Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.761
Filtrar
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145655, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940748

RESUMEN

The combination of ozonation (O3) and biofiltration processes has become practical and desirable in advanced water reclamation for water reuse applications. However, the role of microbial community and its characteristics (source, abundance, composition, viability, structure) on treatment performance has not received the same attention in water reclamation biofilters as in other applications, such as in drinking water biofilters. Microbial community characterization of biofilters used in water reuse applications will add evidence to better understand the potential microorganisms, consequent risks, and mechanisms that will populate drinking water sources and ultimately influence public health and the environment. This critical review provides insights into O3-biofiltration as a treatment barrier with a focus on development, structure, and composition of the microbial community characteristics involved in the process. The effect of microorganism seeding by the influent before and after the biofilter and ozone oxidation effects are explored to capture the microbial ecology interactions and environmental factors affecting the media ecosystem. The findings of reviewed studies concurred in identifying Proteobacteria as the most dominant phylum. However, Proteobacteria and other phyla relative abundance differ substantially depending upon environmental factors (e.g., pH, temperature, nutrients availability, among others) gradients. In general, we found significant gaps to relate and explain the biodegradation performance and metabolic processes within the biofilter, and hence deserve future attention. We highlighted and identified key challenges and future research ideas to assure O3-biofiltration reliability as a promising barrier in advanced water treatment applications.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Microbiota , Purificación del Agua , Filtración , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802172

RESUMEN

The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic has not only resulted in immense loss of human life, but it also rampaged across the global economy and socio-cultural structure. Worldwide, countries imposed stringent mass quarantine and lockdowns to curb the transmission of the pathogen. While the efficacy of such lockdown is debatable, several reports suggest that the reduced human activities provided an inadvertent benefit by briefly improving air and water quality. India observed a 68-days long, nation-wide, stringent lockdown between 24 March and 31 May 2020. Here, we delineate the impact of the lockdown on groundwater and river sourced drinking water sustainability in the arsenic polluted Ganges river basin of India, which is regarded as one of the largest and most polluted river basins in the world. Using groundwater arsenic measurements from drinking water wells and water quality data from river monitoring stations, we have studied ~700 km stretches of the middle and lower reaches of the As (arsenic)-polluted parts of the river for pre-lockdown (January-March 2020), syn-lockdown (April-May), and post-lockdown periods (June-July). We provide the extent of As pollution-free groundwater vis-à-vis river water and examine alleviation from lockdown as an opportunity for sustainable drinking water sources. The overall decrease of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations and increase of pH suggests a general improvement in Ganges water quality during the lockdown in contrast to pre-and-post lockdown periods, potentially caused by reduced effluent. We also demonstrate that land use (agricultural/industrial) and land cover (urban-periurban/rural) in the vicinity of the river reaches seems to have a strong influence on river pollutants. The observations provide a cautious optimistic scenario for potentially developing sustainable drinking water sources in the arsenic-affected Ganges river basin in the future by using these observations as the basis of proper scientifically prudent, spatially adaptive strategies, and technological interventions.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , India , Pandemias , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 5791-5805, 2021 05 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822585

RESUMEN

Globally, over 200 million people are chronically exposed to arsenic (As) and/or manganese (Mn) from drinking water. We used machine-learning (ML) boosted regression tree (BRT) models to predict high As (>10 µg/L) and Mn (>300 µg/L) in groundwater from the glacial aquifer system (GLAC), which spans 25 states in the northern United States and provides drinking water to 30 million people. Our BRT models' predictor variables (PVs) included recently developed three-dimensional estimates of a suite of groundwater age metrics, redox condition, and pH. We also demonstrated a successful approach to significantly improve ML prediction sensitivity for imbalanced data sets (small percentage of high values). We present predictions of the probability of high As and high Mn concentrations in groundwater, and uncertainty, at two nonuniform depth surfaces that represent moving median depths of GLAC domestic and public supply wells within the three-dimensional model domain. Predicted high likelihood of anoxic condition (high iron or low dissolved oxygen), predicted pH, relative well depth, several modeled groundwater age metrics, and hydrologic position were all PVs retained in both models; however, PV importance and influence differed between the models. High-As and high-Mn groundwater was predicted with high likelihood over large portions of the central part of the GLAC.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Agua Potable , Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Arsénico/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Aprendizaje Automático , Manganeso/análisis , Estados Unidos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 5906-5916, 2021 05 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830743

