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1.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(7): 251, 2024 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38878071

RESUMEN

In the quest of achieving sustainable crop productivity, improved soil health, and increased carbon (C) sequestration in the soil, conservation agriculture (CA) is increasingly being promoted and adopted in the Indian subcontinent. However, because some researchers from different regions of the world have reported reduced crop yield under CA relative to agriculture based on conventional tillage (CT), a meta-analysis has been conducted based on published research from India to evaluate the effects of CA on the yield of crops, accumulation of soil organic C as an index of soil health, and C sequestration in the soil in different regions and soil textural groups in the country. The meta-analysis is based on 544 paired observations under CA and CT from 35 publications from India was carried out using Meta Win 2.1 software. The results showed an overall significant (p < 0.05) reduction of 1.15% crop yield under CA compared to CT. Yearwise data showed a reduction of yields under CA from 2009 to 2016, but an increase from 2017 to 2020. Yield reduction was observed in the eastern, north-eastern, and southern regions of India but in western, northern, and north-western regions of the country, an increase was observed under CA rather than CT. Sandy loam and clayey soils exhibited higher crop yield under CA than under CT. Compared to CT, soil organic C content and soil C sequestration under CA increased by 8.9% and 7.3%, respectively. Also, in all the regions and soil textural groups both soil organic C accumulation and soil C sequestration were higher under CA than under CT. Factors such as rainfall, soil depth, available nitrogen (N), and total N significantly influenced the extent of yield increase/decrease and soil organic C accumulation under CA. Overall, results of the meta-analysis suggest that the promotion of CA in India will have to be location-specific taking into consideration the crops, soil attributes, and climatic conditions.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Secuestro de Carbono , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Productos Agrícolas , Suelo , India , Suelo/química , Agricultura/métodos , Carbono/análisis
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 202: 105974, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879315

RESUMEN

In fact, less than 1% of applied pesticides reach their target pests, while the remainder pollute the neighboring environment and adversely impact human health as well as non-target organisms in agricultural ecosystem. Pesticides can contribute to the loss of agrobiodiversity, which are essential to maintaining the agro-ecosystem's structure and functioning in order to produce and secure enough food. This review article examines the negative effects of pesticides on non-target invertebrates including earthworms, honeybees, predators, and parasitoids. It also highlights areas where further research is needed to address unresolved issues related to pesticide exposure, aiming to improve conservation efforts for these crucial species. These organisms play crucial roles in ecosystem functioning, such as soil health, pollination, and pest control. Both lethal and sub-lethal effects of pesticides on the selected non-target invertebrates were discussed. Pesticides affect DNA integrity, enzyme activity, growth, behavior, and reproduction of earthworms even at low concentrations. Pesticides could also induce a reduction in individual survival, disruption in learning performance and memory, as well as a change in the foraging behavior of honeybees. Additionally, pesticides adversely affect population growth indices, reproduction, development, longevity, and consumption of predators and parasitoids. As a result, pesticides must pass adequate ecotoxicological risk assessment to be enlisted by regulatory authorities. Therefore, it is important to adopt integrated pest management (IPM) strategies that minimize pesticide use and promote the conservation of beneficial organisms in order to maintain agrobiodiversity and sustainable agricultural systems. Furthermore, adopting precision agriculture and organic farming lessen these negative effects as well.less than.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Ecosistema , Invertebrados , Plaguicidas , Animales , Plaguicidas/toxicidad , Invertebrados/efectos de los fármacos , Abejas/efectos de los fármacos , Abejas/fisiología , Oligoquetos/efectos de los fármacos
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(7): 620, 2024 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879715

