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1.
Animal ; 15(2): 100062, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712209

RESUMEN

Under-use of genetic improvement tools and low participation in breeding programmes are key drivers of breeding programmes under-performance. Both aspects are heavily influenced by farmers attitudes which, to date, have not been analysed in an objective and systematic manner. A key factor constraining the implementation of attitudinal studies towards livestock breeding tools is the lack of a reference scale for measuring attitudes. In this research, we provide the livestock breeding sector with such a reference measure. We developed the scale following the standardized psychometric methodologies and statistical tools. Then, as a case study, we used the scale to explore the attitudes of beef and dairy sheep farmers in Australia, New Zealand and Spain and analysed farmer and farming system factors related to those attitudes. Fourteen sheep and beef breed associations facilitated the implementation of a survey of 547 farmers, generating data that was used for the scale evaluation. The relationship between attitudinal factors and farmer and farming system factors was analysed using generalized linear models across and within breeds. The results suggest that the 8-item definitive scale we have developed is appropriate to measure farmer attitudes. We found that attitudes towards genetic improvement tools have two components; i) traditional selection and ii) genetic and genomic selection combined. This means that positive attitudes towards traditional phenotypic selection do not necessarily imply a negative attitude towards genetic and genomic selection tools. Farmer attitudes varied greatly not only across the studied breeds, species and countries, but also within them. High-educated farmers of business-oriented farms tend to have the most negative attitude towards traditional selection. However, attitudes towards genetic and genomic selection tools could not be linked to these factors. Finally, we found that the breed raised had a large effect on farmer attitude. These findings may help in the evolution of breeding programmes by identifying both the farmers most inclined to uptake breeding innovations in the early stages of its establishment and the farmers who would be more reluctant to participate in such programmes, thus informing where to focus extension efforts.


Asunto(s)
Agricultores , Ganado , Animales , Actitud , Australia , Bovinos , Humanos , Nueva Zelanda , Ovinos , España
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 187, 2021 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713184

RESUMEN

Cypermethrin, a member of the synthetic pyrethroids group, is a popular insecticide used to eliminate a broad range of common bugs in agricultural lands and households. However, studies of farmers' exposure to this insecticide are limited. The present study aimed to measure the respiratory exposure to cypermethrin among farmers and farm workers of Shiraz, as one of the biggest cities in Fars province, Iran. Totally, nine target regions were selected, where 42 individual samples were taken using XAD-2 sorbents and were analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). This is the first study on farmers' exposure to insecticides during spraying in Iran. The average concentration of cypermethrin vapor in farmers' respiratory area during spraying was 0.982 ± 0.421 mg/m3, which was lower than the permitted threshold value for cypermethrin recommended by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The mean time-weighted average (TWA) was also evaluated in two distinct occupational groups (tree operators and field operators). The exposure was significantly higher in tree operators than in field operators. A direct correlation was also found between the height of the workers and the amount of cypermethrin (Spearman's r = 0.555). Findings support that farm workers' respiratory exposure to cypermethrin was within the permissible range, but this situation cannot guarantee workers' safety. Total respiratory exposure and skin exposure studies are recommended in future research.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Profesional , Plaguicidas , Piretrinas , Agricultura , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agricultores , Humanos , Irán , Exposición Profesional/análisis , Plaguicidas/análisis , Piretrinas/toxicidad
3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248120, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667256

RESUMEN

In Bangladesh, the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have substantial effects on the livelihood of people, but smallholder vegetables growers will be even more affected because of the perishability nature of the product. The first case of COVID-19 was confirmed in Bangladesh on 8th March, 2020 and consequently the country went into lockdown on 26 March, 2020. This study has made a survey of vegetables farmers through a mobile phone to understand the impact of COVID-19 on vegetables supply chain, gross margin and the future production plan of the growers. In Bangladesh, the lockdown has disrupted the food supply chain and increases the likelihood of food insecurity. Lockdown has impeded vegetable farmers' access to markets, thus limiting their productive and sales capacities. The price of yield has dropped by more than half resulting in huge loss for vegetable growers. The loss incurred by the farmers for producing Brinjal, Cucumber, Pointed gourd, Yardlong beans and Bottle gourd are BDT 4900, BDT 10900, BDT 57400, BDT 52500 and BDT 18500 per acre respectively as a result of COVID-19. The decreased income increases farmers' likelihood of vulnerability and food insecurity and poses a challenge to continued produce. 'Cash support' is more important than 'food support' in order to keep vegetable farmers in farming, to ensure a ready supply of necessary low-cost resources, and to help fight against the upcoming food shortage.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/economía , Agricultores , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/economía , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Comercio/economía , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Verduras/economía
4.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(1): 41-49, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658733

