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1.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1250, 2024 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714949

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Being socially excluded has detrimental effects, with prolonged exclusion linked to loneliness and social isolation. Social disconnection interventions that do not require direct support actions (e.g., "how can I help?") offer promise in mitigating the affective and cognitive consequences of social exclusion. We examine how various social disconnection interventions involving friends and unknown peers might mitigate social exclusion by buffering (intervening before) and by promoting recovery (intervening after). METHODS: We present an integrative data analysis (IDA) of five studies (N = 664) that systematically exposed participants to exclusion (vs. inclusion) social dynamics. Using a well-validated paradigm, participants had a virtual interaction with two other people. Unbeknownst to participants, the other people's behavior was programmed to either behave inclusively toward the participant or for one to behave exclusively. Critically, our social disconnection interventions experimentally manipulated whether a friend was present (vs. an unknown peer vs. being alone), the nature of interpersonal engagement (having a face-to-face conversation vs. a reminder of an upcoming interaction vs. mere presence), and the timing of the intervention in relation to the social dynamic (before vs. during vs. after). We then assessed participants' in-the-moment affective and cognitive responses, which included mood, feelings of belonging, sense of control, and social comfort. RESULTS: Experiencing exclusion (vs. inclusion) led to negative affective and cognitive consequences. However, engaging in a face-to-face conversation with a friend before the exclusion lessened its impact (p < .001). Moreover, a face-to-face conversation with a friend after exclusion, and even a reminder of an upcoming interaction with a friend, sped-up recovery (ps < .001). There was less conclusive evidence that a face-to-face conversation with an unknown peer, or that the mere presence of a friend or unknown peer, conferred protective benefits. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide support for the effectiveness of social disconnection interventions that involve actual (i.e., face-to-face) or symbolic (i.e., reminders) interactions with friends. These interventions target momentary vulnerabilities that arise from social exclusion by addressing negative affect and cognitions before or after they emerge. As such, they offer a promising approach to primary prevention prior to the onset of loneliness and social isolation.


Asunto(s)
Aislamiento Social , Humanos , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Cognición , Afecto , Soledad/psicología , Adulto Joven , Análisis de Datos , Interacción Social , Relaciones Interpersonales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Amigos/psicología , Grupo Paritario
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(19): e38180, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728460

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Poststroke depression (PSD) is one of the most common stroke complications. It not only leads to a decline in patients' quality of life but also increases the mortality of patients. In this study, the method of combining Chinese traditional exercise Baduanjin with psychotherapy was used to intervene in patients with PSD and to explore the improvement of sleep, mood, and serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in patients with PSD by combined treatment. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with PSD who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to Baduanjin group (n = 50) or control group (n = 50). The control group received treatment with escitalopram oxalate and rational emotive behavior therapy, while the experimental group received Baduanjin training in addition to the treatment given to the control group. Changes in sleep efficiency, sleep total time, sleep latency, arousal index, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Scale score, serum BDNF, 5-HT, IL-6 levels, and Modified Barthel Index were measured at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after intervention, and the results were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: Significantly improvements in the sleep efficiency, sleep total time, serum 5-HT, BDNF levels, and Modified Barthel Index score were detected at week 4 in the Baduanjin group than in the control group (P < .05). Additionally, the sleep latency, arousal index, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Scale scores and IL-6 levels in the Baduanjin group were lower than those in the control group (P < .05). After 8 weeks of treatment, the above indexes in the Baduanjin group were further improved compared with the control group (P < .05), and the above indexes of the 2 groups were significantly improved compared with the baseline (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Baduanjin exercise combined with rational emotive behavior therapy effectively improves the mood and sleep status of patients with PSD; It increases the serum levels of 5-HT and BDNF while reducing the level of serum proinflammatory factor IL-6; additionally, the intervention alleviates the degree of neurological impairment, upgrades the ability of daily living, and improves the quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo , Depresión , Sueño , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Accidente Cerebrovascular/psicología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/terapia , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo/sangre , Depresión/terapia , Depresión/etiología , Anciano , Interleucina-6/sangre , Terapia Conductista/métodos , Serotonina/sangre , Terapia Combinada , Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Medicina Tradicional China/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento
3.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1283543, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741905