RESUMEN

Climate change has exacerbated the contradiction between water scarcity and sustainable agricultural development. Assessing the crop water use efficiency and its influencing factors could provide a decision-making reference to realize Sustainable Development Goal 2. By analyzing the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of the crop water footprint, the blue water footprint, green water footprint, and grey water footprint were introduced into the super efficiency slack-based measure model to evaluate the crop water use efficiency in basins. The influence of the driving factors was examined by using the geographic detector model. The situation in the provinces along the Yellow River Basin from 2005 to 2020 was used as a verification case. The results indicated that (1) during the study period, crop water use in the basin was mainly based on the blue water footprint, accounting for approximately 55% of the total water footprint, the grey water footprint, accounting for approximately 30% of the total water footprint, and the green water footprint, accounting for the lowest proportion, at approximately 15%. (2) The crop water use efficiency exhibited a spatial distribution pattern of high values in the east and low values in the west, with obvious upstream provinces disposable income of rural residents (0.71) > population urbanization rate (0.65) > degree of agricultural mechanization (0.63) > agricultural disaster rate (0.61). Furthermore, the interaction effects between the driving factors were greater than the effects of the single factors. The study provides an important reference for understanding the changes, driving mechanisms, and impacts of crop water use efficiency in basin areas. It promotes green agricultural transformation and development to address climate change and alleviate the pressure on water resources.


Asunto(s)
Productos Agrícolas , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Abastecimiento de Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Agricultura , Cambio Climático , Riego Agrícola , China , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Ríos/química
4.
J Environ Manage ; 363: 121376, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852413

RESUMEN

The jeopardizing of ecological security due to the detrimental effects of human activities necessitates the adoption of various actions to reduce ecological intensity. Though some studies have explored the moderating impact of financial development (FND) towards achieving ecological security, in Arab World it has not been thoroughly investigated. Against this backdrop, we investigate combined role of agricultural production (AFP), gross domestic product (GDP), energy consumption, population, direct and moderating impacts of FND on ecological intensity for a panel of 12 Arab League member states from 1995 to 2021. The empirical outcomes unveiled that AFP and GDP have U-shaped nexus with ecological intensity. It posits that at early stages of AFP, ecological intensity is reduced to a certain level, beyond which higher AFPhinders ecological security supporting the evidence against the Borlaug hypothesis. Our findings further unfolded that environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis does not hold for the selected Arab League member states, denoting that real GDP has a U-shaped relationship with ecological intensity. Further findings confirm that energy consumption induces ecological deterioration in the absence of its interaction with FND, along with the interaction term. The causality results largely support these outcomes. Based on these findings, Arab League's climate-related policies should further explore FND to drive energy transition and environmentally friendly measures.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Ecología , Producto Interno Bruto , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Desarrollo Económico , Humanos
5.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 35(4): 926-932, 2024 Apr 18.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38884227

RESUMEN

To provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the high-yield and high-efficiency production of wheat, we examined the effects of different tillage patterns on wheat grain yield of Jimai 22 and the physiological mechanisms in an experiment with three treatments: 14 years in rotary tillage (R), minimal and no tillage (S), and minimal and no tillage with a 2-year subsoiling interval (SS). We assessed the light interception by wheat plant canopy, the distribution of photosynthate transport, and grain yield for the three cultivation modes. The results showed that leaf area index was significantly higher for SS treatment than the other treatments at 14-28 days after anthesis. The interception rate and amount of photosynthetically active radiation in the upper and middle layers of wheat canopy were significantly higher for SS treatment than R and S treatments at 21 days after anthesis. The contribution rate of grain assimilation and the distribution proportion of 13C assimilated in grain, and the maximum and average filling rates, were the highest under SS treatment. The 1000-kernel weight for SS treatment increased by 8.7% and 9.6%, and the grain yield increased by 14.2% and 19.4% compared with R and S treatments, respectively. SS treatment significantly improved light energy utilization by wheat canopy, promoted the accumulation and transport of dry matter, increased the grain-filling rate, increased grain weight, which together contributed to the highest grain yield. Therefore, SS was the optimal tillage pattern under the conditions of this experiment.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Biomasa , Producción de Cultivos , Triticum , Triticum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Triticum/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos , Producción de Cultivos/métodos , Grano Comestible/crecimiento & desarrollo , Isótopos de Carbono/análisis
6.
J Environ Manage ; 362: 121228, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823304