RESUMEN

Objective: To estimate the impact of reduced consumption of free sugars in line with World Health Organization recommendations, on sugar farmers globally. Methods: Using multiregion input-output analysis, we estimated the proportional impact on production volumes of a 1% reduction in free sugars consumption by the public. We extracted data on sugar production from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations database for the top 15 sugar-cane- and beet-producing countries globally, and created a custom multiregion input-output database to assess the proportions of production going to human consumption, drawing on household expenditure surveys and national input-output databases (data valid for years 2000-2015). We also considered the impact on production volumes in relation to countries' gross domestic product. Findings: A high proportion of current sugar production from these countries goes to human consumption, and would thus be impacted by reduced consumption of sugars. The largest impacts on cane sugar production, and thus on farmers, would likely occur in Brazil, China, India and Thailand and on beet production in Belarus, Germany, Russian Federation and United States of America. Conclusion: A global opportunity exists for public health leadership to bring together the health, economic, environmental and agriculture sectors to collaborate and build capacity for promotion of alternative livelihoods for sugar farmers. Lessons regarding strategy and the importance of political economy factors can be learnt from tobacco control measures. Further research to quantify the impact of reductions in sugars consumption would provide useful insights for designing policies to complement and strengthen efforts to improve diets and health.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/economía , Azúcares de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Agricultores , Producto Interno Bruto , Humanos , Organización Mundial de la Salud
5.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660474

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiological profiles of echinococcosis cases reported in non-endemic areas of China in the National Notifiable Disease Report System from 2004 to 2016, so as to provide insights into the development of effective surveillance and response measures. METHODS: The data pertaining to the echinococcosis cases reported in the National Notifiable Disease Report System in 22 non-endemic provinces of China from 2004 to 2016 were collected, and the epidemiological profiles of the reported echinococcosis cases were descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 462 echinococcosis cases were reported in the 22 non-endemic provinces of China from 2004 to 2016, and the number of reported cases increased with time (χ2 = 4.516, P = 0.034). During the 13-year period from 2004 to 2016, the highest number of echinococcosis cases was reported in central and eastern China (56.49%), followed by in northern and northeastern China (30.30%), and the highest number of echinococcosis cases was reported in Henan Province (99 cases). Among the 462 echinococcosis cases reported, there were 234 men and 228 women, and the mean age was (41.42 ± 16.03) years (range, 4 to 86 years), with the highest number of echinococcosis cases reported at ages of 20 to 50 years (63.20%). The highest proportion of occupations was farmers and herdsmen (36.15%), and the greatest source was from echinococcosis-endemic provinces (50.43%); in addition, 97.40% of the echinococcosis cases were reported by hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Echinococcosis cases were reported in all 22 non-endemic provinces of China in the National Notifiable Disease Report System from 2004 to 2016, and the number of reported cases appeared an overall tendency for sporadicity and local increase with time. Screening of echinococcosis is recommended among famers and herdsmen at ages of 20 to 50 years from endemic regions by medical institutions in non-endemic regions for timely identification and treatment of echinococcosis cases.


Asunto(s)
Equinococosis , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Equinococosis/epidemiología , Agricultores , Femenino , Hospitales , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
6.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112192, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636630