RESUMEN

Object: We explored the circadian preferences of non-shift workers (non-SWs) and various types of shift workers (SWs), and the associations of these preferences with sleep and mood. Methods: In total, 4,561 SWs (2,419 women and 2,142 men aged 37.00 ± 9.80 years) and 2,093 non-SWs (1,094 women and 999 men aged 37.80 ± 9.73 years) completed an online survey. Of all SWs, 2,415 (1,079 women and 1,336 men aged 37.77 ± 9.96 years) reported regularly rotating or fixed schedules ("regular SWs"), and 2,146 (1,340 women and 806 men aged 36.12 ± 9.64 years) had irregular schedules ("irregular SWs"). Of the regular SWs, 2,040 had regularly rotating schedules, 212 had fixed evening schedules, and 163 had fixed night schedules. All participants completed the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) exploring circadian preferences, the short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) evaluating depression, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results: Compared to non-SWs, SWs had lower MEQ scores, i.e., more eveningness, after controlling for age, gender, income, occupation, and weekly work hours (F = 87.97, p < 0.001). Irregular SWs had lower MEQ scores than regular SWs (F = 50.89, p < 0.001). Among regular SWs, the MEQ scores of fixed evening and fixed night SWs were lower than those of regularly rotating SWs (F = 22.42, p < 0.001). An association between the MEQ and ESS scores was apparent in non-SWs (r = -0.85, p < 0.001) but not in SWs (r = 0.001, p = 0.92). Conclusion: SWs exhibited more eveningness than non-SWs; eveningness was particularly prominent in SWs with irregular or fixed evening/night shifts. Eveningness was associated with sleepiness only in non-SWs, but not in SWs.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Ritmo Circadiano , Sueño , Tolerancia al Trabajo Programado , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Sueño/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Afecto/fisiología , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiología , Tolerancia al Trabajo Programado/fisiología , Tolerancia al Trabajo Programado/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Horario de Trabajo por Turnos/estadística & datos numéricos , Depresión
4.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 59(3)2024 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725398

RESUMEN

AIMS: This study aimed to compare reward, relief, and habit treatment-seeking individuals on recent drinking, alcohol use disorder (AUD) phenomenology, and mood. The second aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive validity of reward, relief, and habit profiles. METHOD: Treatment-seeking individuals with an AUD (n = 169) were recruited to participate in a medication trial for AUD (NCT03594435). Reward, relief, and habit drinking groups were assessed using the UCLA Reward Relief Habit Drinking Scale. Group differences at baseline were evaluated using univariate analyses of variance. A subset of participants were enrolled in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled medication trial (n = 102), and provided longitudinal drinking and phenomenology data. The predictive validity of group membership was assessed using linear regression analyses. RESULTS: At baseline, individuals who drink primarily for relief had higher craving and negative mood than those who drink for reward and habit. Prospectively, membership in the relief drinking group predicted greater alcohol use, greater heavy drinking, and fewer days abstinent compared to those in the reward drinking group. Membership in the relief drinking group also predicted greater alcohol craving, more alcohol-related consequences, and more anxiety symptoms over 12 weeks compared to those in the reward drinking group. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides support for reward and relief drinking motive profiles in treatment-seeking individuals with an AUD. Membership in the relief drinking motive group was predictive of poorer drinking outcomes and more negative symptomology over 12 weeks, indicating that individuals who drink for relief may be a particularly vulnerable sub-population of individuals with AUD.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo , Hábitos , Recompensa , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Alcoholismo/terapia , Alcoholismo/psicología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/terapia , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Método Doble Ciego , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Afecto , Ansia
5.
Trials ; 25(1): 336, 2024 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773523