RESUMEN

Although >700 disinfection byproducts (DBPs) have been identified, >50% of the total organic halogen (TOX) in drinking water chlorination is unknown, and the DBPs responsible for the chlorination-associated health risks remain largely unclear. Recent studies have revealed numerous aromatic halo-DBPs, which generally present substantially higher developmental toxicity than aliphatic halo-DBPs. This raises a fascinating and important question: how much of the TOX and developmental toxicity of chlorinated drinking water can be attributed to aromatic halo-DBPs? In this study, an effective approach with ultraperformance liquid chromatography was developed to separate the DBP mixture (from chlorination of bromide-rich raw water) into aliphatic and aromatic fractions, which were then characterized for their TOX and developmental toxicity. For chlorine contact times of 0.25-72 h, aromatic fractions accounted for 49-67% of the TOX in the obtained aliphatic and aromatic fractions, which were equivalent to 26-36% of the TOX in the original chlorinated water samples. Aromatic halo-DBP fractions were more developmentally toxic than the corresponding aliphatic fractions, and the overall developmental toxicity of chlorinated water samples was dominated by aromatic halo-DBP fractions. This might be explained by the considerably higher potentials of aromatic halo-DBPs to bioconcentrate and then generate reactive oxygen species in the organism.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Desinfectantes/análisis , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Desinfección , Halogenación , Halógenos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
5.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(2): 219-223, 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825386

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the capacity of laboratories participated in the proficiency testing (PT) of determination potassium in serum and improve the quality of testing, and put forward technical suggestions for unsatisfied laboratories. METHODS: According to the requirements of CNAS related documents, the homogeneity and stability of the real PT sample were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and t test, respectively. The values of real PT samples were assigned by reference method which was used in PT results assay. It is required that the deviation of value of real PT samples (code:2, 3, 5) between the measured value and the assigned value shall be within ±15.0%. The precision of values for all samples should not be greater than 3.0%. RESULTS: All the laboratories submitted valid data according to the requirements. Only one laboratory did not meet the requirements, and the satisfaction rate was 90.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The ability of most of laboratories are accurate and reliable.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Potasio , Agua Potable/análisis , Laboratorios , Ensayos de Aptitud de Laboratorios
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799714

RESUMEN

Long-term variations in reservoir water chemistry could provide essential data in making sustainable water quality management decisions. Here, we analyzed the spatiotemporal variabilities of nutrients, sestonic chlorophyll-a (CHL-a), nutrient enrichment, dominant algal species, and overall chemical water health of the third-largest drinking water reservoir in South Korea during 2000-2020. Our results distinctly explained the strong influence of monsoon rainfall on spatial and annual water chemistry variations. We observed a consistent increase in the chemical oxygen demand alluding to organic matter pollutants, while a steady declining trend in the sestonic CHL-a. The long-term total phosphorus (TP) level showed a steady reduction from the riverine zone to the lacustrine area. However, a higher total coliform bacteria (TCB) was observed at the water intake tower sites. TP displayed a strong link to algal CHL-a and ambient nitrogen phosphorus ratios, suggesting a robust phosphorus-limitation state. The severe phosphorus-limitation was also corroborated by the findings of trophic state index deviation. The high and low flow dynamics exhibited the strong influence of intensive rainfall carrying many nutrients and sediments and flushing out the sestonic CHL-a. Successive eutrophic conditions prevailed along with dominating blue-green algae species (Microcystis and Anabaena). We observed a strong positive correlation (r = 0.62) between water temperature and CHL-a and between total suspended solids and TP (r = 0.65). The multi-metric water pollution index characterized the overall water quality as 'good' at all the study sites. In conclusion, the long-term spatiotemporal variabilities of the ecological functions based on the nutrient-CHL-a empirical models are regulated mainly by the intensive monsoon precipitation. The drinking water could become hazardous under the recurrent eutrophication events and chemical degradations due to uncontrolled and untreated inflow of sewage and wastewater treatment plant effluents. Therefore, we strongly advocate stringent criteria to mitigate phosphorus and organic pollutant influx for sustainable management of Daecheong Reservoir.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , China , Clorofila/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Eutrofización , Nitrógeno/análisis , Nutrientes , Fósforo/análisis , República de Corea , Estaciones del Año
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804377