RESUMEN

The advent of air nanobubbles (ANBs) has opened up a wide range of commercial applications spanning industries including wastewater treatment, food processing, biomedical engineering, and agriculture. The implementation of electric field-based air nanobubbles (EF-ANBs) irrigation presents a promising approach to enhance agricultural crop efficiency, concurrently promoting environmentally sustainable practices through reducing fertilizer usage. This study investigated the impact of EF-ANBs on the germination and overall growth of agricultural crops in soil. Results indicate a substantial enhancement in both germination rates and plant growth upon the application of EF-ANBs. Notably, the introduction of ANBs led to a significant enhancement in the germination rate of lettuce and basil, increasing from approximately 20% to 96% and from 16% to 53%, respectively over two days. Moreover, the presence of EF-ANBs facilitates superior hypocotyl elongation, exhibiting a 2.8- and a 1.6-fold increase in the elongation of lettuce and basil, respectively, over a six-day observation period. The enriched oxygen levels within the air nanobubbles expedite aerobic respiration, amplifying electron leakage from the electron transport chain (ETC) and resulting in heightened reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, playing a pivotal role in stimulating growth signaling. Furthermore, the application of EF-ANBs in irrigation surpasses the impact of traditional fertilizers, demonstrating a robust catalytic effect on the shoot, stem, and root length, as well as the leaf count of lettuce plants. Considering these parameters, a single fertilizer treatment (at various concentrations) during EF-ANBs administration, demonstrates superior plant growth compared to regular water combined with fertilizer. The findings underscore the synergistic interaction between aerobic respiration and the generation of ROS in promoting plant growth, particularly in the context of reduced fertilizer levels facilitated by the presence of EF-ANBs. This promising correlation holds significant potential in establishing more sustainability for ever-increasing environmentally conscious agriculture.


Asunto(s)
Riego Agrícola , Productos Agrícolas , Fertilizantes , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Riego Agrícola/métodos , Lactuca/crecimiento & desarrollo , Germinación/efectos de los fármacos , Suelo/química , Agricultura/métodos , Aire
7.
J Environ Manage ; 362: 121219, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838532

RESUMEN

At least 87% of angiosperm species require animal vectors for their reproduction, while more than two-thirds of major global food crops depend on zoogamous pollination. Pollinator insects are a wide variety of organisms that require diverse biotic and abiotic resources. Many factors have contributed to a serious decrease in the abundance of populations and diversity of pollinator species over the years. This decline is alarming, and the European Union has taken several actions aimed at counteracting it by issuing new conservation policies and standardizing the actions of member countries. In 2019, the European Green Deal was presented, aiming to restore 100% of Europe's degraded land by 2050 through financial and legislative instruments. Moreover, the Common Agricultural Policies have entailed greening measures for the conservation of habitats and beneficial species for more than 10 years. The new CAP (CAP 23-27) reinforces conservation objectives through strategic plans based on eco-schemes defined at the national level by the member countries, and some states have specifically defined eco-schemes for pollinator conservation. Here, we review the framework of EU policies, directives, and regulations, which include measures aimed at protecting pollinators in agricultural, urban, and peri-urban environments. Moreover, we reviewed the literature reporting experimental works on the environmental amelioration for pollinators, particularly those where CAP measures were implemented and evaluated, as well as studies conducted in urban areas. Among CAP measures, several experimental works have considered the sowing and management of entomophilous plants and reported results important for environmental ameliorations. Some urban, peri-urban and wasteland areas have been reported to host a considerable number of pollinators, especially wild bees, and despite the lack of specific directives, their potential to contribute to pollinator conservation could be enhanced through targeted actions, as highlighted by some studies.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Polinización , Europa (Continente) , Animales , Ecosistema , Agricultura , Política , Insectos , Unión Europea
8.
J Environ Manage ; 362: 121316, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838540