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of anxiety and depression are common in patients with terminal illness and multiple challenges exist with timely and effective care in this population. Several centres have reported that one dose of the serotonergic psychedelic psilocybin, combined with therapeutic support, improves these symptoms for up to 6 months in this patient group. Drawing upon related therapeutic mechanisms, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted therapy may have the potential to achieve similar, positive mental health outcomes in this group. Preliminary evidence also supports the tolerability of MDMA-assisted therapy for anxiety and depression in advanced-stage cancer. METHODS: Up to 32 participants with advanced-stage cancer and associated depression and anxiety will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio into one of two blinded parallel treatment arms. The intervention group will receive 120 mg (+ 60 mg optional supplemental dose) MDMA-assisted therapy. The psychoactive control group will receive 20 mg oral (+ 10 mg optional supplemental dose) methylphenidate-assisted therapy. For each medication-assisted therapy session, participants will undergo two 90-min therapeutic support sessions in the week preceding, and one 90-min support session the day after the experimental session. A battery of measures (mood, anxiety, quality of life, mystical experience, spiritual wellbeing, attitudes towards death, personality traits, holistic health and wellbeing, connectedness, demoralisation, expectations, qualitative data and safety measures) will be assessed at baseline and through to the end of the protocol. Participants will be followed up until either 12 months post-randomisation or death, whichever occurs first. DISCUSSION: This study will examine the effect of MDMA-assisted therapy on symptoms of anxiety and depression in advanced-stage cancer. Potential therapeutic implications include establishing the safety and effectiveness of a novel treatment that may relieve mental suffering in patients with life-threatening illness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registered on Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12619001334190p. Date registered: 30/09/2019. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=378153&showOriginal=true&isReview=true.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Ansiedad , Alucinógenos , N-Metil-3,4-metilenodioxianfetamina , Neoplasias , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Humanos , N-Metil-3,4-metilenodioxianfetamina/efectos adversos , N-Metil-3,4-metilenodioxianfetamina/administración & dosificación , Neoplasias/psicología , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Ansiedad/psicología , Método Doble Ciego , Afecto/efectos de los fármacos , Alucinógenos/administración & dosificación , Alucinógenos/efectos adversos , Alucinógenos/uso terapéutico , Resultado del Tratamiento , Depresión/psicología , Depresión/terapia , Depresión/tratamiento farmacológico , Calidad de Vida , Metilfenidato/uso terapéutico , Metilfenidato/efectos adversos , Metilfenidato/administración & dosificación , Factores de Tiempo , Masculino , Estadificación de Neoplasias
6.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1366339, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774044

RESUMEN

In order to explore the impact of experience in forest-based health and wellness (FHW) on the stress of middle-aged people, 12 participants aged 35-39 were selected to conduct a 3-day/2-night study on FHW experience in Wencheng, Wenzhou. Huawei bracelets were used to monitor participants' movement, pulse and blood pressure and their mood state was measured before and after the health care experience using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) scale. After the FHW experience, the lowest value of bracelet stress appeared on the second day of the experience for men and women. The total mood disturbance (TMD) decreased by 38.8 points on average, which significantly improved the positive mood and relieved the stress. The decompression effect of the FHW experience showed some variability among individuals. Furthermore, there were gender differences in alleviation of fatigue and puzzlement, which was greater for females than males.


Asunto(s)
Bosques , Estrés Psicológico , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , China , Afecto , Factores Sexuales
7.
Behav Brain Sci ; 47: e117, 2024 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770855

RESUMEN

We extend the work of Ivancovsky et al. by proposing that in addition to novelty seeking, mood regulation goals - including enhancing positive mood and repairing negative mood - motivate both creativity and curiosity. Additionally, we discuss how the effects of mood on state of mind are context-dependent (not fixed), and how such flexibility may impact creativity and curiosity.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Creatividad , Conducta Exploratoria , Humanos , Afecto/fisiología , Conducta Exploratoria/fisiología
8.
Behav Brain Sci ; 47: e100, 2024 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770878

RESUMEN

We argue that the phases identified in the novelty-seeking model can be clarified by considering an updated version of the optimal-level of arousal model, which incorporates the "arousal" and "mood changing" potentials of stimuli and contexts. Such a model provides valuable insights into what determines one's state of mind, inter-individual differences, and the rewarding effects of curiosity and creativity.


Asunto(s)
Nivel de Alerta , Creatividad , Conducta Exploratoria , Humanos , Conducta Exploratoria/fisiología , Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Modelos Psicológicos , Afecto/fisiología , Recompensa
9.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 246: 104275, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703655

RESUMEN

Affective flexibility is defined as a complex executive function which enables individuals to successfully alternate between distinct emotional and non-emotional features of a given situation in order to attain a specific goal. A large body of research has focused exclusively on flexibility in a non-emotional context, although most of our interactions with our environment are emotionally satiated. Our main aim was to propose a hierarchical framework to describe this construct from a macro-level perspective to a more nuanced and micro-level perspective, including three different levels of affective flexibility: elementary, shifting, and generative. Next, we employed this hierarchical framework to examine the role played by affective flexibility in typical development and different forms of developmental psychopathology. Lastly, we discuss how this knowledge could inform future prevention and intervention programs aimed at reducing cognitive vulnerability to developmental psychopathology.