RESUMEN

Since 2005, over 30 epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between nitrate in drinking water and adverse health outcomes. Conditions that lead to nitrate pollution in water, such as open defecation, the proximity of septic tanks to water sources, and the use of inorganic fertilizer, are rampant in Indonesia, which has experienced little research evaluating nitrate in drinking water. We conducted a health risk assessment for exposure to nitrate in drinking water and evaluated the nitrate concentration in key water sources in two villages of rural Central Java, Indonesia. The nitrate concentrations in the drinking water ranged from 3.55 mg/L to 26.75 mg/L as NO3-. Daily nitrate intake estimates, calculated at 50% and 95% exposure to the maximum nitrate concentration of the drinking water in both villages, were above the levels associated with birth defects, colorectal cancer, and thyroid conditions observed in other studies. There was a large variation in nitrate concentrations between and within the villages at different water sources. Further research into whether these health outcomes exist in rural Central Java, Indonesia will be required to better understand this risk.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Agua Potable/análisis , Humanos , Indonesia , Nitratos/análisis , Nitratos/toxicidad , Óxidos de Nitrógeno , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Abastecimiento de Agua
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(8)2021 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920297

RESUMEN

Biosensors represent an attractive approach for fast bacteria detection. Here, we present an optical biosensor for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Salmonella bacteria in drinking water, based on white light reflectance spectroscopy. The sensor chip consisted of a Si die with a thin SiO2 layer on top that was transformed into a biosensor through the immobilization of Salmonella LPS. The optical setup included a reflection probe with seven 200 µm fibers, a visible and near-infrared light source, and a spectrometer. The six fibers at the reflection probe circumference were coupled with the light source and illuminated the biosensor chip vertically, whereas the central fiber collected the reflected light and guided it to the spectrometer. A competitive immunoassay configuration was adopted for the analysis. Accordingly, a mixture of LPS or bacteria solution, pre-incubated for 15 min, with an anti-Salmonella LPS antibody was pumped over the chip followed by biotinylated secondary antibody and streptavidin for signal enhancement. The binding of the free anti-Salmonella antibody to chip-immobilized LPS led to a shift of the reflectance spectrum that was inversely related to the analyte concentration (LPS or bacteria) in the calibrators or samples. The total assay duration was 15 min, and the detection limits achieved were 4 ng/mL for LPS and 320 CFU/mL for bacteria. Taking into account the low detection limits, the short analysis time, and the small size of the chip and instrumentation employed, the proposed immunosensor could find wide application for bacteria detection in drinking water.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles , Agua Potable , Inmunoensayo , Salmonella typhimurium , Dióxido de Silicio , Análisis Espectral
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807996