RESUMEN

Given the increasing concern over Cd contamination of agricultural soils in China, reducing the availability of the toxic metal has become an important remedial strategy. However, the lack of a unified evaluation framework complicates the assessment of remediation efficiency of different practices. Here, we evaluated the general extraction method (GEM) of available Cd in nine typical soil types by comparing extraction agents, including CaCl2, EDTA, Mehlich-Ⅲ, HCl and DTPA. The safe grain concentration of different agricultural products from National Food Safety Standards Limits of Contaminants in Food (GB 2762-2022) was then applied to understand soil limited available Cd concentration based on dose-response curves. We also derived environmental risk threshold (HC5) values for Cd remediation in agricultural soils by constructing species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves. The results showed that Mehlich-Ⅲ best predicted Cd accumulation in crops (with 76.5% of explanation of grain Cd) and was selected as the GEM of soil available Cd for subsequent analyses. The regression coefficient (R2) of dose-response curves fitting between Cd absorption in crop tissues and soil available Cd extracted by GEM based on 30 different crop species varied from 51.0% to 79.5%, and the derived limit concentration of soil available Cd based on standard GB 2762-2022 was 0.18-0.76 mg‧kg-1. An HC5 of 0.19 mg‧kg-1 was then calculated, meaning that a concentration of available Cd in agricultural soil below 0.19 mg‧kg-1 ensures that 95% of agricultural products meet the quality and safety requirements of standard GB 2762-2022. The prediction model was well verified in the field test, indicating that can correctly estimate the soil available Cd based on the content of Cd in plant. This study provides a robust scientific framework for deriving the risk threshold for Cd remediation in agricultural soils and could be quite useful for establishing soil remediation standards.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Cadmio , Restauración y Remediación Ambiental , Contaminantes del Suelo , Suelo , Cadmio/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , China , Suelo/química , Restauración y Remediación Ambiental/métodos , Productos Agrícolas , Pueblos del Este de Asia
9.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0305097, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857213

RESUMEN

Understanding of soil phosphorus (P) transformation is crucial to minimize its edge-of-field loss associated with ecosystem disservices. A sequential chemical extraction procedure was used to assess the impact (42 years) of organic and chemical fertilizations on soil P partition and distribution under subtropical rice based cropping systems. Experimental treatments were control, N, NP, NK, NS, NZn, NPK, NSZn, NPKSZn, and N+FYM (farmyard manure). Composite soils were collected from 0-5, 20-25 and 40-45 cm depths, extracted, and analyzed for soluble P, NaHCO3-P (inorganic and organic), NaOH-P (inorganic and organic), acid soluble (H2SO4), and residual P fractions. The NPKSZn significantly increased the concentration of soil inorganic P compared to other treatments. When FYM was applied together with N fertilizer, the organic P concentration increased, which was statistically identical to NPKSZn and NPK treatments. While the labile (NaHCO3-Pi, NaOH-Po), residual, and total P concentrations were stratified at 0-5 cm depth, the concentration of NaHCO3-Po, NaOH-Pi, and acidic P fractions increased with soil depth. The soluble, NaHCO3 (Pi and Po), NaOH-Pi and NaOH-Po, acidic, and residual P fractions constituted about 0.4, 6.6, 1.7, 21.3, 37.7, and 8.3%, respectively, of the total P. A higher concentration of the labile P at the surface soil indicated that the impact of chemical fertilization stratified the available P for plant uptake or susceptible to edge-of-field loss. The NPKSZn and N+FYM both had higher NaHCO3-Po and NaOH-Po concentrations within 40-45 cm and 0-25 cm depths, suggesting that N+FYM could promote the transformation of non-labile P into labile P pool, by reducing P fixation by soil and transport them at 20-45 cm depth. It is concluded that long-term fertilization increased the concentration of P pools especially labile P by saturating the soil adsorption sites especially in surface soil.


