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1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113812, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601350

RESUMEN

Removing vegetation cover from hill-slope land increases risk for soil erosion and delivery of sediment to waterways. In New Zealand's productive landscapes, clear-fell harvesting of forestry blocks and winter forage grazing by agricultural livestock are two significant causes of vegetation removal. Bare ground exposed by these activities varies annually and seasonally in location and spatial extent. Modelling soil erosion therefore requires temporally and spatially explicit mapping of this bare ground. We have developed an automated mapping method using time-series satellite imagery, thereby enabling wide-area coverage and ease of updating. The temporal analysis identifies land use along with the period of vegetation removal. It produces results per land parcel (in vector format) for use in a Geographic Information System. We present a description of our method, national maps and statistics of bare ground extent in New Zealand's hill-country forestry and winter forage grazing land in 2018, and an assessment of accuracy. The attributes of the mapped land parcels are designed for input into a soil erosion estimation model such as the New Zealand Universal Soil Loss Equation.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura Forestal , Erosión del Suelo , Agricultura , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Nueva Zelanda , Suelo
2.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113817, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607136

RESUMEN

Assessing trade-offs among ecosystem services (ESs) that are provided by forests is necessary to support decision-making and to minimize negative effects of timber harvesting. In this study, we examined how spatial data, forest operational rules, ESs, and probabilistic statistics can be combined into a practical tool for trade-off analysis that could guide decision-making towards sustainable forestry. Our main goal was to analyze trade-offs among the wood provisioning ES and other forest ESs at the landscape level using a Bayesian belief network (BBN). We used LiDAR data to derive four ES layers as inputs to a spatial BBN: (i) wood provisioning; (ii) erosion regulating; (iii) climate regulating; and (iv) habitat supporting. We quantified operational constraints with four forest operational rules (FOR) that were defined in terms of: (i) potential harvest block size; (ii) distance between a small potential harvest block and a larger harvest block; (iii) gross merchantable volume (GMV); and (iv) distance to an existing resource road. Maps of the most probable trade-off classes between the wood provisioning ES and other ESs enabled us to identify areas where timber harvesting should be avoided or where timber harvesting should have a very low negative effect on other ESs. Even with our most restrictive management scenario, the total GMV that could be harvested met the annual allowable cut (AAC) volume required to meet sustainable forestry objectives. Through our study, we demonstrated that high-resolution spatial data could be used to quantify trade-offs among wood provisioning ES and other forest-related ESs and to simulate small changes in ES indicators within the BBN. We also demonstrated the potential to evaluate management scenarios to reduce trade-offs by considering FOR as inputs to the BBN. Maps of the most probable trade-off classes among two or three ESs under operational constraints provide key information to guide forest management decision-making towards sustainable forestry.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Agricultura Forestal , Teorema de Bayes , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bosques
3.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132321, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563778

RESUMEN

Agroforestry, an integration of farming system with woody perennials leads to the generation of potential agroforestry residues. The conventional treatment of agroforestry waste includes landfilling, thermal management, and decomposition which is accompanied with their own share of disadvantages. The ample amount of residues and products needs effective management to reap the economic and environmental benefits. The channel of waste collection, transportation, and recycle or valorization into products like biofuel, fertilizers, biochar, industrial chemicals is essential to maintain a circular sustainable bioeconomy. Global market value of biowaste to bioenergy (BtB) technology is roughly US $25.32 billion and is projected to enhance to US $40 billion by 2023. Employment of an appropriate pretreatment technology such as fermentation, hydrolysis, gasification etc. is going to elevate the degree of valorization along with surpassing the mobilization barrier. The sustainability assessment of the management process can be achieved with multiple models including technoeconomic analysis, life cycle assessment and multi criteria approach which are dependent on both hard and soft indices. Additionally, the loopholes of the agroforestry sectors would be managed by the introduction of appropriate policies which are undertaken globally by the Orlando and Lugo declarations, food and agriculture organization, Millennium Development Goals, Global Research Alliance and Guidelines for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development. The present review envisaged the agroforestry waste management strategy and its sustainability assessment primarily based upon Social, Economic and Environmental parameters without tormenting the future generations.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura Forestal , Administración de Residuos , Agricultura , Biocombustibles , Reciclaje
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 793, 2021 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767121