RESUMEN

In this study, the concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFR) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were investigated in raw water and treated water samples obtained from 18 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). The ∑13OPFR concentrations in the treated water samples (29.5-122 ng/L; median 47.5 ng/L) were lower than those in the raw water (37.7-231 ng/L; median 98.1 ng/L), which indicated the positive removal rates (0-80%) of ∑13OPFR in the DWTPs. The removal efficiencies of ∑27PFAS in the DWTPs ranged from -200% to 50%, with the ∑27PFAS concentrations in the raw water (4.15-154 ng/L; median 32.0 ng/L) being similar to or lower than those in the treated water (4.74-116 ng/L; median 42.2 ng/L). Among OPFR, tris(chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) were dominant in both raw water and treated water samples obtained from the DWTPs. The dominant PFAS (perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA)) in the raw water samples were slightly different from those in the treated water samples (PFOA, L-perfluorohexane sulfonate (L-PFHxS), and PFHxA). The 95-percentile daily intakes of ∑13OPFR and ∑27PFAS via drinking water consumption were estimated to be up to 4.9 ng/kg/d and 0.22 ng/kg/d, respectively. The hazard index values of OPFR and PFAS were lower than 1, suggesting the risks less than known hazardous levels.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Retardadores de Llama , Fluorocarburos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Agua Potable/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Retardadores de Llama/análisis , Fluorocarburos/análisis , Humanos , Organofosfatos/análisis , República de Corea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
10.
Water Res ; 197: 117071, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799082

RESUMEN

There are many sampling approaches available for lead (Pb) in drinking water. Selecting the best approach for its intended use is critical. The objective of this work was to compare water Pb levels collected by multiple sampling approaches from a model home plumbing system (HPS) that included an old Pb service line (LSL), as a function of daily water usage. Specifically, flushed, direct LSL, sequential profile, random daytime (RDT), first draw, and manual composite samples were compared, and daily water usage rates ranged from 1.4 to 120 gallons/day (5.3-454.2 L/day). Pb levels in water collected directly from the LSL reached equilibrium after 7-15.5 h of stagnation, and approximately 55% of the equilibrium Pb concentration was reached after 2 h. Sequential sampling accurately identified the LSL; however, the peak profile Pb concentrations were a fraction of the Pb measured directly from the LSL. Daily water usage patterns greatly impacted total Pb levels in all water sampling approaches, although manual composite and RDT samples were more sensitive to changes. Manual composite and RDT samples were equal to or greater than first draw samples throughout the study, and differences grew larger as water usage decreased.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Agua Potable/análisis , Plomo/análisis , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
11.
Water Res ; 197: 117044, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799083

RESUMEN

To control microbial proliferation and nitrification within distribution systems, utilities practicing secondary disinfection chloramination often discontinue their ammonia feed and provide a short, free chlorine disinfection period (FClP), commonly referred to as a "chlorine burn". However, the success and practicality of this approach is often criticized because of the return to nitrification; yet, previous studies conducted in full-scale distribution systems do not contain the sampling frequency to determine how quickly nitrification can return. In this research, a total of 15 hydrants distributed across hydraulically modeled water ages were sampled for 21 sampling events over a period spanning two annual FClPs (2018 and 2019) to investigate the water quality, planktonic community, and, using a new sampling technique, established biofilm community impacts within a single, distribution system pressure zone. Hydrants measured elevated nitrite only 10 weeks after the end of the FClP and live cell counts in the bulk and scour samples statistically significantly increased within two weeks after the FClP ended and chloramine disinfection resumed, indicating limited impacts from a FClP. Furthermore, the FClP significantly increased iron concentrations during the period of free chlorine disinfection creating a consumer water quality concern. Microbial fingerprint analysis using flow cytometry revealed that beta diversity did not significantly change for sampling locations that experienced even periodic low total chlorine concentrations. Only locations that maintained high chlorine residuals throughout both chloramine and free chlorine disinfection periods demonstrated significant changes in bulk water microbial community. Even for these locations, microbial communities of the scoured biofilms remained similar over the course of the study.