Asunto(s)
Función Ejecutiva , Humanos , Función Ejecutiva/fisiología , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Afecto/fisiología , Modelos Psicológicos , Niño
10.
Learn Mem ; 31(4)2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740426

RESUMEN

Emotional stimuli are usually remembered with high confidence. Yet, it remains unknown whether-in addition to memory for the emotional stimulus itself-memory for a neutral stimulus encountered just after an emotional one can be enhanced. Further, little is known about the interplay between emotion elicited by a stimulus and emotion relating to affective dispositions. To address these questions, we examined (1) how emotional valence and arousal of a context image preceding a neutral item image affect memory of the item, and (2) how such memory modulation is affected by two hallmark features of emotional disorders: trait negative affect and tendency to worry. In two experiments, participants encoded a series of trials in which an emotional (negative, neutral, or positive) context image was followed by a neutral item image. In experiment 1 (n = 42), items presented seconds after negative context images were remembered better and with greater confidence compared to those presented after neutral and positive ones. Arousal ratings of negative context images were higher compared to neutral and positive ones and the likelihood of correctly recognizing an item image was related to higher arousal of the context image. In experiment 2 (n = 59), better item memory was related to lower trait negative affect. Participants with lower trait negative affect or tendency to worry displayed higher confidence compared to those with high negative affect or tendency to worry. Our findings describe an emotional "carry-over" effect elicited by a context image that enhances subsequent item memory on a trial-by-trial basis, however, not in individuals with high trait negative affect who seem to have a general memory disadvantage.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Emociones , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Emociones/fisiología , Adulto , Afecto/fisiología , Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Adolescente , Memoria/fisiología
11.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 38(3): 396, 2024 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695810

RESUMEN

Reports the retraction of "Event-level risk for negative alcohol consequences in emerging adults: The role of affect, motivation, and context" by Jack T. Waddell, Scott E. King, Sarah A. Okey and William R. Corbin (Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 2024[Feb], Vol 38[1], 8-18). This article is being retracted at the request of the publisher, and the editor and all authors of the original article consented. This article was published in error, as it is a first stage Registered Report that has received in-principle acceptance. Given the workflow of a Registered Report, the first journal publication appears after data collection and results have been reported in the second stage Registered Report submission (see workflow at https://www.cos.io/initiatives/registered-reports). This stage one article is being removed from the literature to avoid confusion and will instead be preregistered as a Registered Report Protocol Preregistration (https://osf.io/7euzd/). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2022-80654-001.) Objective: Decades of research has found support for the motivational model of alcohol use, such that positive/negative affect are indirectly associated with drinking behavior through drinking motives. However, research on event-level drinking motives is in its nascent stage, and studies have yet to consider how drinking context plays a role in the motivational pathway to both event- and person-level drinking behavior. Therefore, the present study seeks to test whether drinking context mediates the effect of affect and motivation on drinking outcomes at both the event- and person-level. Method: Data for this Stage 1 Registered Report will come from a recently completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study in emerging adults. The study collected data on 131 emerging adults, of whom 107 reported event-level social and solitary drinking during the EMA period. Multilevel structural equation modeling will be used to test whether predrinking affect is associated with predrinking motives, and whether drinking context (social vs. solitary drinking) mediates the effect of drinking motives on drinking outcomes. Models will parse within-/between-person variance, allowing the present study to test whether drinking context serves as a mechanism of risk in the motivational model at the event-level, or solely at the between-person level. Findings will inform personalized interventions and motivational models of drinking behavior. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Motivación , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Afecto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Adulto , Adolescente , Masculino , Femenino
12.
Genes Brain Behav ; 23(3): e12893, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704684