RESUMEN

The challenges of soil degradation and climate change have led to the emergence of Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a sustainable alternative to tillage-based agriculture systems. Despite the recognition of positive impacts on soil health, CA adoption in Africa has remained low. Previous soil health studies have mainly focused on 'scientific' measurements, without consideration of local knowledge, which influences how farmers interpret CA impacts and future land management decisions. This study, based in Malawi, aims to 1) combine local knowledge and conventional soil science approaches to develop a contextualised understanding of the impact of CA on soil health; and 2) understand how an integrated approach can contribute to explaining farmer decision-making on land management. Key farmers' indicators of soil health were crop performance, soil consistence, moisture content, erosion, colour, and structure. These local indicators were consistent with conventional soil health indicators. By combining farmers' observations with soil measurements, we observed that CA improved soil structure, moisture (Mwansambo 7.54%-38.15% lower for CP; Lemu 1.57%-47.39% lower for CP) and infiltration (Lemu CAM/CAML 0.15 cms-1, CP 0.09 cms-1; Mwansambo CP/CAM 0.14 cms-1, CAML 0.18 cms-1). In the conventional practice, farmers perceived ridges to redistribute nutrients, which corresponded with recorded higher exchangeable ammonium (Lemu CP 76.0 mgkg -1, CAM 49.4 mgkg -1, CAML 51.7 mgkg -1), nitrate/nitrite values (Mwansambo CP 200.7 mgkg -1, CAM 171.9 mgkg -1, CAML 103.3 mgkg -1). This perception contributes to the popularity of ridges, despite the higher yield measurements under CA (Mwansambo CP 3225 kgha-1, CAML 5067 kgha-1, CAM 5160 kgha-1; Lemu CP 2886 kgha-1, CAM 2872 kgha-1, CAML 3454 kgha-1 ). The perceived carbon benefits of residues and ridge preference has promoted burying residues in ridges. Integrated approaches contribute to more nuanced and localized perceptions about land management. We propose that the stepwise integrated soil assessment framework developed in this study can be applied more widely in understanding the role of soil health in farmer-decision making, providing a learning process for downscaling technologies and widening the evidence base on sustainable land management practices.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Suelo , Agricultura , Cambio Climático , Agricultores , Malaui
7.
Mutat Res ; 861-862: 503302, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551103

RESUMEN

Inter-individual variations in DNA repair capacity (DRC) for repairing pesticide-induced DNA oxidation damage may influence adverse health outcomes. We aimed to evaluate whether polymorphisms in genes involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway could modulate DNA damage in pesticide-exposed agricultural workers. Xeroderma pigmentosum group F (XPF) (Arg415Gln, G1244A, rs1800067), xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) (Asp1104His, G3507C, rs17655), excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) (3'UTR, C8092A, rs3212986) and ERCC1 (Asn118Asn, C19007T, rs11615) polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique in 225 pesticide-exposed agricultural workers and 225 controls from Punjab, North-West India. The assessment of DNA damage was carried out by alkaline comet assay. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate the association of gene polymorphisms in NER pathway with DNA damage. Pesticide-exposed agricultural workers carrying variant XPF Gln/Gln (AA) genotype showed higher comet tail length (p < 0.01) than wild type Arg/Arg (GG) genotype. The comet tail length (p < 0.01) was found to be significantly increased in exposed agricultural workers carrying XPG His/His (CC) genotype than wild-type Asp/Asp (GG) genotype. In relation to the individuals carrying wild type ERCC1 3'UTR CC genotype, exposed individuals with variant ERCC1 3'UTR CA genotype showed elevation in the comet tail length (p = 0.029). However, we found no association of ERCC1 Asn118Asn (C19007T) genotype with DNA damage. These results indicate that XPF, XPG and ERCC1 genes of NER pathway may modulate the efficacy of the DNA repair system against pesticide exposure in our population.


Asunto(s)
Daño del ADN , Proteínas de Unión al ADN/genética , Endonucleasas/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Plaguicidas/efectos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Agricultores , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Incidencia , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Profesionales/inducido químicamente , Adulto Joven
8.
Animal ; 15(2): 100103, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573972