Asunto(s)
Quemaduras , Desinfectantes , Agua Potable , Purificación del Agua , Biopelículas , Cloraminas/análisis , Cloro , Desinfección , Humanos , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
12.
Water Res ; 197: 117089, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836295

RESUMEN

Groundwater resources are under increasing threats from contamination and overuse, posing direct threats to human and environmental health. The purpose of this study is to better understand drivers of, and relationships between, well and aquifer characteristics, sampling frequencies, and microbiological contamination indicators (specifically E. coli) as a precursor for improving knowledge and tools to assess aquifer vulnerability and well contamination within Ontario, Canada. A dataset with 795, 023 microbiological testing observations over an eight-year period (2010 to 2017) from 253,136 unique wells across Ontario was employed. Variables in this dataset include date and location of test, test results (E. coli concentration), well characteristics (well depth, location), and hydrogeological characteristics (bottom of well stratigraphy, specific capacity). Association rule analysis, univariate and bivariate analyses, regression analyses, and variable discretization techniques were utilized to identify relationships between E. coli concentration and the other variables in the dataset. These relationships can be used to identify drivers of contamination, their relative importance, and therefore potential public health risks associated with the use of private wells in Ontario. Key findings are that: i) bedrock wells completed in sedimentary or igneous rock are more susceptible to contamination events; ii) while shallow wells pose a greater risk to consumers, deep wells are also subject to contamination events and pose a potentially unanticipated risk to health of well users; and, iii) well testing practices are influenced by results of previous tests. Further, while there is a general correlation between months with the greatest testing frequencies and concentrations of E. coli occurring in samples, an offset in this timing is observed in recent years. Testing remains highest in July while peaks in adverse results occur up to three months later. The realization of these trends prompts a need to further explore the bases for such occurrences.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Ontario , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Abastecimiento de Agua , Pozos de Agua
13.
Water Res ; 197: 117111, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857892

RESUMEN

The increasing frequency and intensity of blooms of toxin- and taste & odour-producing filamentous cyanobacteria in water sources is a growing global issue. Compared to the common spherical Microcystis genus, the removal of filamentous cyanobacteria is more difficult in drinking water treatment plants; hence, abatement and control of the occurrence and proliferation of harmful filamentous cyanobacteria within drinking water sources is important for water supply. In this study, the solid sodium percarbonate (SPC), Na2CO3·1.5H2O2, was used as an algaecide to eliminate the cyanobacteria distributed throughout the water column in the surface and bottom layer of a reservoir serving as a drinking water source. Results showed that although the oxidation capacity of SPC was higher in the surface water due to the higher light intensity than in the bottom water, 3.0 mg/L SPC can still suppress the harmful cyanobacteria in the bottom water after 36 h because the carbonate ion generated by SPC decomposition can act as an activator of H2O2 to generate many reactive oxygen species - including superoxide radicals, carbonate radical anions, and hydroxyl radicals - even in the light-limited environment. The obtained inactivation rates for the main cyanobacteria in this reservoir followed the order: Pseudanabaena limnetica > Raphidiopsis curvata > Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. 3.0 mg/L SPC has a slight impact on microeukaryotic communities according to the 18S rRNA gene sequencing, while 6.0 mg/L SPC changed the composition of eukaryotic phytoplankton and zooplankton clearly. Eukaryotic co-occurrence networks showed that although the network of eukaryotic plankton in treated surface water was more compact and clustered, stability of microeukaryotes in the treated surface water was lower than for the treated bottom water, owing to the higher oxidation capacity of SPC in the surface water. The results above not only have important implications for full-scale control of harmful cyanobacteria in drinking water sources, especially filamentous cyanobacteria with vertical distributions, but also help to ensure the health and stability of the whole aquatic ecosystem.