RESUMEN

We have pragmatically but accurately evaluated the natural capital of a small northern town, Shimokawa, Hokkaido, Japan. The key industries are forestry, wood manufacturing, and agriculture. From an environmental perspective, Shimokawa was nominated as a Japanese FutureCity. Consequently, the total natural capital value (NCV) of the forest and agricultural lands was calculated to be 1.326 billion USD/year (or 24,161 USD/ha/year) and 44 million USD/year (or 19,692 USD/ha/year), respectively, in 2012. The sum of these NCVs was more than 7 times greater than the yearly gross production of the town, although the forest had a higher NCV because of the larger area (54,862 ha for forest area), compared with 2953 ha for agricultural area. This substantial NCV is mainly generated by sustainable forest management. The timber account showed that the annual tree growth was greater than the annual harvest of trees. The CO2 account derived from a one-year calculation showed that the town served as a CO2 sink at 107,249 t-CO2/year due to the large amount of annual tree growth and CO2 storage in the harvested wood products even if CO2 was emitted from industries and households. The forestry and wood manufacturing industries, as well as agriculture, created socioeconomic effects for the townspeople, ranging from job creation, study tours, and social welfare. This NCV accounting for Shimokawa town ensures the sustainable use of valuable environmental assets and will help other communities recognize their own NCV accounts.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agricultura Forestal , Bosques , Japón , Árboles
5.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3466-3480, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739799

RESUMEN

Relatively a new branch of technology, Nanotechnology has been found effective and applicable in various scientific disciplines. Its effectiveness has attracted many researchers to use it for solving various issues related to the natural resource management. Lots of studies have been carried out so far and published related to the applications of nanotechnology in climate science, forestry, agro-ecosystem, medical science and industrial sectors. Solving climate change issues in forestry sector, development of new nanomaterials for the management of forests from risks like drought, flood, salinity, fire, invasion, pathogen etc., water resource management in forest system, increasing energy efficiency of forests, improved forest produce, applications in forest based paper industries and other potential domains and its application has been reviewed in this paper along with some of frequently used nanomaterials, generally used or have potential to be used. Some industries currently using this technology are also enlisted. It was concluded that the nanotechnology has significant scope in the field of forestry as an enabling technology yet the future directions and requirements of applying nanotechnology in forestry sector are still in budding stage especially in India and may be applied at large scale by facilitating technical and legal institutions, large R&D grants and research collaborations.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Bosques , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agricultura Forestal , Nanotecnología
6.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624960

RESUMEN

Biological occupational hazards have occurred frequently for a long time, which have seriously affected the health of relevant occupational groups. The infection of medical staff caused by improper occupational protection in public health emergencies also sounds alarms to practitioners with biological hazards. In order to further carry out the research work of biological occupational hazards, this paper combs and summarizes the research status of biological occuational hazards in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishery and other industries, and puts forward suggestions for in-depth research from three aspects of research scope, research methods and research contents, to provide some reference for the development of biological occupational hazards research in the future.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura Forestal , Salud Pública , Humanos
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640702

RESUMEN

Artificial intelligence (AI), together with robotics, sensors, sensor networks, internet of things (IoT) and machine/deep learning modeling, has reached the forefront towards the goal of increased efficiency in a multitude of application and purpose [...].


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Internet de las Cosas , Agricultura , Agricultura Forestal , Aprendizaje Automático
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639641

RESUMEN

Para-occupational "take-home" exposure risks among forestry workers and their families in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not been well characterized. This is a concern because research shows an association between chronic low-dose herbicide exposure and adverse health effects. This study explored take-home herbicide residue exposure risks among forestry workers in the Western Cape, South Africa, through the community-based participatory research approach of photovoice. A key finding of the study was the absence of provisions related to take-home exposure in the national legislation and workplace policies, which largely contributed to poor adherence to risk reduction practices at worksites, in addition to workers transporting residues to their homes. This study demonstrated evidence of the key omissions regarding take-home exposure at the policy level (e.g., recommendations for employers to reduce take-home risks among employees, and training of workers and their families on take-home exposure) and take-home herbicide residue exposure among worker's families, including children.


Asunto(s)
Herbicidas , Exposición Profesional , Agricultura Forestal , Herbicidas/análisis , Herbicidas/toxicidad , Humanos , Sudáfrica , Lugar de Trabajo
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(22): 15423-15434, 2021 11 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694781

RESUMEN

Achieving forest sustainability is a declared sustainable development goal (SDG 15). Measuring the safe operating space─planetary boundaries─of global forests is essential to determine global forest pressure and manage forests sustainably. Here, we quantify the forestry planetary boundary (FPB) and national forestry boundaries. Results show that, in 2015, the FPB was 7.1 billion m3 of forest stock increments. Global timber harvests account for 58.7% of the FPB. Timber harvests of 47 nations, mostly in Africa and Asia, have exceeded their national forestry boundaries. Their boundary-exceeding timber harvest is mainly driven by the final demand of developed nations (e.g., the United States and Japan) and emerging economies (e.g., India and China) through global supply chains. This study highlights the importance of the FPB in global forest management and trade-related policymaking. The findings can guide global and national forest harvesting activities and help promote international cooperation to mitigate global deforestation.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Árboles , China , Agricultura Forestal , Bosques
10.
Ambio ; 50(12): 2183-2198, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628604