Asunto(s)
Fertilizantes , Oryza , Fósforo , Suelo , Oryza/crecimiento & desarrollo , Oryza/química , Fósforo/análisis , Suelo/química , Fertilizantes/análisis , Agricultura/métodos , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo
11.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 23(4): e13375, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865211

RESUMEN

Increasing global consumption of protein over the last five decades, coupled with concerns about the impact on emissions of animal-based protein production, has created interest in alternative protein sources. Microbial proteins (MPs), derived through the fermentation of agro-industrial byproducts, present a promising option. This review assesses a century of advancements in this domain. We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis, examining 347 relevant research papers to identify trends, technological advancements, and key influencing factors in the production of MP. The analysis covered the types of feedstocks and microbes, fermentation methods, and the implications of nucleic acid content on the food-grade quality of proteins. A conditional inference tree model and Bayesian factor were used to ascertain the impact of various parameters on protein content. Out of all the studied parameters, such as type of feedstock (lignocellulose, free sugars, gases, and others), type of fermentation (solid, liquid, gas), type of microbe (bacteria, fungi, yeast, and mix), and operating parameters (temperature, time, and pH), the type of fermentation and microbe were identified as the largest influences on protein content. Gas and liquid fermentation demonstrated higher protein content, averaging 52% and 42%, respectively. Among microbes, bacterial species produced a higher protein content of 51%. The suitable operating parameters, such as pH, time, and temperature, were also identified for different microbes. The results point to opportunities for continued innovation in feedstock, microbes, and regulatory alignment to fully realize the potential of MP in contributing to global food security and sustainability goals.


Asunto(s)
Fermentación , Bacterias/metabolismo , Residuos Industriales/análisis , Hongos/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos
12.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0302598, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870179

RESUMEN

In the context of emerging international trade regulations on deforestation-free commodities, the drivers of households' deforestation in conservation landscapes are of interest. The role of households' livelihood strategies including cocoa production, and the effects of human-elephant conflict are investigated. Using a unique dataset from a survey of 1035 households in the Tridom landscape in the Congo basin, the spatial autoregressive model shows that: (1) Households imitate the deforestation decisions of their neighbors; (2) A marginally higher income from cocoa production-based livelihood portfolios is associated with six to seven times higher deforestation compared to other livelihood strategies with a significant spillover effect on neighboring households' deforestation. The increase in income, mainly from cocoa production-based livelihoods in open-access systems can have a negative effect on forests. Households with a higher share of auto-consumption are associated with lower deforestation. If economic development brings better market access and lower auto-consumption shares, this is likely to positively influence deforestation. Without proper land use planning/zoning associated with incentives, promoting sustainable agriculture, such as complex cocoa agroforestry systems, may lead to forest degradation and deforestation.


Asunto(s)
Cacao , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Congo , Humanos , Análisis Espacial , Agricultura/economía , Bosques , Composición Familiar , Renta
13.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304896, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870199

RESUMEN

This study examined land use land cover change and its determinants in Tigray, Ethiopia and its livelihood zones. We used socioeconomic panel, and satellite data, and applied a mixed-effects model to analyse the factors influencing land allocation among different uses, and transition matrix to analyse land cover dynamics. The results revealed that; land use choices were influenced by plot level factors (such as plot elevation, distance, soil type and quality, and land tenure), household characteristics (such as education, dependency ratio, plot size and number owned, income, livestock and asset, perception of climate change, and access to market and main road), and community level factors (precipitation, product price, population density and livelihood zone variations). Transition matrix analysis showed that between 1986 and 2016, 12.8% of forest was converted to bare land, 6.26% bare land was converted to pasture, and 5.84% of cropland was converted to forest. However, net deforestation occurred in most of the livelihood zones. Therefore, local communities faced environmental and socio-economic challenges from capital constraints induced land fallowing, land fragmentation, and unmanaged land cover change. The study recommended sustainable land use planning and management, market linkages, improved access to roads, forestry subsidies, land tenure security, and land consolidation programs.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Etiopía , Humanos , Bosques , Agricultura , Cambio Climático
14.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1400921, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38873303