RESUMEN

The nature of the relationship between humans and farm animals has multiple repercussions on the animals and the farmers and varies with farmers attitudes towards their animals. In particular, this relationship influences animal welfare and human working conditions. The present study, part of a larger research project investigating human-animal relationship (HAR) in pig farming and ways to improve it, had two objectives: 1) to investigate the HAR in a diversity of pig farming situations and to evaluate the possible correlation between farmer attitudes, pigs' reactions to humans, husbandry practices, animal health, welfare and productivity and 2) to find a way to rapidly assign a farmer to a profile, in order to better adapt course content during training sessions on HAR. The study focused on 52 farrow-to-finish farms and consisted of a semi-structured interview with the farmer, observations of the farmer in contact with his/her livestock, two human approach tests conducted on sows and growers and productivity data. Finally, a questionnaire was left at the farm to be filled out by all stockpersons on the farm. Interviews, analyzed using a thematic analysis followed by multiple correspondence analysis and ascendant hierarchical clustering, showed that some farmers develop husbandry practices to improve their HARs and identified three farmer profiles that have been named in relation to the place of the HAR in their profession: Profile 1 farmers for whom HAR is secondary in their work with their pigs, Profile 2 for whom the HAR is useful in their work with their pigs and Profile 3 for whom HAR is central in their work with their pigs. Logistic regression models of the relationships between behavioral tests and productivity data showed that confident sows produce and wean more piglets than fearful sows and that sows of Profile 3 farmers trust more humans than those of Profile 1 or 2 farmers. Farmers' responses to the questionnaire did not predict their profile assignment. Our results confirm the main role of the farmer's attitude towards animals on their farming practices, animal welfare and productivity. The farmers who have more confident pigs and better productivity are those for whom the farm animal is central to their profession, express the most pleasure in working with them and convey empathy for them.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Animal , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Eficiencia , Agricultores , Granjas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Porcinos
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 145, 2021 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541286

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: More than hundreds and thousands of migrants and seasonal farm workers move from the highlands (relatively low malaria endemicity areas) to the lowlands (higher malaria endemicity areas) for the development of the corridor of the Amhara region during planting, weeding, and harvesting seasons in each year. Seasonal migrant workers are at high risk of malaria infection. Therefore, evidence of their knowledge level and practice in the prevention of malaria during their stay would be important. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of malaria prevention and associated factors among migrants and seasonal farm workers in Northwest Ethiopia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October to November, 2018 in Metema and West Armacheho districts, northwest Ethiopia. A sample of about 950 migrants and seasonal farm workers were included using two stages of cluster sampling technique. Interview administered structured questionnaire was used. Both bi-variable and multivariable binary logistic regressions were applied to identify predictors of malaria prevention. RESULT: The overall good knowledge of malaria (those participants who scored more than 60% of correct response for knowledge related questions) was 50.2% with 95% CI (47.0-53.0) and the overall good practice of malaria (those participants who practiced more than 60% for practice related questions) was 27.2% with 95% CI (244.3-29.9). Age (AOR = 0.51(95%CI; 0.33-0.80)), level of education (AOR = 0.55(95%CI; 0.32-0.94)), using mass media as a source of information (AOR = 2.25(95%CI; 1.52-3.32)) and length of stay at the farming site (AOR = 0.59(95%CI; 0.44-0.79)) were significantly associated with knowledge of malaria prevention. Knowledge (AOR = 6.62(95%CI; 4.46-9.83)), attitude (AOR = 2.17(95%CI1.40-3.37), use of mass media (AOR = 1.64(95%CI; 1.30-2.60)) and the length of stay (AOR = 1.93(95%CI; 1.35-2.77)) in the farming area were significantly associated with practice of malaria prevention. CONCLUSION: The practice of malaria prevention among migrant and seasonal farm workers was low. The programmers and implementers should design tailored malaria intervention programs and strategies for these hard to reach population.


Asunto(s)
Agricultores/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Malaria/prevención & control , Migrantes/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Agricultores/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estaciones del Año , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
10.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 112014, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556828

RESUMEN

This study proposes an innovative socio-hydrological modeling framework for the development of environmental policies that are tailored to farmers' attitudes and economic interests but also optimize environmental criteria. From a farmers' on-site survey, a behavior model is developed based on a modified Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The dynamics of the social and environmental system is implemented by coupling an agent-based model (ABM) with an agro-hydrological model for vegetative filter strips (VFS). A case study is conducted with farmers from the Larqui river basin, Chile to understand their standpoint on VFS to reduce soil loss in their agricultural fields and protect water bodies. Partial least square structural equation modeling is used to analyze the survey on farmers' aspiration and attitudes. It showed that the constructs added to TPB (behavioral morality, behavioral willingness, knowledge) had a significant effect on modeling the intention and behavior of farmers to have VFS. Based on the survey, the farmers were categorized into perceptive, proactive, bounded rational and interactive agents. An ABM was developed using the behavioral categorization, related decision rules, and utility functions of agricultural activities including the VFS implementation and management. The results of the ABM corroborate with the survey of the farmers. The survey supports the view that the decision on the width of VFS is not solely dependent on the utility generated and the reduction in soil losses but also on the behavior of farmers. This behavioral sociohydrological modeling framework is capable of supporting policy-makers in developing tailored environmental policies that might improve the acceptance of sustainable agricultural practices by farmers.