Asunto(s)
Cianobacterias , Agua Potable , Animales , Carbonatos , Cylindrospermopsis , Ecosistema , Peróxido de Hidrógeno
14.
J Water Health ; 19(2): 267-277, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901023

RESUMEN

The human gut harbors trillions of microbes, which are extremely important to the health of the host. However, the effect of drinking water on gut microbiota has been poorly understood. In this study, we explored the response of BALB/c mice gut bacterial community (feces) to the different types of drinking water, including commercial bottled mineral water (MW), natural water (NW), purified water (PW) and tap water (TW). Feces were cultured with brain heart infusion broth dissolved in four types of drinking water. 16S rRNA gene analysis was performed. Our results reveal that the microbiota composition is different among culturing with four types of drinking water. As the culture time increases, the number of OTUs significantly decreased, except under the aerobic condition of MW. Under aerobic conditions on the 5th day, the considerable differences of alpha diversity index are found between MW and three others, and these are the most unique taxa in the MW group. Importantly, the LEfSe analysis discovers that the Bacteroidetes taxa dominate the differences between MW and the other water types. Our findings demonstrate that the mineral water as a culture medium may lead to a progressive increase of the gut microbiota diversity by providing the growth convenience to Bacteroidetes.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Microbiota , Animales , Heces , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
15.
J Water Health ; 19(2): 306-321, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901026

RESUMEN

The present work evaluated the surveillance of the drinking water quality information system database and correlated the findings of the microbiological analysis with the distribution of intestinal protozoa from the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro. From the database, we obtained 1,654 georeferenced monitoring stations that were used in the analysis. The results indicate that the minimum number of samples collected per parameter (free residual chlorine, turbidity, counts of total and fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli)) was not fulfilled, the collection of samples throughout the year was irregular and the representability of sampling points considered strategic was low (48% of municipalities). Besides, municipalities with a high prevalence for intestinal parasite protozoa were also the ones that had the highest counts for coliforms and the reverse can also be observed, indicating a transmission through contaminated drinking water. Despite the increased participation of municipalities in water surveillance actions during the studied period, it is necessary to implement managerial measures to improve the system, aiming to correct flaws and inconsistencies in the application of the water quality monitoring protocol.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Calidad del Agua , Animales , Cloro/análisis , Escherichia coli , Microbiología del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
16.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112444, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823450

RESUMEN

Effective treatment options are needed for the management of aquatic invasive species. An herbicide treatment was used to control an invasive aquatic plant, yellow floating heart (Nymphoides peltata) in a 3350-acre drinking water reservoir. The purpose of this research was to document the success of the treatment in an individual cove of the reservoir using in-situ sampling and reservoir-wide using remotely sensed Sentinel-2 satellite imagery. We also determined if the dying vegetation negatively impacted biological oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen concentrations in the cove. The aquatic herbicide ProcellaCOR™ (active ingredient = florpyrauxifen-benzyl) was used to treat a 55-acre infestation of YFH at a rate of 3 Prescription Dose Units (PDU)/ac-ft by a certified applicator in July 2019. Total surface coverage of yellow floating heart in the reservoir was reduced by more than 90% within 15 days after the treatment, and to less than 3.0 acres within 50 days after the treatment. No blooming flowers were observed after treatment and the surface coverage was close to 0% within 17 days after treatment in the cove. The effect of the herbicide treatment also appeared to carry over into the following growing season as the total surface coverage of yellow floating heart in the reservoir was less than 8 acres one year after the treatment in July 2020. The herbicide treatment resulted in short term increases in biological oxygen demand and decreases in dissolved oxygen at some sites in the cove within 3-10 days after the treatment. Dissolved oxygen then increased and concentrations were greater 42 days after treatment than they were before the treatment. Our results show that ProcellaCOR™ has the potential to control yellow floating heart infestations with relatively short-term negative impacts on dissolved oxygen concentrations. We also show that Sentinel-2 satellite imagery can be used to monitor the success of herbicide applications over large spatial and temporal scales that would not be possible from ground based monitoring alone.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Herbicidas , Análisis de la Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Calidad del Agua
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 307, 2021 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909163