RESUMEN

Rapid urbanization a major factor affecting heavy metal contamination on suburban agricultural soils. In order to assess the dynamic contamination of heavy metals in soil from agricultural land bordering a rapidly urbanizing area and the transfer of human health risks from contaminants in this process, 186 and 293 soil samples from agricultural land in suburban Chengdu were collected in September 2008 and September 2017, respectively. Several indicators, such as the integrated pollution index (PI) and the potential ecological risk index (RI), were employed for analyzing the heavy metal contamination levels, and the APCS-MLR receptor model were applied for analyzing the heavy metal sources. As a result, mean concentrations for five elements did not exceed the national soil pollution risk screening values in the two periods mentioned above. Nemerow's composite contamination index revealed an increase in soil contamination of arable land after 10 years of urbanization, with 3.75 and 1.02% of light and moderate sample plots, respectively, by 2017. The assessment for potential ecological risk indicated an increased level of eco-risk to high for most of the sample plots. Based on the APCS-MLR model, the origin and contribution to the five elements varied considerably between the two periods mentioned above. Among them, soil Pb changed from "industrial source" to "transportation source," soil Cr changed from "natural source" to "transportation source," and As and Hg changed from "industrial source" to "transportation source." As and Hg were associated with agricultural activities in both periods, and Cd was derived from industrial activities in both periods. The study suggests that inhalation has become a major contributor to non-cancer health risks in urbanization, unlike intake routes in previous periods, and that the increase in cancer risk is mainly due to children's consumption of agricultural products with As residues. The change in the main source of As to "transportation" also indicates a decrease in air quality during urbanization and the development of the transportation industry. This study provides a reference for the governments of rapidly urbanizing cities to formulate relevant highway and agricultural policies to safeguard the health of the people based on the current situation.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Arsénico , Cadmio , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plomo , Mercurio , Contaminantes del Suelo , Urbanización , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , China , Mercurio/análisis , Humanos , Cadmio/análisis , Arsénico/análisis , Plomo/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Metales Pesados/análisis , Cromo/análisis , Suelo/química
15.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(8): 239, 2024 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862848

RESUMEN

Anaerobic digestion (AD) emerges as a pivotal technique in climate change mitigation, transforming organic materials into biogas, a renewable energy form. This process significantly impacts energy production and waste management, influencing greenhouse gas emissions. Traditional research has largely focused on anaerobic bacteria and methanogens for methane production. However, the potential of anaerobic lignocellulolytic fungi for degrading lignocellulosic biomass remains less explored. In this study, buffalo rumen inocula were enriched and acclimatized to improve lignocellulolytic hydrolysis activity. Two consortia were established: the anaerobic fungi consortium (AFC), selectively enriched for fungi, and the anaerobic lignocellulolytic microbial consortium (ALMC). The consortia were utilized to create five distinct microbial cocktails-AF0, AF20, AF50, AF80, and AF100. These cocktails were formulated based on varying of AFC and ALMC by weights (w/w). Methane production from each cocktail of lignocellulosic biomasses (cassava pulp and oil palm residues) was evaluated. The highest methane yields of CP, EFB, and MFB were obtained at 337, 215, and 54 mL/g VS, respectively. Cocktails containing a mix of anaerobic fungi, hydrolytic bacteria (Sphingobacterium sp.), syntrophic bacteria (Sphaerochaeta sp.), and hydrogenotrophic methanogens produced 2.1-2.6 times higher methane in cassava pulp and 1.1-1.2 times in oil palm empty fruit bunch compared to AF0. All cocktails effectively produced methane from oil palm empty fruit bunch due to its lipid content. However, methane production ceased after 3 days when oil palm mesocarp fiber was used, due to long-chain fatty acid accumulation. Anaerobic fungi consortia showed effective lignocellulosic and starchy biomass degradation without inhibition due to organic acid accumulation. These findings underscore the potential of tailored microbial cocktails for enhancing methane production from diverse lignocellulosic substrates.