Asunto(s)
Agricultores , Intención , Agricultura , Actitud , Chile , Humanos , Análisis de Sistemas
11.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 112010, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556833

RESUMEN

The future availability and quality of natural resources essential to life such as ecosystem services and biodiversity depend on the conservation and restoration of native vegetation. The Brazilian Native Vegetation Protection Law (NVPL) requires farmers to conserve a minimum percentage of native vegetation within their properties as Legal Reserves (LR) as well as riparian forests and hilltops as Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs). To monitor the conservation and facilitate the compliance of these areas, the Rural Environmental Registry (CAR) and the Environmental Regularization Program (PRA) were created. However, so far, little is known about farmers' interest in joining the PRA and the actions they intend to take to correct their past illegal deforestation. This article explores a unique dataset comprising of the individual answers of 97 thousand farmers in the states of Pará and Mato Grosso given to the Brazilian Forest Service in the process of joining at the national rural environmental registry system. We found that the adherence to the PRA is positively correlated with recognition of the LR deficit and the size of the rural property. Also medium and large landowners and crop producers tend to seek compliance by taking actions outside the farm (compensation), while small farmers and squatters are more likely to act inside their own areas (restoration). Understanding farmers' interests and options for LR compliance can contribute for the formulation of more effective implementation strategies for PRA and NVPL.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agricultores , Agricultura , Brasil , Ecosistema , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535335

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the self-conscious health status and related influencing factors of greenhouse agricultural workers in Beijing suburb, so as to provide scientific basis for developing strategies to improve and promote the occupational health conditions of those workers. Methods: According to the production characteristics and scale of the main agricultural districts or counties in the suburb of Beijing, 182 agricultural production personnel were randomly selected to investigate the general situation, occupational situation and self-conscious health status during June 2018 to December 2019. The relevant factors which may affect the self-conscious health conditions were also analyzed by statistical methods. Results: The detection or reported rate of self-conscious health problems was 51.6% (94/182) , among which 29.1% (53/182) workers reported musculoskeletal disorder diseases and 21.4% (39/182) workers reported nervous system diseases. And the self-conscious health status of greenhouse agricultural workers were statistically different in household registration, gender, marital status, working years, mixing or spraying pesticides, smoking or eating in the greenhouse (P<0.05) . Moreover, gender, mixing or spraying pesticide, eating and smoking behavior in the workplace all had an impact on the risk of self-conscious health status of greenhouse agricultural workers (P< 0.05) . Specifically, male is the protective factor to reduce the occurrence of self-conscious symptoms of greenhouse agricultural workers (OR=0.447, 95%CI: 0.234~0.852) , while mixing or spraying pesticides and smoking or eating behaviors in the workplace are the risk factors (OR=1.055, 2.524; 95%CI: 0.503~2.210, 1.107~5.755) . Conclusion: Reducing pesticide use from the source thus minimize related exposure opportunities, strengthening occupational health education thus foster good hygienic habits and improve individual protection consciousness are of great significance for the health protection of greenhouse agricultural workers in Beijing suburb.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Trabajadores Agrícolas , Exposición Profesional , Plaguicidas , Agricultura , Beijing , Agricultores , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Exposición Profesional/análisis
13.
Animal ; 15(3): 100154, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573976

