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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640691

RESUMEN

During critical moments, disaster and accident victims may not be able to request help from the emergency response center. This may happen when the victim's vehicle is located within a coverage hole in a wireless network. In this paper, we adopt an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to work as an automatic emergency dispatcher for a user in a vehicle facing a critical condition. Given that the UAV is located within a coverage hole and a predetermined critical condition is detected, the UAV becomes airborne and dispatches distress messages to a communication network. We propose to use a path loss map for UAV trajectory design, and we formulate our problem mathematically as an Integer Linear Program (ILP). Our goals are to minimize the distress messages delivery time and the UAV's mission completion time. Due to the difficulty of obtaining the optimal solution when the scale of the problem is large, we proposed an efficient algorithm that reduces the computational time significantly. We simulate our problem under different scenarios and settings, and study the performance of our proposed algorithm.


Asunto(s)
Aeronaves , Desastres , Algoritmos
2.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 151, 2021 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656149

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The helicopter emergency services (HEMS) Benefit Score (HBS) is a nine-level scoring system developed to evaluate the benefits of HEMS missions. The HBS has been in clinical use for two decades in its original form. Advances in prehospital care, however, have produced demand for a revision of the HBS. Therefore, we developed the emergency medical services (EMS) Benefit Score (EBS) based on the former HBS. As reflected by its name, the aim of the EBS is to measure the benefits produced by the whole EMS systems to patients. METHODS: This is a four-round, web-based, international Delphi consensus study with a consensus definition made by experts from seven countries. Participants reviewed items of the revised HBS on a 5-point Likert scale. A content validity index (CVI) was calculated, and agreement was defined as a 70% CVI. Study included experts from seven European countries. Of these, 18 were prehospital expert panellists and 11 were in-hospital commentary board members. RESULTS: The first Delphi round resulted in 1248 intervention examples divided into ten diagnostic categories. After removing overlapping examples, 413 interventions were included in the second Delphi round, which resulted in 38 examples divided into HBS categories 3-8. In the third Delphi round, these resulted in 37 prehospital interventions, examples of which were given revised version of the score. In the fourth and final Delphi round, the expert panel was given an opportunity to accept or comment on the revised scoring system. CONCLUSIONS: The former HBS was revised by a Delphi methodology and EBS developed to represent its structural purpose better. The EBS includes 37 exemplar prehospital interventions to guide its clinical use. Trial registration The study permission was requested and granted by Turku University Hospital (decision number TP2/010/18).


Asunto(s)
Ambulancias Aéreas , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Aeronaves , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Humanos
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502588

RESUMEN

In recent years, small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) have been used widely to monitor animals because of their customizability, ease of operating, ability to access difficult to navigate places, and potential to minimize disturbance to animals. Automatic identification and classification of animals through images acquired using a sUAS may solve critical problems such as monitoring large areas with high vehicle traffic for animals to prevent collisions, such as animal-aircraft collisions on airports. In this research we demonstrate automated identification of four animal species using deep learning animal classification models trained on sUAS collected images. We used a sUAS mounted with visible spectrum cameras to capture 1288 images of four different animal species: cattle (Bos taurus), horses (Equus caballus), Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We chose these animals because they were readily accessible and white-tailed deer and Canada Geese are considered aviation hazards, as well as being easily identifiable within aerial imagery. A four-class classification problem involving these species was developed from the acquired data using deep learning neural networks. We studied the performance of two deep neural network models, convolutional neural networks (CNN) and deep residual networks (ResNet). Results indicate that the ResNet model with 18 layers, ResNet 18, may be an effective algorithm at classifying between animals while using a relatively small number of training samples. The best ResNet architecture produced a 99.18% overall accuracy (OA) in animal identification and a Kappa statistic of 0.98. The highest OA and Kappa produced by CNN were 84.55% and 0.79 respectively. These findings suggest that ResNet is effective at distinguishing among the four species tested and shows promise for classifying larger datasets of more diverse animals.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Profundo , Ciervos , Aeronaves , Algoritmos , Animales , Bovinos , Caballos , Redes Neurales de la Computación
4.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 92(8): 612-618, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503614