RESUMEN

Steroid sulphatase (STS) cleaves sulphate groups from steroid hormones, and steroid (sulphate) levels correlate with mood and age-related cognitive decline. In animals, STS inhibition or deletion of the associated gene, enhances memory/neuroprotection and alters hippocampal neurochemistry. Little is known about the consequences of constitutive STS deficiency on memory-related processes in humans. We investigated self-reported memory performance (Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire), word-picture recall and recent mood (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, K10) in adult males with STS deficiency diagnosed with the dermatological condition X-linked ichthyosis (XLI; n = 41) and in adult female carriers of XLI-associated genetic variants (n = 79); we compared results to those obtained from matched control subjects [diagnosed with ichthyosis vulgaris (IV, n = 98) or recruited from the general population (n = 250)]. Using the UK Biobank, we compared mood/memory-related neuroanatomy in carriers of genetic deletions encompassing STS (n = 28) and non-carriers (n = 34,522). We found poorer word-picture recall and lower perceived memory abilities in males with XLI and female carriers compared with control groups. XLI-associated variant carriers and individuals with IV reported more adverse mood symptoms, reduced memory contentment and greater use of memory aids, compared with general population controls. Mood and memory findings appeared largely independent. Neuroanatomical analysis only indicated a nominally-significantly larger molecular layer in the right hippocampal body of deletion carriers relative to non-carriers. In humans, constitutive STS deficiency appears associated with mood-independent impairments in memory but not with large effects on underlying brain structure; the mediating psychobiological mechanisms might be explored further in individuals with XLI and in new mammalian models lacking STS developmentally.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Ictiosis Ligada al Cromosoma X , Esteril-Sulfatasa , Humanos , Masculino , Ictiosis Ligada al Cromosoma X/genética , Femenino , Esteril-Sulfatasa/genética , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Memoria , Hipocampo , Anciano
13.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 34(5): e14644, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760915

RESUMEN

Overuse injuries, which have a high prevalence in sport, are suggested to result in different affective responses in comparison to traumatic injuries. Affects may also reciprocally act as risk factors for overuse injury. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between overuse injury and affects within a longitudinal follow-up design. Competitive athletes (N = 149) of various sports and levels of competition completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre Overuse injury questionnaire (OSTRC-O) once a week over 10 consecutive weeks. Bivariate unconditional latent curve model analyses with structured residuals were performed to evaluate the associations within and across weeks between OSTRC-O severity score and affects. Results indicated that OSTRC-O severity score and positive affects (PA) had a statistically significant negative within-week relation (r = -24.51, 95% CI = [-33.9, -15.1], p < 0.001). Higher scores of overuse injury were significantly related to lower levels of PA across weeks (ß = -0.02, 95% CI = [-0.04, -0.001], p = 0.044), while the reciprocal effect of PA on overuse injury was not significant (ß = -0.13, 95% CI = [-0.52, 0.26], p = 0.51). No statistically significant association was observed between OSTRC-O severity score and negative affects, neither within nor across weeks. Our findings suggest that overuse injury may have adverse psychological consequences on the long run through lessened PA and address the need for providing sustainable psychological support focusing upon such PA when working with athletes experiencing overuse injury.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas , Trastornos de Traumas Acumulados , Humanos , Trastornos de Traumas Acumulados/psicología , Masculino , Femenino , Traumatismos en Atletas/psicología , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Afecto , Factores de Riesgo , Adolescente , Conducta Competitiva/fisiología , Noruega/epidemiología , Atletas/psicología
14.
Physiol Rep ; 12(10): e16036, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38757255

RESUMEN

In the past few years, the face mask has been recommended for the prevention of exposing others to COVID-19. Wearing a face mask may have the potential to increase dyspnea and discomfort during exercise; however, controversy exists on whether wearing face masks during exercise affects exercise performance, perception, and mood in runners. We investigated the physiological and perceptual responses of healthy male adults who had experienced long-distance running while exercising at different intensities. Nine healthy young adults who were long-distance runners wearing surgical face mask conducted an incremental treadmill protocol. The protocol was three 6-min stages (20%, 40%, and 60% of maximal heart rate, respectively). The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the feeling scale (FS) were measured. RPE was higher in mask condition than in unmask condition (No mask vs. Face mask, light; 8.22 vs. 8.78, p = 0.615, middle; 10.00 vs. 10.78, p = 0.345, high; 12.33 vs. 13.67, p = 0.044.), while FS was not different between conditions. The present study shows that wearing a mask may increase rating of perceived exertion and discomfort when the exercise intensity exceeds a certain threshold in healthy male adults who have experienced long-distance running.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , COVID-19 , Máscaras , Carrera , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/efectos adversos , Carrera/fisiología , Afecto/fisiología , Proyectos Piloto , Adulto , COVID-19/prevención & control , Adulto Joven , Prueba de Esfuerzo/métodos , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Percepción/fisiología , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0294401, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743720