RESUMEN

Intensive pig production systems are a source of stress, which is linked to reduced animal welfare and increased antimicrobial use. As the gatekeepers of the welfare of the animals under their care, farmers are seen as the stakeholder responsible for improving animal welfare. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitudes of pig farmers towards pig welfare and the impact of such attitudes on farmers' selection of management strategies on the farm. We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with 44 pig farmers in one of the main pig producing regions of Brazil. Interviews covered knowledge and attitudes towards pig sentience and behaviour and welfare-related issues commonly observed in intensive pig farms (belly-nosing, fights, tail-biting, diarrhoea and castration without pain control) and farmers' conception and attitudes towards pig welfare. We identified many management and animal-based indicators of poor welfare, such as the use of painful and stressful management practices and use of environments that limit the expression of natural behaviours. However, most farmers were satisfied with animal welfare standards at their farms. Farmers' perceptions are aligned with their understanding of animal welfare. Although they identified all the dimensions that impact the welfare of a pig on a farm (affect, biological functioning and naturalness), their social reality, industry demands and available advice pushed them to perceive their range of action limited to biological and environmental aspects of the animals that do not necessarily benefit affective state. This precluded farmers from making associations between good health and the animal's ability to express a full behavioural repertoire, as well as from viewing abnormal behaviours as problems. The negative consequences for the welfare of the animals were commonly alleviated by routines that relied on constant use of medication, including high dependence on antibiotics. Expressions of estrangement from the production chain were common voices among the participants. This suggests that farmers may not be sufficiently informed or engaged in responding to consumers' expectations and commitments made by companies, which can pose a severe economic risk for farmers. The findings of this study indicate that economic, technical and social factors restrict farmers' autonomy and their ability to perform their role as stewards of animal welfare. (Re)connecting different human, animal and environmental interests may be a step to changing this scenario.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Animal , Agricultores , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Antibacterianos , Brasil , Granjas , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Porcinos
14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 54, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389207

RESUMEN

Poultry production contributes significantly to the livelihoods of Ethiopian farmers and to the national economy although it is hampered by different factors, including poultry diseases. There is scarcity of published evidences on the occurrence and impacts of poultry diseases although such evidences are important for policy makers in designing appropriate interventions. A total of 595 households were interviewed and 11 FGDs were conducted to collect data on the occurrence of diseases and the number of dead chickens in the last 12 months. Hence, respiratory diseases, sudden death, and eye-face-head diseases were mentioned in all of the FGDs as the most frequently occurring disease in the districts. Of households interviewed, 86.1% reported poultry disease occurrence in the last 12 months, and gastrointestinal, eye-face-head, and neurological diseases were identified to be the top three ranked diseases of chickens in the districts. Flocks with access to diagnostic services (Adj. OR = 4.16; P = 0.004) and/or access to animal health providers (Adj. OR = 10.50; P = 0.001) were more likely to report disease occurrence. In the studied population, the diseases resulted in deaths of 2219 chickens valued at 352,219.5 Birr (11,740.65 USD) and a mean crude mortality of 31.87%. Female-lead households (mean difference = 5.95%; P = 0.018) and multiple age units present on the farm (mean difference = 20.92%; P = < 0.000) had higher chicken mortality. Similarly, higher mortality was reported in flocks without access to diagnosis (mean difference = 9.97%; P = < 0.000) and vaccination (mean difference = 12.34%; P = < 0.000) services. The high occurrence of disease and mortalities might be explained by a lack of an organized poultry health service delivery system in the country. Therefore, a carefully designed health service delivery system addressing needs of poultry producers, supported by relevant policy and corresponding strategies, is recommended to address the indicated challenges. Moreover, private health providers with well-defined roles need to be engaged to successfully and sustainably solve the poultry disease problems.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Granjas/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/mortalidad , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Composición Familiar , Agricultores , Granjas/economía , Femenino , Humanos , Aves de Corral , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/economía , Productos Avícolas , Vacunación/veterinaria
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 17812-17825, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400115

RESUMEN

Pesticide labels and pictograms are the first and utmost source of information for safe use and personal protection of farmers and a legally binding document against environmental degradation reinforced by governments. The influence of pictogram information on the safe use of pesticides depends on the importance of pictogram to farmers and how they interpret its information. The present study explores farmers' interpretation of risk assessment data of pictograms displayed on pesticide labels. The statistical population is composed of all wheat and potato farmers in Ardabil County (N = 4964) of which 200 farmers were sampled based on Morgan's sampling table. Data were collected using a questionnaire for the 2018-2019 cropping year. The content validity of the research instrument was determined by a panel of faculty members and its reliability was confirmed by the coefficient of Cronbach's alpha. Results indicated that farmers had poor understanding of the pictograms. Unclarity of pictograms, inability to understand their meaning, and low literacy or illiteracy were the main causes of poor understanding of pictograms, respectively. Educational level, extension training, and attitude also had a positive significant relationship with pictogram comprehension. On the other hand, pictogram comprehension did not show a significant correlation with the use of personal protective equipment and the adoption of safety measures during pesticide handling and application. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that the variables of attitude towards pictograms, information sources, educational level, and attending training courses on chemical pesticides were the main factors underpinning pictogram understanding so that they altogether accounted for 58% of the variance in the dependent variable of the research.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Profesional , Plaguicidas , Agricultura , Comprensión , Agricultores , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
16.
Animal ; 15(1): 100038, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515987