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Aerobatic flight operations involve a higher level of risk than standard flight operations. Aerobatics imposes considerable stresses on both the aircraft and the pilot. The purpose of this study was to analyze civilian aerobatic aircraft accidents in Australia, with particular emphasis on the underlying accident causes and survival outcomes.METHODS: The accident and incident database of the Australian Transport Safety Bureau was searched for all events involving aerobatic flight for the period 19802010.RESULTS: A total of 51 accidents involving aircraft undertaking aerobatic operations were identified, with 71 aircraft occupants. Of the accidents, 27 (52.9) were fatal, resulting in a total of 36 fatalities. There were 24 nonfatal accidents. In terms of injury outcomes, there were 4 serious and 9 minor injuries, and 22 accidents in which no injuries were recorded. Fatal accidents were mainly due to loss of control by the pilot (44.4), in-flight structural failure of the airframe (25.9), and terrain impact (25.9). G-LOC was considered a possible cause in 11.1 of fatal accidents. Nonfatal accidents were mainly due to powerplant failure (41.7) and noncatastrophic airframe damage (25). Accidents involving aerobatic maneuvering have a significantly increased risk of a fatal outcome (odds ratio 26).DISCUSSION: The results of this study highlight the risks involved in aerobatic flight. Exceeding the operational limits of the maneuver and the design limits of the aircraft are major factors contributing to a fatal aerobatic aircraft accident. Improved awareness of G physiology and better operational decision-making while undertaking aerobatic flight may help prevent further accidents.Newman DG. Factors contributing to accidents during aerobatic flight operations. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2021; 92(8):612618.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Aviación , Accidentes , Aeronaves , Australia/epidemiología , Humanos , Oportunidad Relativa , Factores de Riesgo
5.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 92(7): 563-569, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503630

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) is a mode of transportation designed to expedite the transport of a patient. Compared to other modes of emergency transport and other areas of aviation, historically HEMS has had the highest accident-related fatality rates. Analysis of these accident data has revealed factors associated with an increased likelihood of accident-based fatalities. Here we report the results of an analysis on the likelihood of a fatality based on various factors as a result of a HEMS accident, employing a Bayesian framework.METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted using data extracted from the NTSB aviation accident database from April 31, 2005, to April 26, 2018. Evidence from Baker et al. (2006) was also used as prior information spanning from January 1, 1983, to April 30, 2005.RESULTS: A Bayesian logistic regression was implemented using the prior information and current data to calculate a posterior distribution confidence interval of possible values in predicting accident fatality. The results of the model indicate that flying at night (OR 3.06; 95 C.I 2.14, 4.48; PoD 100), flying under Instrument Flight Rules (OR 7.54; 95 C.I 3.94, 14.44; PoD 100), and post-crash fires (OR 18.73; 95 C.I 10.07, 34.12; PoD 100) significantly contributed to the higher likelihood of a fatality.CONCLUSION: Our results provide a comprehensive analysis of the most influential factors associated with an increased likelihood of a fatal accident occurring. We found that over the past 35 yr these factors were consistently associated with a higher likelihood of a fatality occurring.Simonson RJ, Keebler JR, Chaparro A. A Bayesian approach on investigating helicopter emergency medical fatal accidents. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2021; 92(7):563569.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Aviación , Ambulancias Aéreas , Aeronaves , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos
6.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 92(7): 593-596, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503634

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Accidents with aircraft standing are more likely with helicopters than fixed-wing aircraft due to the common presence of off-airport landings and the possibility of the rotor system to strike objects in its immediate surroundings.METHODS: A total of 115 accidents involving helicopters characterized as standing as a broad phase of flight were selected from the NTSB online database for the period 1998 until 2018.RESULTS: Accidents reporting fatal (8.7) or serious injuries (7.8) were significantly less likely to occur when the aircraft was substantially damaged (84.3) or destroyed (5.2). The majority of the cases occurred after off-airport landings (57.4), which were reported significantly more often in Alaska (N= 15). A main rotor strike with an individual was at the basis of each of the 10 fatal accidents in the dataset and in 8 of these cases the cause of the accident was attributed to the victim. None of the accidents occurred in instrument meteorological conditions, but, in particular, high winds and gusts proved a main cause of accident (18.3).CONCLUSION: Pilot, passengers, and crew endangered themselves when they were outside the aircraft while the rotors were still turning. Helicopter operating manuals should highlight the limitations and dangers for wind and wind gusts not only during takeoff and flight, but specifically when standing.de Voogt AJ, Hummel C, Kalagher H. Fatality and operational specificity of helicopter accidents on the ground. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2021; 92(7):593596.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Aviación , Accidentes , Aeronaves , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos
7.
J Spec Oper Med ; 21(3): 41-44, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529803

