tiroxina , Triyodotironina , Adulto Joven
18.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 104-112, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130571

RESUMEN

Some studies have suggested that diabetes may be a risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, whether prediabetes is also associated with osteoarthritis has not been comprehensively examined. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between prediabetes and osteoarthritis. This meta-analysis included relevant observational studies from Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases. A random-effect model after incorporation of the intra-study heterogeneity was selected to pool the results. Ten datasets from six observational studies were included, which involved 41 226 general adults and 10 785 (26.2%) of them were prediabetic. Pooled results showed that prediabetes was not independently associated with osteoarthritis [risk ratio (RR): 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.14, p=0.06, I2=0%]. Sensitivity limited to studies with adjustment of age and body mass index showed consistent result (RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.14, p=0.09, I2=0%). Results of subgroup analyses showed that prediabetes was not associated with osteoarthritis in cross-sectional or cohort studies, in studies including Asian or non-Asian population, or in studies with different quality scores (p for subgroup difference>0.10). Besides, prediabetes was not associated with osteoarthritis in men or in women, in studies with prediabetes defined as impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or HbA1c (approximately 39-46 mmol/mol). Moreover, prediabetes was not associated with overall osteoarthritis, and knee or hip osteoarthritis. Current evidence does not support that prediabetes is independently associated with osteoarthritis in adult population.


Asunto(s)
Intolerancia a la Glucosa , Osteoartritis , Estado Prediabético , Adulto , Glucemia/metabolismo , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Osteoartritis/complicaciones , Osteoartritis/epidemiología , Estado Prediabético/complicaciones , Estado Prediabético/epidemiología , Estado Prediabético/metabolismo , Factores de Riesgo
19.
Subst Use Misuse ; 57(5): 730-741, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193461

RESUMEN

Background: Rates of cannabis use appear to be highest among emerging adults (EA). Evidence suggests that cannabis smoking, as well as alternate methods of cannabis use (e.g., vaping, edibles) have become a prevalent mode of consumption among this population. Substance use or misuse peaks during emerging adulthood and may be influenced by extreme economic, social and community developments, such as policy changes, public health concerns, and significant global events such as pandemics. For instance, it is highly likely that cannabis consumption trends among at-risk populations were influenced by the legalization of recreational cannabis in Canada, the declaration of the "e-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury" or "EVALI" outbreak, and the "COVID-19" pandemic. ObjectivesWe aimed to examine self-reported changes in frequency of cannabis use among EA in Canada (N = 312): pre-legalization, post-legalization; pre-EVALI, post-EVALI; pre-COVID-19, since-COVID-19. ResultsThere was a gradual increase in average frequency of smoking and vaping cannabis across the six different time intervals from the pre-legalization period (2018) to the COVID-19 pandemic period (2020). Males reported higher frequencies of cannabis smoking and vaping compared to females. ConclusionsDespite health concerns and expectations that EVALI and COVID-19 events would lead to decreased consumption, our results suggest an average increase in smoking and vaping cannabis, although the most notable increase was after legalization. There are important sex differences in behavioral factors of cannabis use in EA, though it appears that the "gender-gap" in cannabis consumption is closing. These findings may facilitate the development of intervention programs for policy measures to address cannabis-attributable outcomes in the face of contextual factors that promote use, such as public emergencies or changes in policy landscapes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Políticas , Salud Pública
20.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 57: 102661, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35063923

RESUMEN

Non-self DNA is normally present on skin due to DNA transfer occurring during daily activities. The understanding of persistence and accumulation of foreign DNA on the neck can assist in the interpretation of DNA evidence collected from an assaulted victim. Establishing the composition and level of non-self DNA present is relevant, especially in cases where the victim cohabits with other individuals, such as partner and children. This study investigated the persistence and accumulation of non-self DNA on the neck, over the course of 24 h. DNA samples were collected from the neck of 20 adult volunteers at three time-points, on two days. The detection of a partner's DNA and DNA from unknown sources was studied in relation to the living arrangement and to the activities performed by each individual. An increased number of non-self alleles were detected over time. Partner's DNA was observed to accumulate during the day and to persist when an individual was absent from the shared home environment. DNA from unknown contributors was found on the neck of individuals that used public transport, attended public spaces and had social interactions. The data acquired from this study will help to increase knowledge on the composition of DNA present on an individual's neck in a daily situation.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , ADN , Adulto , Alelos , Niño , ADN/genética , Humanos , Factores de Tiempo
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