RESUMEN

Official inspections to check the compliance of farms with European legislation to protect farm animals are often perceived negatively by farmers. In addition, the inspections have a limited effect on improving farm compliance. We looked at the perceptions of both farmers and their inspectors about animal welfare and the inspections in a case study of dairy production in France. The identification of gaps and commonalities between both parties should help us to propose improvements in the inspection method by which inspections could more likely encourage compliance with animal welfare legislation. To achieve this aim, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 dairy farmers and their 19 inspectors. Both farmers and inspectors described animal welfare in terms of the state of the animal and of the living conditions and care provided to them. The majority of farmers found that the official checklist used by the inspectors is inappropriate to assess the welfare of their animals; inspectors themselves reported that they often use their own criteria and indicators (often based on the observation of animals) in addition to the official checklist. Both groups disagreed with some requirements of the legislation. These findings suggest that the content and background of the legislation to protect animals should be made clearer to both farmers and inspectors and that these two groups of actors should be involved in the definition of key points to be checked on farms, with special attention to animal-based indicators. All this could improve farmers' engagement with the results of the inspections and, hopefully, could lead to better compliance with legislation and improvements in animal welfare on farms.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Animal , Agricultores , Animales , Animales Domésticos , Industria Lechera , Granjas , Francia , Humanos
17.
Animal ; 15(1): 100042, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515996

RESUMEN

In the last decade, community-based animal breeding programs have gained attention for the genetic improvement of small ruminants in the tropics. Nevertheless, implementing such programs remains challenged by the issue of smallholders' participation. To shed light on this issue of participation, a goat genetic improvement project has been assessed for its socioeconomic relevance through participatory methods, taking account of goat multifunctionality. We quantified the gross margins per flock and per animal as indicators of viability. We assessed then the correspondence between the goat functions defined through a proportional piling tool with the relative share of these functions in the gross revenue. For that purpose, 160 smallholders were surveyed and 77 among them were monitored for one year. A cluster analysis of factors linked to the dynamic of goat farming identified three groups of farmers. The first group gathered farmers with the smallest goat flocks, who were goat oriented in the future. Their sustainable participation in goat breeding project was impeded by the excessive sales of goats. The second group involved farmers with the highest farm size, who planned to buy cattle to replace part of their goats. The third group included farmers who were members of the project with the largest goat flocks. This group emphasized the importance of goat for their future but showed weak abilities to manage large flocks. The gross margin per animal was the highest in the third group. The relative importance of goat functions as defined through participatory tools did not correspond to the relative share of these functions in the composition of the gross revenue from goats. Participatory tools and economic calculation then appear as complementary to understand farmers' priorities. Consolidating breeders' associations and supporting farmers to diversify their sources of income are two ways proposed here to ensure an enabling environment to goat husbandry and farmers' well-being.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Cabras , Animales , Bovinos , Agricultores , Cabras/genética , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 88, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415503

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to identify social and farm factors influencing the knowledge of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), factors influencing participation in FMD vaccination, and vaccination coverage. The study was conducted with 180 traditional dairy farmers who were engaged in cattle and buffalo farming located in three veterinary ranges of the Ampara district in the eastern province of Sri Lanka, during September and October 2019. The probit and tobit regression models were applied to determine the factors. On an average, the scores for knowledge of FMD and hygiene management were calculated as 54.5% and 49.2%, respectively. Farmers' knowledge of FMD was strongly associated with gender, level of education, and participation in the farmer training program (p < 0.01). The vaccination behavior was enhanced significantly by the number of animals, farming experience, knowledge of FMD score (p < 0.05), and hygiene management score (p < 0.1). It was revealed that social and farm factors contributed to the knowledge of FMD and vaccination behavior. Therefore, we recommend that the livestock educational training program will motivate better participation in the FMD control plan in Sri Lanka.