RESUMEN

Australia and New Zealand share many historical and contemporary commonalities. These define five contemporary forest environmental frontiers-for First Nations peoples, between agriculture and forestry, in forest management, in urban and peri-urban environments, and in relation to climate change. In both countries, the First Nations frontier is expanding in scale and significance with those peoples' rights to land and forests. Frontiers with agriculture and in forest management are longstanding but dynamic and as yet little realised in relation to the need for forest and landscape restoration. Both countries are highly urbanised, elevating the significance of the urban and peri-urban frontier, particularly in the context of climate change. In both countries, forests will be profoundly impacted by climate change and are central to mitigation and adaptation strategies. Experience within and intersections between the frontiers offer encouraging prospects for synergies and for learning between the two countries and more widely.


Asunto(s)
Bosques , Árboles , Australia , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agricultura Forestal , Nueva Zelanda
11.
Oecologia ; 197(3): 807-816, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657178

RESUMEN

In production forests, a common silvicultural objective is enhancing tree growth rates. The growth rate influences both mechanical and biochemical properties of wood, which may have an impact on dead wood inhabiting (i.e. saproxylic) species. In this study, we tested for the first time whether tree growth rates affect dead-wood associated assemblages in general and the occurrence of red-listed species in particular. We sampled saproxylic beetles (eclector traps) and fungi (DNA metabarcoding of wood samples) in dead trunks of Norway spruce (Picea abies), which had different growth rates within the same hemiboreal forests in Sweden. A high proportion of fungi showed a positive association to increasing tree growth. This resulted in higher fungal richness in fast-grown trees both at the trunk scale and across multiple studied trunks. Such patterns were not observed for saproxylic beetles. However, a set of species (both beetles and fungi) preferred slow-grown wood. Moreover, the total number of red-listed species was highest in slow-grown trunks. We conclude that dead wood from slow-grown trees hosts relatively fewer saproxylic species, but a part of these may be vulnerable to production forestry. It implies that slow-grown trees should be a target in nature conservation. However, where slow-grown trees are absent, for instance in forests managed for a high biomass production, increasing the volumes of dead wood from fast-grown trees may support many species.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Árboles , Animales , Ecosistema , Agricultura Forestal , Bosques
12.
Ambio ; 50(12): 2138-2152, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674143

RESUMEN

With 20% of the world's forests, Russia has global potential in bioeconomy development, biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation. However, unsustainable forest management based on 'wood mining' reduces this potential. Based on document analysis, participant observations and interviews, this article shows how non-state actors-environmental NGOs and forest companies-address forest resource depletion and primary forest loss in Russia. We analyse two key interrelated forest discourses driven by non-state actors in Russia: (1) intensive forest management in secondary forests as a pathway towards sustained yield and primary forest conservation; (2) intact forest landscapes as a priority in primary forest conservation. We illustrate how these discourses have been integrated into policy debates, institutions and practices and discuss their relation to relevant global discourses. The article concludes that despite successful cases in conserving intact forest landscapes, there is still a frontier between sustainable forest management discourses and forestry practice in Russia.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Madera , Biodiversidad , Agricultura Forestal , Bosques , Humanos
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502579

RESUMEN

In this paper, Computer Vision (CV) sensing technology based on Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is introduced to process topographic maps for predicting wireless signal propagation models, which are applied in the field of forestry security monitoring. In this way, the terrain-related radio propagation characteristic including diffraction loss and shadow fading correlation distance can be predicted or extracted accurately and efficiently. Two data sets are generated for the two prediction tasks, respectively, and are used to train the CNN. To enhance the efficiency for the CNN to predict diffraction losses, multiple output values for different locations on the map are obtained in parallel by the CNN to greatly boost the calculation speed. The proposed scheme achieved a good performance in terms of prediction accuracy and efficiency. For the diffraction loss prediction task, 50% of the normalized prediction error was less than 0.518%, and 95% of the normalized prediction error was less than 8.238%. For the correlation distance extraction task, 50% of the normalized prediction error was less than 1.747%, and 95% of the normalized prediction error was less than 6.423%. Moreover, diffraction losses at 100 positions were predicted simultaneously in one run of CNN under the settings in this paper, for which the processing time of one map is about 6.28 ms, and the average processing time of one location point can be as low as 62.8 us. This paper shows that our proposed CV sensing technology is more efficient in processing geographic information in the target area. Combining a convolutional neural network to realize the close coupling of a prediction model and geographic information, it improves the efficiency and accuracy of prediction.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura Forestal , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Computadores , Tecnología
14.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113606, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523540