RESUMEN

Affective polarization measures account for partisans' feelings towards their own party versus its opponent(s), but not for how likely partisans are to encounter co-partisans versus out-partisans. However, the intensity of out-party dislike and the probability with which this comes into play both determine the social impact of cross-party hostility. We develop an affective fractionalization measure that accounts for both factors, and apply it to longitudinal survey data from 20 Western publics. From this perspective, countries with fewer dominant parties may be more harmonious because partisans have lower probabilities of interacting with political opponents. At the party level, partisans of smaller, more radical parties are particularly troubled because they strongly dislike out-partisans and have few co-partisans. Affective fractionalization has increased in most Western publics over time, primarily because of growing party-system fragmentation.


Asunto(s)
Política , Humanos , Afecto/fisiología , Hostilidad
16.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(4): 706-710, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751266

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore post-donation life satisfaction, quality of life and mood status among kidney donors. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from February 5 to July 10, 2021, at the Department of Kidney Transplant Surgery, Pakistan Kidney and Liver Institute and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised living kidney donors who had donated a kidney at least 6 months before the interview date. Data was collected through telephonic interviews, and, in addition to demographics, the questionnaire comprised the World Health Organisation Quality of Life Brief Version scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire and General Anxiety Disorder. Data was analysed using SPSS 20. RESULTS: Of the 41 subjects, 22(53.7%) were females and 19(46.3%) were males. The overall mean age was 41.10±9.648 years (range: 19-62 years). The most common donor-recipient relationship was brother-sister 10(34.1%) and wife-husband 10(24.4%). Among the donors, there was a significant positive correlation between quality of life and satisfaction with life (r=0.381, p=0.014). Quality of life had a negative correlation with anxiety (r=-0.429, p=0.005), and a negative but non-significant association with depression (r=-0.283, p=0.073). Anxiety and depression were highly positively correlated (r=0.681, p=0.000). Quality of life was significantly associated with donor age (p=0.029) with a negative effect (Beta=-0.588), while satisfaction with life had a positive relationship with age (Beta=0.147). Conclusion: Higher life satisfaction among living kidney donors was associated with an improved quality of life, while increased anxiety levels were linked to a lower quality of life. Age was a critical determinant, with older donors reporting a lower quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Riñón , Donadores Vivos , Satisfacción Personal , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Pakistán , Donadores Vivos/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trasplante de Riñón/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Adulto Joven , Afecto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología
17.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566509

RESUMEN

Mixed feelings, the simultaneous presence of feelings with positive and negative valence, remain an understudied topic. They pose a specific set of challenges due to individual variation, and their investigation requires analtyic approaches focusing on individually self-reported states. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan 27 subjects watching an animated short film chosen to induce bittersweet mixed feelings. The same subjects labeled when they had experienced positive, negative, and mixed feelings. Using hidden-Markov models, we found that various brain regions could predict the onsets of new feeling states as determined by self-report. The ability of the models to identify these transitions suggests that these states may exhibit unique and consistent neural signatures. We next used the subjects' self-reports to evaluate the spatiotemporal consistency of neural patterns for positive, negative, and mixed states. The insula had unique and consistent neural signatures for univalent states, but not for mixed valence states. The anterior cingulate and ventral medial prefrontal cortex had consistent neural signatures for both univalent and mixed states. This study is the first to demonstrate that subjectively reported changes in feelings induced by naturalistic stimuli can be predicted from fMRI and the first to show direct evidence for a neurally consistent representation of mixed feelings.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Encéfalo , Humanos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Emociones , Mapeo Encefálico/métodos , Corteza Prefrontal , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética
18.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584086