RESUMEN

Tasks performed by search and rescue (SAR) teams can be physically demanding. SAR organizations are faced with mounting challenges due to increased participation in recreation in remote locations and more frequent extreme weather. We sought to describe the physiological response and the methods for data collection during helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) winch rescue from remote wilderness in extreme heat. A flight paramedic sustained 81% of maximum heart rate (VO2 ~44.8 mL/kg/min) for ~10 minutes at a rate of perceived exertion of 19/20, and a relative heart rate of 77.5% in 37.1°C. Maximal acceptable work time for this task was calculated at 37.7 minutes. Our data collection methods were feasible, and the data captured demonstrated the level of physiological strain that may be encountered during HEMS SAR operations in austere environments and hot climate. It is essential that SAR teams that perform physically demanding tasks use a scientific approach to adapt and evolve. This is necessary to ensure personnel are appropriately selected, trained, and equipped to respond in an era of increasing demand and extreme environments.


Asunto(s)
Ambulancias Aéreas , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Calor Extremo , Aeronaves , Técnicos Medios en Salud , Humanos , Trabajo de Rescate
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577196

RESUMEN

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have slowly but steadily emerged as a research and commercial hotspot because of their widespread applications. Due to their agility, compact size, and ability to integrate multiple sensors, they are mostly sought for applications that require supplementing human effort in risky and monotonous missions. Despite all of these advantages, rotorcrafts, in general, are limited by their endurance and power-intensive flight requirements, which consequently affect the time of flight and operational range. On the other hand, fixed-wing aircrafts have an extended range, as the entire thrust force is along the direction of motion and are inherently more stable but are limited by their takeoff and landing strip requirements. One of the potential solutions to increase the endurance of VTOL rotorcrafts (Vertical Take-Off and Landing Vehicles) was to exploit the thrust vectoring ability of the individual actuators in multi-rotors, which would enable take-off and hovering as a VTOL vehicle and flight as a fixed-wing aircraft. The primary aim of this paper is to lay out the overall design process of a Hybrid VTOL tilt-rotor UAV from the initial conceptual sketch to the final fabricated prototype. The novelty of the design lies in achieving thrust vectoring capabilities in a fixed-wing platform with minimum actuation and no additional control complexity. This paper presents novel bi-copter that has been designed to perform as a hybrid configuration in both VTOL and fixed wing conditions with minimum actuators in comparison to existing designs. The unified dynamic modelling along with the approximation of multiple aerodynamic coefficients by numerical simulations is also presented. The overall conceptual design, dynamic modeling, computational simulation, and experimental analysis of the novel hybrid fixed-wing bi-copter with thrust vectoring capabilities aiming to substantially increase the flight range and endurance compared to the conventional aircraft rotorcraft configurations are presented.


Asunto(s)
Aeronaves , Vuelo Animal , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Fenómenos Mecánicos
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577339

RESUMEN

In this special issue, we explored swarming, network management, routing for multipath, communications, service applications, detection and identification, computation offloading, and cellular network-based control in time-sensitive networks of unmanned aircraft systems.


Asunto(s)
Aeronaves
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577343

RESUMEN

Background-The visual inspection of aircraft parts such as engine blades is crucial to ensure safe aircraft operation. There is a need to understand the reliability of such inspections and the factors that affect the results. In this study, the factor 'cleanliness' was analysed among other factors. Method-Fifty industry practitioners of three expertise levels inspected 24 images of parts with a variety of defects in clean and dirty conditions, resulting in a total of N = 1200 observations. The data were analysed statistically to evaluate the relationships between cleanliness and inspection performance. Eye tracking was applied to understand the search strategies of different levels of expertise for various part conditions. Results-The results show an inspection accuracy of 86.8% and 66.8% for clean and dirty blades, respectively. The statistical analysis showed that cleanliness and defect type influenced the inspection accuracy, while expertise was surprisingly not a significant factor. In contrast, inspection time was affected by expertise along with other factors, including cleanliness, defect type and visual acuity. Eye tracking revealed that inspectors (experts) apply a more structured and systematic search with less fixations and revisits compared to other groups. Conclusions-Cleaning prior to inspection leads to better results. Eye tracking revealed that inspectors used an underlying search strategy characterised by edge detection and differentiation between surface deposits and other types of damage, which contributed to better performance.