Asunto(s)
Biomasa , Hongos , Lignina , Metano , Consorcios Microbianos , Metano/metabolismo , Anaerobiosis , Lignina/metabolismo , Hongos/metabolismo , Hongos/clasificación , Animales , Rumen/microbiología , Biocombustibles , Hidrólisis , Fermentación , Bacterias/metabolismo , Bacterias/clasificación , Residuos Industriales , Agricultura/métodos
16.
J Environ Manage ; 363: 121296, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843732

RESUMEN

We developed a high-resolution machine learning based surrogate model to identify a robust land-use future for Australia which meets multiple UN Sustainable Development Goals. We compared machine learning models with different architectures to pick the best performing model considering the data type, accuracy metrics, ability to handle uncertainty and computational overhead requirement. The surrogate model, called ML-LUTO Spatial, was trained on the Land-Use Trade-Offs (version 1.0) model of Australian agricultural land system sustainability. Using the surrogate model, we generated projections of land-use futures at 1.1 km resolution with 95% classification accuracy, and which far surpassed the computational benchmarks of the original model. This efficiency enabled the generation of numerous SDG-compliant (SDGs 2, 6, 7, 13, 15) future land-use maps on a standard laptop, a task previously dependent upon high-performance computing clusters. Combining these projections, we derived a single, robust land-use future and quantified the uncertainty. Our findings indicate that while agricultural land-use remains dominant in all Australian regions, extensive carbon plantings were identified in Queensland and environmental plantings played a role across the study area, reflecting a growing urgency for offsetting greenhouse gas emissions and the restoration of ecosystems to support biodiversity across Australia to meet the 2050 Sustainable Development Goals.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Aprendizaje Automático , Desarrollo Sostenible , Australia , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Modelos Teóricos , Biodiversidad
17.
J Environ Manage ; 363: 121372, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843730

RESUMEN

Managing landscape change is increasingly challenging due to rapid anthropogenic shifts. A delicate balance must be struck between the environment and change to ensure landscapes can withstand these impacts. This study conducted in the Tunca River sub-basin of Edirne province, aims to assess landscape sensitivity by examining the influence of land use/land cover (LULC) and climate change on landscape function processes. For this purpose, a methodology was developed based on ecosystem services to determine landscape sensitivity. The results revealed a LULC transformation that could lead to a 60% reduction in forest areas and a 5% and 20% increase in urban and irrigated agricultural areas, respectively. Water and erosion emerged as the most affected landscape function processes. Future scenarios from 2050 to 2070 indicate noteworthy changes in landscape sensitivity, showing an increase in sensitivity in the upper regions of the basin. The study identified high sensitivity in forested areas, moderate sensitivity in agricultural zones, and low sensitivity in micro-basins near residential areas. Protection and improvement strategies are recommended for areas with high and moderate sensitivity, while use-oriented strategies are suggested for those with low sensitivity. This study also establishes a scientific foundation for guiding the protection and management of ecologically sensitive basin areas, offering insights into the effects of landscape change processes at the micro-basin level in connection with climate change models.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Ríos , Bosques
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 941: 173737, 2024 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844214

RESUMEN

Bacterial communities in soil and rhizosphere maintain a large collection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, few of these ARGs and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) are well-characterized under traditional farming practices. Here we compared the ARG profiles of maize rhizosphere and their bulk soils using metagenomic analysis to identify the ARG dissemination and explored the potential impact of chemical fertilization on ARB. Results showed a relatively lower abundance but higher diversity of ARGs under fertilization than straw-return. Moreover, the abundance and diversity of MGEs were significantly promoted by chemical fertilizer inputs in the rhizosphere compared to bulk soil. Machine learning and bipartite networks identified three bacterial genera (Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Streptomyces) as biomarkers for ARG accumulation. Thus we cultured 509 isolates belonging to these three genera from the rhizosphere and tested their antimicrobial susceptibility, and found that multi-resistance was frequently observed among Pseudomonas isolates. Assembly-based tracking explained that ARGs and four class I integrons (LR134330, LS998783, CP065848, LT883143) were co-occurred among contigs from Pseudomonas sp. Chemical fertilizers may shape the resistomes of maize rhizosphere, highlighting that rhizosphere carried multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas isolates, which may pose a risk to animal and human health. This study adds knowledge of long-term chemical fertilization on ARG dissemination in farmland systems and provides information for decision-making in agricultural production and monitoring.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Fertilizantes , Rizosfera , Microbiología del Suelo , Zea mays , Zea mays/microbiología , Agricultura/métodos , Bacterias , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Suelo/química , Genes Bacterianos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 941: 173781, 2024 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844242