RESUMEN

Machine learning is an emerging tool in clinical psychology and neuroscience for the individualized prediction of psychiatric symptoms. However, its application in non-clinical populations is still in its infancy. Given the widespread morphological changes observed in psychiatric disorders, our study applies five supervised machine learning regression algorithms-ridge regression, support vector regression, partial least squares regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression, and Elastic-Net regression-to predict anxiety and depressive symptom scores. We base these predictions on the whole-brain gray matter volume in a large non-clinical sample (n = 425). Our results demonstrate that machine learning algorithms can effectively predict individual variability in anxiety and depressive symptoms, as measured by the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire. The most discriminative features contributing to the prediction models were primarily located in the prefrontal-parietal, temporal, visual, and sub-cortical regions (e.g. amygdala, hippocampus, and putamen). These regions showed distinct patterns for anxious arousal and high positive affect in three of the five models (partial least squares regression, support vector regression, and ridge regression). Importantly, these predictions were consistent across genders and robust to demographic variability (e.g. age, parental education, etc.). Our findings offer critical insights into the distinct brain morphological patterns underlying specific components of anxiety and depressive symptoms, supporting the existing tripartite theory from a neuroimaging perspective.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Sustancia Gris , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Sustancia Gris/diagnóstico por imagen , Depresión/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Ansiedad/diagnóstico por imagen , Ansiedad/psicología , Afecto
19.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 37(3): e13237, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616413

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in adults with intellectual disabilities. Often there are additional disorders such as substance use, mood and anxiety disorders. The current study focuses on the feasibility and initial efficacy of prolonged exposure (PE) for PTSD in adults with mild intellectual disabilities. The secondary effect of PE on additional mood, anxiety and substance use disorders is also examined. METHODS: A single case experimental design (N = 12) with an A (baseline)-B (intervention) phase including a follow-up measurement after 3 months was conducted. Time series and single time points measurements were performed. RESULTS: Six participants dropped-out. The results showed a significant decrease in PTSD symptoms and a significant decrease in additional symptoms (social avoidance, anxiety and stress), among participants who completed treatment. CONCLUSION: PE appears to be a feasible and effective treatment for PTSD in some adults with mild intellectual disabilities. Suggestions emerge from this study to make standard PE treatment more appropriate for adults with mild intellectual disabilities. Further research is needed to reduce drop-out in trauma treatment. Some suggestions for this are made in this study. Treatment of PTSD with PE did not appear to affect comorbid mood disorders. Further research is needed.


Asunto(s)
Discapacidad Intelectual , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Adulto , Humanos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Ansiedad , Afecto
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8449, 2024 04 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600283

RESUMEN

The number of young adults seeking help for emotional distress, subsyndromal-syndromal mood/anxiety symptoms, including those associated with neuroticism, is rising and can be an early manifestation of mood/anxiety disorders. Identification of gray matter (GM) thickness alterations and their relationship with neuroticism and mood/anxiety symptoms can aid in earlier diagnosis and prevention of risk for future mood and anxiety disorders. In a transdiagnostic sample of young adults (n = 252;177 females; age 21.7 ± 2), Hypothesis (H) 1:regularized regression followed by multiple regression examined relationships among GM cortical thickness and clinician-rated depression, anxiety, and mania/hypomania; H2:the neuroticism factor and its subfactors as measured by NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) were tested as mediators. Analyses revealed positive relationships between left parsopercularis thickness and depression (B = 4.87, p = 0.002), anxiety (B = 4.68, p = 0.002), mania/hypomania (B = 6.08, p ≤ 0.001); negative relationships between left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) thickness and depression (B = - 5.64, p ≤ 0.001), anxiety (B = - 6.77, p ≤ 0.001), mania/hypomania (B = - 6.47, p ≤ 0.001); and positive relationships between left isthmus cingulate thickness (B = 2.84, p = 0.011), and anxiety. NEO anger/hostility mediated the relationship between left ITG thickness and mania/hypomania; NEO vulnerability mediated the relationship between left ITG thickness and depression. Examining the interrelationships among cortical thickness, neuroticism and mood and anxiety symptoms enriches the potential for identifying markers conferring risk for mood and anxiety disorders and can provide targets for personalized intervention strategies for these disorders.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad , Manía , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Humanos , Adulto , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Neuroticismo , Afecto , Emociones , Ansiedad/psicología , Trastornos del Humor
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