Asunto(s)
Aeronaves , Tecnología de Seguimiento Ocular , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
11.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 7618828, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567103

RESUMEN

Aircraft, as one of the indispensable transport tools, plays an important role in military activities. Therefore, it is a significant task to locate the aircrafts in the remote sensing images. However, the current object detection methods cause a series of problems when applied to the aircraft detection for the remote sensing image, for instance, the problems of low rate of detection accuracy and high rate of missed detection. To address the problems of low rate of detection accuracy and high rate of missed detection, an object detection method for remote sensing image based on bidirectional and dense feature fusion is proposed to detect aircraft targets in sophisticated environments. On the fundamental of the YOLOv3 detection framework, this method adds a feature fusion module to enrich the details of the feature map by mixing the shallow features with the deep features together. Experimental results on the RSOD-DataSet and NWPU-DataSet indicate that the new method raised in the article is capable of improving the problems of low rate of detection accuracy and high rate of missed detection. Meanwhile, the AP for the aircraft increases by 1.57% compared with YOLOv3.


Asunto(s)
Aeronaves , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos
12.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113639, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479146

RESUMEN

Sustainability has become a focus area for practitioners and scholars due to the growing socio-economic issues. The sustainability of airport operations is being raised in various international platforms. This paper aims to identify the dimensions of sustainability and evaluate sustainable practices in airports of selected ASEAN countries. The various dimensions associated with the environmental aspect are energy management, emissions management, water and effluents management, solid waste management. It was understood that noise management, employee development, and community investment belong to the social dimension. Similarly, the factors such as economic contribution, passenger experience, airport safety, and security are inclined to economic dimensions of sustainability. It was found that environmentally sustainable practices have greater importance than social and economic initiatives in the airport context which provide quantifiable benefits for airports in the long term. Airport operators in South East Asia strived to mitigate carbon emissions, reduce waste and effluents, enhance the economic contribution, satisfy passengers, and meet employee needs. Compared to the total economic and social benefits obtained from these airports, the negative impacts of airport operation (such as noise emission from aircraft) are minimal but significant. The most common sustainable initiatives in airports, such as employee development, energy management, and passenger safety, supported sustainable development goals (SDG) 8, SDG 9, and SDG 11. A weak connection is observed between SDG 14 & SDG 15 and the airport's sustainable practices. The new technological innovations are concentrated in busy and profitable airports. A slow trend towards the adoption of new technologies for sustainable practices is observed in airports. The paper concludes that major airport operators in South-East Asia have effectively responded to the growing sustainability challenges in aviation markets. The sustainable dimensions and practices discussed will be valuable resource for airports striving to achieve sustainability goals.


Asunto(s)
Aeropuertos , Administración de Residuos , Aeronaves , Residuos Sólidos , Tecnología
13.
J Travel Med ; 28(7)2021 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480171

RESUMEN

RATIONALE FOR THE REVIEW: Air travel may be associated with viruses spread via infected passengers and potentially through in-flight transmission. Given the novelty of the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, transmission associated with air travel is based on transmission dynamics of other respiratory viruses. Our objective was to provide a rapid summary and evaluation of relevant data on SARS-CoV-2 transmission aboard aircraft, report policy implications and to highlight research gaps requiring urgent attention. METHODS: We searched four electronic databases (1 February 2020-27 January 2021) and included studies on SARS-CoV-2 transmission aboard aircraft. We assessed study quality based on five criteria and reported important findings. KEY FINDINGS: We included 18 studies on in-flight SARS-CoV-2 transmission (130 unique flights) and 2 studies on wastewater from aircraft. The quality of evidence from most published studies was low. Two wastewater studies reported PCR-positive samples with high cycle threshold values (33-39). Index case definition was heterogeneous across studies. The proportion of contacts traced ranged from 0.68 to 100%. Authors traced 2800/19 729 passengers, 140/180 crew members and 8/8 medical staff. Altogether, 273 index cases were reported, with 64 secondary cases. Three studies, each investigating one flight, reported no secondary cases. Secondary attack rate among studies following up >80% of passengers and crew (including data on 10 flights) varied between 0 and 8.2%. The studies reported on the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from asymptomatic, pre-symptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Two studies performed viral cultures with 10 positive results. Genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed in individuals from four flights. CONCLUSION: Current evidence suggests SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted during aircraft travel, but published data do not permit any conclusive assessment of likelihood and extent. The variation in design and methodology restricts the comparison of findings across studies. Standardized guidelines for conducting and reporting future studies of transmission on aircraft should be developed.