RESUMEN

Addressing critical challenges in sustainable agriculture, notably water scarcity and soil degradation, necessitates innovative irrigation and fertilization methods. This investigation thoroughly assessed the effects of combining inorganic and organic fertilizers under brackish water irrigation, particularly focusing on magnetized-ionized brackish water-a promising solution for these challenges. The study shows that the integration of inorganic and organic fertilizers notably enhances soil water retention and salt leaching when applied with magnetized-ionized brackish water irrigation (MIBIO treatment), with water storage rate and salt accumulation rate observed at -0.454 and -0.075, respectively. Additionally, soil microbial diversity and uniformity witnessed significant improvement, positively influencing cotton growth rates, particularly noting a dry matter accumulation rate of 9.3262 kg·(ha·°C)-1. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the MIBIO treatment elevated gene expression during the boll period, with notable enrichment in pathways such as the MAPK signaling pathway-plant and amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism. Furthermore, the partial least squares path modeling indicated that soil alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen (AN) and available potassium (AK) positively impact cotton leaf transcription and yield, with path coefficients of 0.613 and 0.428, respectively. Specifically, AN and AK contribute to enhancing cotton growth and affect the expression of metabolism genes in cotton leaves, thereby increasing cotton yield. Our study highlights the crucial role of irrigation and fertilization in influencing the soil environment and cotton growth. We recommend the use of magnetized-ionized water irrigation in combination with organic fertilizers as a strategy to boost agricultural productivity. Through the development of these strategies, our goal is to offer farmers practical guidance that can be readily implemented to enhance crop production efficiency, reduce environmental impact, and adhere to the principles of sustainable agriculture.


Asunto(s)
Fertilizantes , Gossypium , Suelo , Gossypium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Suelo/química , Riego Agrícola/métodos , Agua , Agricultura/métodos , Nitrógeno , Microbiología del Suelo
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 940: 173705, 2024 Aug 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830419

RESUMEN

Pesticides present a significant risk for both humans and the environment. However, quantitative data for a broad range of airborne pesticides in agricultural areas are missing. During or after the application, pesticides can reach the atmosphere and partition between the particulate and gaseous phase. As part of the EU project SPRINT, weekly ambient air samples were collected from two agricultural areas in Portugal (vineyard) and the Netherlands (potatoes, onions, and sugarbeet) between April 2021 and June 2022 using high-volume air samplers. The samples were analysed for 329 pesticides, of which 99 were detected. The most frequently detected compounds included the fungicides folpet, fenpropidin and mandipropamid, the insecticide chlorpyrifos-methyl, the herbicide terbuthylazine, and the metabolite prothioconazole-desthio, which were found with detection frequencies between 40 and 57 %. Pesticide concentrations ranged between 0.003 ng/m3 and 10 ng/m3. Remarkably, 97 % of the samples contained at least one pesticide and in 95 % of the samples, pesticide mixtures were present. The calculated particle phase fractions correlated with the octanol-air partitioning coefficient for most of the investigated compounds. Furthermore, calculated daily inhalation rates for individual pesticides and pesticide mixtures were far below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) with a margin of exposure (MOE) of >1000 for the highest calculated daily inhalation rate for a child. However, as this value only includes pesticide intake from food and drinking water and considering that 91 % of the detected pesticides are associated with potential adverse human health effects. These findings highlight the broad range of airborne pesticides in agricultural areas and the need for quantitative data to include the intake of mixtures of highly hazardous pesticides by inhalation in human risk assessment.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plaguicidas , Plaguicidas/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Portugal , Países Bajos , Humanos
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