RESUMEN

Forest certification has emerged as a voluntary, market-driven tool for sustainable forest management (SFM). Its legitimacy depends on its ability to achieve its objectives and to retain the support of stakeholders such as NGOs and the companies that adopt it. This study presents a novel approach for assessing the contributions of forest certification to biodiversity conservation, based on Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification in four northern European countries (Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia). In each case, national FSC certification requirements related to specific biodiversity targets were compared with requirements in national legislation. Nearly 80% of the assessed certification requirements were more prescriptive than the national legislation. One-third of these requirements (3-8 per country) were assessed to have a positive contribution to biodiversity conservation, whereas four requirements (up to 2 per country) were assessed to have a low positive contribution. FSC requirements to protect Woodland Key Habitats were identified as having a positive contribution in all four countries, whereas requirements regarding live tree retention in harvests and preserving dead wood had a positive contribution in three countries each. Despite often prescribing similar measures, the other requirements with positive contributions varied between countries depending on the national legislative baseline. The remaining requirements could not be assessed through expert evaluation, indicating the need for additional empirical research to evaluate how the normative requirements translate to impacts in the field, and how the national context may affect their implementation. The approach is globally applicable, repeatable, and provides a basis for designing systematic empirical assessments of the certification impact.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agricultura Forestal , Biodiversidad , Certificación , Bosques
15.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113733, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547572

RESUMEN

A range of approaches have been developed to support natural resource management. One such approach, stakeholder analysis, involves the use of a range of tools to identify and assess stakeholder interests and influence. Comprehensive empirical stakeholder analysis, however, can be time consuming and resource intensive. Approaches therefore frequently rely on the researcher's personal interpretation rather than empirical analysis. To address this limitation, a web content-based method (WCM) is proposed. Innovative and user-friendly, this empirical method comprises stakeholder information and the use of keywords in a content analysis of preselected stakeholder webpages, demonstrated here, through UK forestry, as an illustrative example. In this study, the application of WCM provides a comprehensive overview of the multitude of stakeholders in UK forestry and in the various goods and services they provide: Stakeholders' primary interests were in the provisioning services of timber and fuel wood; the cultural services of education and recreation; and to a lesser extent, the regulating services of climate and water regulation. While not without limitations, this systematic method provides an effective tool to support researchers, industry, and non-governmental organisations in different fields and countries, to undertake stakeholder analysis, especially in the case of small-scale studies in complex contexts and where resources are limited.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agricultura Forestal , Recursos Naturales , Madera
16.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113741, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562820

RESUMEN

Lowland oak forests host high biodiversity throughout Europe, and to maintain their high biodiversity potential we need to understand how current silviculture practices influence these ecosystems. The most common harvest approach in oak woodlands remains clear-cutting followed by site preparation for reforestation. The site preparation can vary in intensity and possibly affect forest biodiversity in various ways. We studied the impact of site preparation intensity on ground-dwelling arthropod predators and detritivores in commercial oak woodlands. The intensive management included mechanical site preparation with soil milling, stump removal, and herbicide application. The extensive management consisted of natural succession after reforestation with only such slight disturbances as regular hand-provided mowing of vegetation. We recorded 120 spider species, 92 species of ground beetles, 10 species of centipedes, 17 species of millipedes, and 7 species of woodlice, including a relatively large number of threatened species. We found that intensive post-logging management strongly homogenized the habitat structure, and this led to low multi-trophic taxonomic and functional diversity in comparison to that under extensive management. At sites with extensive management, there was not only high functional diversity but also high functional redundancy. Species of conservation concern almost vanished from clearings under intensive management. The high multi-trophic diversity and functional redundancy indicate that extensive site preparation may enhance ecosystem multi-functionality, including primary productivity and ecosystem resilience. Extensive post-harvest management is therefore strongly preferable, and it is also economically more feasible. Intensive post-harvest management should be prohibited in lowland forests within transition zones to localities under nature protection or in natural oak forests.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Quercus , Animales , Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Agricultura Forestal , Bosques , Árboles
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149737, 2021 Dec 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525717