Asunto(s)
Viaje en Avión , COVID-19 , Aeronaves , Humanos , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2 , Viaje
14.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(2): 801, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470312

RESUMEN

Carr, Davies, Loubeau, Rathsam, and Klos [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 148, 414-429 (2020)] found that indoor annoyance caused by sonic booms may be predicted from the A-weighted sound exposure level and the heaviness of the booms. Moreover, they suggest that, irrespective of the outdoor-to-indoor sound reduction, indoor annoyance may be predicted from outdoor sound levels. The present paper shows that their data to some extent also support a model in which the contribution of heaviness is level-dependent and that data reported in the literature point out that it is unlikely that indoor annoyance is independent of the degree of façade attenuation.


Asunto(s)
Aeronaves , Ruido , Audición , Sonido
15.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 111, 2021 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344449

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic limited hospital resources and necessitated interhospital transport of ICU-patients in order to provide critical care to all patients in the Netherlands. However, not all hospitals have an approved landing site. The ICU-transport operation was executed under HEMS-license and landing on non-aerodrome terrain was permitted. This allowed the search for an ad-hoc landing site in the direct vicinity of the ICU. The following characteristics were judged: slope, obstacles, size, soil conditions and the presence of foreign objects.Before the start of this transport operation, in two days, all hospitals in the Netherlands were visited and presumed landing sites explored, described, photographed and recorded in the electronic flight bag. At 71 (87,6 %) of the hospitals it was possible to install a temporary approved landing site in the direct vicinity of the ICU. 110 landings were made on these landing sites and 114 landings on approved heliports. Only 11 patients required secondary transport to or from the helicopter landings site. This occurred only in two patients from a heliport to a receiving hospital.The construction of pre-explored approved landing sites in the vicinity of hospitals allows safe transportation of patients by helicopter to hospitals without a heliport.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedad Crítica , Aeronaves , Enfermedad Crítica/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 112, 2021 Aug 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348780

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although the merit of pre-hospital critical care teams such as Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) has been universally recognized for patients with penetrating torso injuries who present with unstable physiology, the potential merit in patients initially presenting with stable physiology is largely undetermined. The ability to predict the required pre-hospital interventions patients may have important implications for HEMS tasking, especially when transport times to definitive care are prolonged. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who sustained a penetrating torso injury and were attended by the Air Ambulance Kent Surrey Sussex (AAKSS) over a 6-year period. Primary outcome was defined as the percentage of patients with penetrating torso injuries requiring HEMS-specific interventions anytime between HEMS arrival and arrival at hospital. Secondary outcomes were the association of individual patient- and injury characteristics with the requirement for HEMS interventions. RESULTS: During the study period 363 patients met inclusion criteria. 90% of patients were male with a median age of 30 years. 99% of penetrating trauma incident occurred more than 10-min drive from a Major Trauma Centre (MTC). Presenting GCS was > 13 in 83% of patients. Significant hemodynamic- or ventilatory compromise was present in more than 25% of the patients. Traumatic cardiac arrest was present in 34 patients (9.4%), profound hypotension with SBP < 80 mmHg in 30 (8.3%) and oxygen saturations < 92% in 30 (8.3%). A total of 121 HEMS-specific interventions were performed. Although HEMS-specific interventions were associated with presenting physiology (TCA OR 1.75 [1.41-2.16], SBP < 80 mmHg (OR 1.40 [1.18-1.67] and SpO2 < 92% (OR 1.39 [1.17-1.65], a minority of the patients presented initially with stable physiology but deteriorated on route to hospital and required HEMS interventions (n = 9, 3.3%). CONCLUSION: HEMS teams provide potentially important contribution to the pre-hospital treatment of patients with penetrating torso injuries in rural and semi-rural areas, especially when they present with unstable physiology. A certain degree of over-triage is inevitable in these patients, as it is hard to predict which patients will deteriorate on route to hospital and will need HEMS interventions. The results of this study showing a potentially predictable geographical dispersion of penetrating trauma could inform multi-agency knife crime prevention strategy.