Asunto(s)
Búfalos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Fiebre Aftosa/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Vacunación/veterinaria , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/psicología , Industria Lechera/estadística & datos numéricos , Agricultores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fiebre Aftosa/psicología , Sri Lanka , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(13): 16663-16681, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389465

RESUMEN

Improving fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) is an effective means to reduce fertilizer use and environmental contamination. Few studies have considered spatial effects of FUE and its determinants. This paper calculates the FUE of agricultural production by adopting panel data on 31 provinces in China from 2007 to 2017 using a stochastic frontier method and discusses the spatial distribution and characteristics. Furthermore, the geographical weighted regression (GWR) model is employed to examine the spatial impact of education level, non-agricultural employment ratio, disaster ratio, and farmers' income on FUE and reveal the spatial dispersion and agglomeration effect of different provinces in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2015, and 2017. The results show that the average FUE in China is 0.747 and has a significant decreasing trend, and FUE has a significant regional difference and spatial positive correlation in different provinces. Non-agricultural employment ratio is the most leading factor for increasing FUE for all provinces in studied years, and its influence degree shows a decreasing trend from southeastern to northwestern in each year. The different agricultural industry development modes, planting structure adjustment, and policy incentive systems for increasing non-agricultural employment ratio should be developed for different regions. Farmers' income has a significant negative impact on FUE, but the influence degree decreases annually, indicating that improving income to higher than turning point of the environmental Kuznets curve plays a critical role in improving FUE. The influence of education level on FUE is positive but relatively weak, and the influence degree declines from the western to eastern areas. It should strengthen the exploration of scientific and rational education and a training policy system to improve the educational level in different regions on the basis of local characteristics. Disaster ratio has a positive impact on FUE but is unstable. For the neighboring provinces, coordinated weather and possible disaster forecasting and release mechanism should be carried out based on the extent of the disaster.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Fertilizantes , China , Agricultores , Humanos , Análisis Espacial
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 763: 144233, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385842

RESUMEN

Personal pesticide exposure is not well characterized among children in vulnerable, immigrant communities. We used silicone wristbands in 2018-2019 to assess pesticide exposure in 8 year old Latinx boys and girls in rural, farmworker families (n = 73) and urban, non-farmworker families (n = 60) living in North Carolina who were enrolled in the PACE5 Study, a community-based participatory research study. We determined the detection and concentrations (ng/g) of 75 pesticides and pesticide degradation products in the silicone wristbands worn for one week using gas chromatography electron capture detection and employed gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Differences by personal and family characteristics were tested using analysis of variance or Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests when necessary. Pesticide concentrations above the limit of detection were analyzed, and reported as geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The most frequently detected pesticide classes were organochlorines (85.7%), pyrethroids (65.4%), and organophosphates (59.4%), with the most frequently detected specific pesticides being alpha-chlordane (69.2%), trans-nonachlor (67.7%), gamma-chlordane (66.2%), chlorpyrifos (54.9%), cypermethrin (49.6%), and trans-permethrin (39.1%). More of those children in urban, non-farmworker families had detections of organochlorines (93.3% vs. 79.5, p = 0.0228) and pyrethroids (75.0% vs. 57.5%, p = 0.0351) than did those in rural, farmworker families; more children in rural, farmworker families had detections for organophosphates (71.2% vs. 45.0%, p= 0.0022). Children in urban, non-farmworker families had greater concentrations of alpha-chlordane (geometric mean (GM) 18.98, 95% CI 14.14, 25.47 vs. 10.25, 95% CI 7.49, 14.03; p= 0.0055) and dieldrin (GM 17.38, 95% CI 12.78 23.62 vs. 8.10, 95% CI 5.47, 12.00; p= 0.0034) than did children in rural, farmworker families. These results support the position that pesticides are ubiquitous in the living environment for children in vulnerable, immigrant communities, and argue for greater effort in documenting the widespread nature of pesticide exposure among children, with greater effort to reduce pesticide exposure.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Profesional , Plaguicidas , Agricultura , Niño , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Agricultores , Femenino , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina , Exposición Profesional/análisis , Plaguicidas/análisis
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