RESUMEN

Human land use is one of the primary threats to terrestrial species richness and is considered a priority for meeting global sustainability and biodiversity targets. Decision-support tools, such as life cycle assessment (LCA), are widely used for developing strategies to achieve such objectives. Currently available life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods apply the countryside species-area relationship (c-SAR) to quantify habitat conversion impacts on species richness. However, additional effects of habitat fragmentation are yet ignored in these assessments. We use the species-habitat relationship (SHR), an adaptation of the c-SAR that considers both habitat conversion and fragmentation effects, to develop a new set of land-use characterisation factors for 702 terrestrial ecoregions (in 238 countries), four land-use types (urban, cropland, pasture, and forestry), and four taxonomic groups (amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles; plus the aggregate of these vertebrate groups). The SHR generally predicts higher per-area impacts of land-use than the impacts estimated by the c-SAR (a median relative difference of +9%), indicating that land-use impacts may be systematically underestimated when ignoring fragmentation effects. Whereas per-area impacts of land-use on regional species richness are highest in temperate regions, reflecting the diminished extent of natural habitat, per-area impacts of land-use on global species richness are highest in the subtropics, reflecting the importance of tropical regions and islands to global vertebrate species diversity. The large variety in magnitude of land-use impacts across the world's regions emphasizes the importance of regionalised assessments. The set of characterisation factors proposed here can be readily used in environmental decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Anfibios , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agricultura Forestal , Vertebrados
18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256843, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591856

RESUMEN

Understanding the responses of different ontogenetic stages to environmental and human disturbance factors is essential for developing efficient conservation strategies for endangered plant species. We examined how three ontogenetic stages of a locally endangered tree species, Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata, responded to environmental factors and human disturbance in Hugumburda dry Afromontane forest in Ethiopia. We counted individual seedlings, saplings and adults of O. europaea in 70 20 × 20 m quadrats over ca. 2.8 ha, and measured biotic (woody species richness, canopy cover, aboveground tree biomass, herbaceous cover), abiotic (soil and topographic variables), and human disturbance factors (logging and tracks). To detect ontogenetic niche shifts, we compared observed vs. simulated locations of trees in the three life stages and how they related to the environmental and human disturbance factors. We found that the population structure of O. europaea showed generally low recruitment, with few seedlings per hectare compared with the abundance of saplings and adults. The probability of finding O. europaea individuals was influenced by biotic (woody species richness) and abiotic (soil depth, slope) environmental conditions and human disturbance (logging intensity), but the direction, strength and shape of the relationships differed between seedling, sapling and adult life stages, indicating ontogenetic niche shifts. All life stages showed a positive relationship with elevation. The observed environmental niches of the different lifestages of O. europaea, and their association with human disturbance levels, should be considered when conservation strategies are developed for this species. Human disturbance in terms of logging decreases the abundance of saplings, but may facilitate emerging seedlings through creation of gaps with improved light conditions. Recruitment is, however, very low in the study area, and seedlings should be protected from browsing to enhance survival. Woody species richness in general should be conserved to optimize conditions also for O. europaea saplings.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Especies en Peligro de Extinción/tendencias , Agricultura Forestal/ética , Olea/fisiología , Plantones/fisiología , Ecosistema , Etiopía , Agricultura Forestal/métodos , Bosques , Humanos , Suelo/química , Madera/análisis
20.
Environ Manage ; 68(4): 553-565, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427762

RESUMEN

Production of value-added outputs from biomass residues represents an opportunity to increase the supply of renewable energy in Ethiopia. Particularly, agroforestry could provide biomass residues for improved bioenergy products. The aim of this study was to characterize the interest of growers to provide biomass residues to a hypothetical biomass feedstock market. This study relied on a survey conducted on a sample of 240 farmers. Although the awareness of potential biomass products was generally quite low, a majority of farmers expressed interest in supplying biomass residues, but the level of interest depended on certain individual socio-economic and demographic characteristics. For example, younger and female household heads were found to be more interested in participating in the hypothetical biomass market, as were households with an improved biomass stove, larger land holdings, and higher income levels. In addition, larger households and those that felt less vulnerable to firewood scarcity also expressed more interest. As a whole, the results imply that farmers, particularly those with younger and female heads of households, should be supported with programs tailored to ensure their inclusion in biomass supply chains. Respondents generally preferred farm-gate sales of biomass, so the collecting, baling, and transporting of woody residues need to be properly incentivized or new actors need to be recruited into the supply chain. Providing households with energy-efficient tools such as improved stoves would not only increase demand for biomass products, but also increase the amount of biomass residues that could be supplied to the market instead of used at home.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura Forestal , Energía Renovable , Población Rural , Biomasa , Comercio , Etiopía , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos
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