Asunto(s)
Ambulancias Aéreas , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Aeronaves , Hospitales , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Torso
17.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 124, 2021 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446076

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The extent to which Point-of-care of ultrasound (POCUS) is used in different European helicopter EMS (HEMS) is unknown. We aimed to study the availability, perception, and future aspects of POCUS in the European HEMS using an online survey. METHOD: A survey about the use of POCUS in HEMS was conducted by a multinational steering expert committee and was carried out from November 30, 2020 to December 30, 2020 via an online web portal. Invitations for participation were sent via email to the medical directors of the European HEMS organizations including two reminding notes. RESULTS: During the study period, 69 participants from 25 countries and 41 different HEMS providers took part in the survey. 96% (n = 66) completed the survey. POCUS was available in 75% (56% always when needed and 19% occasionally) of the responding HEMS organizations. 17% were planning to establish POCUS in the near future. Responders who provided POCUS used it in approximately 15% of the patients. Participants thought that POCUS is important in both trauma and non-trauma-patients (73%, n = 46). The extended focused assessment sonography for trauma (eFAST) protocol (77%) was the most common protocol used. A POCUS credentialing process including documented examinations was requested in less than one third of the HEMS organizations. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the HEMS organizations in Europe are able to provide different POCUS protocols in their services. The most used POCUS protocols were eFAST, FATE and RUSH. Despite the enthusiasm for POCUS, comprehensive training and clear credentialing processes are not available in about two thirds of the European HEMS organizations. Due to several limitations of this survey further studies are needed to evaluate POCUS in HEMS.


Asunto(s)
Ambulancias Aéreas , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Aeronaves , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Sistemas de Atención de Punto
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450957

RESUMEN

The use of wireless signals for the purposes of localization enables a host of applications relating to the determination and verification of the positions of network participants ranging from radar to satellite navigation. Consequently, this has been a longstanding interest of theoretical and practical research in mobile networks and many solutions have been proposed in the scientific literature. However, it is hard to assess the performance of these in the real world and, more importantly, to compare their advantages and disadvantages in a controlled scientific manner. With this work, we attempt to improve the current state of art methodology in localization research and to place it on a solid scientific grounding for future investigations. Concretely, we developed LocaRDS, an open reference data set of real-world crowdsourced flight data featuring more than 222 million measurements from over 50 million transmissions recorded by 323 sensors. We demonstrate how we can verify the quality of LocaRDS measurements so that it can be used to test, analyze and directly compare different localization methods. Finally, we provide an example implementation for the aircraft localization problem and a discussion of possible metrics for use with LocaRDS.


Asunto(s)
Aeronaves , Radar , Humanos
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451084

RESUMEN

Guiding an aircraft to 4D waypoints at a certain heading is a multi-dimensional goal aircraft guidance problem. [d=Zu]In order to improve the performance and solve this problem, this paper proposes a multi-layer RL approach.To enhance the performance, in the present study, a multi-layer RL approach to solve the multi-dimensional goal aircraft guidance problem is proposed. The approach [d=Zu]enablesassists the autopilot in an ATC simulator to guide an aircraft to 4D waypoints at certain latitude, longitude, altitude, heading, and arrival time, respectively. To be specific, a multi-layer RL [d=Zu]approach is proposedmethod to simplify the neural network structure and reduce the state dimensions. A shaped reward function that involves the potential function and Dubins path method is applied. [d=Zu]Experimental and simulation results show that the proposed approachExperiments are conducted and the simulation results reveal that the proposed method can significantly improve the convergence efficiency and trajectory performance. [d=Zu]FurthermoreFurther, the results indicate possible application prospects in team aircraft guidance tasks, since the aircraft can directly approach a goal without waiting in a specific pattern, thereby overcoming the problem of current ATC simulators.


Asunto(s)
Objetivos , Refuerzo en Psicología , Aeronaves , Algoritmos , Recompensa
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451091

RESUMEN

Conflict management between UAVs is one of the key aspects in developing future urban aerial mobility (UAM) spaces, such as the one proposed in U-Space. In the framework of tactical conflict management, i.e., with the UAVs in flight, this paper presents PCAN (Prediction-based Conflict-free Adaptive Navigation). This relatively simple navigation technique predicts the occurrence of the conflict and avoids it by modifying the velocity vector of the UAVs involved. The performance evaluation carried out demonstrates its effectiveness compared to similar techniques, even in high-density scenarios, while proving a low overhead in flight time or in the distance traveled by the UAVs to reach their destinations.


Asunto(s)
Aeronaves , Negociación
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