RESUMEN

Metal and metalloid contamination in drinking water sources is a global concern, particularly in developing countries. This study used hollow membrane water filters and metal-capturing polyurethane foams to sample 71 drinking water sources in 22 different countries. Field sampling was performed with sampling kits prepared in the lab at Hope College in Holland, MI, USA. Filters and foams were sent back to the lab after sampling, and subsequent analysis of flushates and rinsates allowed the estimation of suspended solids and metal and other analayte concentrations in source waters. Estimated particulate concentrations were 0-92 mg/L, and consisted of quartz, feldspar, and clay, with some samples containing metal oxides or sulfide phases. As and Cu were the only analytes which occurred above the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 10 µg/L and 2000 µg/L, respectively, with As exceeding the guideline in 45% of the sources and Cu in 3%. Except for one value of ~ 285 µg/L, As concentrations were 45-200 µg/L (river), 65-179 µg/L (well), and 112-178 µg/L (tap). Other metals (Ce, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn) with no WHO guideline were also detected, with Mn the most common. This study demonstrated that filters and foams can be used for reconnaissance characterization of untreated drinking water. However, estimated metal and other analyte concentrations could only be reported as minimum values due to potential incomplete retrieval of foam-bound analytes. A qualitative reporting methodology was used to report analytes as "present" if the concentration was below the WHO guideline, and "present-recommend retesting" if the concentration was quantifiable and above the WHO guideline.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Metaloides , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Metaloides/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis , Países Bajos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1871, 2021 03 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767189

RESUMEN

Naturally-occurring membranes in the xylem tissue of gymnosperm sapwood enable its use as an abundantly-available material to construct filters, with potential to facilitate access to safe drinking water in resource-constrained settings. However, the material's behavior as a filter is poorly understood, and challenges such as short shelf life have not been addressed. Here, we characterize the operational attributes of xylem filters and show that the material exhibits a highly non-linear dependence of flow resistance on thickness upon drying, and a tendency for self-blocking. We develop guidelines for the design and fabrication of xylem filters, demonstrate gravity-operated filters with shelf life >2 years, and show that the filters can provide >3 log removal of E. coli, MS-2 phage, and rotavirus from synthetic test waters and coliform bacteria from contaminated spring, tap, and ground waters. Through interviews and workshops in India, we use a user-centric approach to design a prototype filtration device with daily- to weekly-replaceable xylem filters, and uncover indicators of social acceptance of xylem as a natural water filter. Our work enhances the understanding of xylem as a filtration material, and opens opportunities for engineering a diverse range of low-cost, biodegradable xylem-based filtration products on a global scale.


Asunto(s)
Cedrus/fisiología , Filtración/métodos , Ginkgo biloba/fisiología , Pinus/fisiología , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Bacteriófagos/aislamiento & purificación , Agua Potable/análisis , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Filtración/instrumentación , Humanos , Rotavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Purificación del Agua/instrumentación , Xilema/fisiología
19.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112270, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735675

RESUMEN

Over the last decades, nutrients and pesticides have proved to be a major source of the pollution of drinking water resources in Europe. Extensive legislation has been developed by the EU to protect drinking water resources from agricultural pollution, but the achievement of water quality objectives is still an ongoing challenge throughout Europe. The study aims to identify lessons that can be learnt about the coherence and consistency of the application of EU regulations, and their effects at the local level, using qualitative expert data for 13 local to regional governance arrangements in 11 different European countries. The results show that the complexities and inconsistencies of European legislation drawn up to protect drinking water resources from agricultural pollution come forward most explicitly at local level where cross-sectoral measures have to be taken and effects monitored. At this local level, rather than facilitate, they hamper efforts to achieve water quality objectives. The upcoming revision of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) should strengthen the links between the different directives and how they could be applied at local level. In addition, a more facilitated cross-sectoral approach should be adopted to improve stakeholder networks, between institutional levels and hydrological scales, to attain policy objectives at local level.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Agricultura , Europa (Continente) , Calidad del Agua , Recursos Hídricos , Abastecimiento de Agua
20.
Water Res ; 196: 116978, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770678

RESUMEN

Various technologies are used for the treatment of arsenic (As) contaminated water, but only a few seem to be suitable for small-scale applications; these are mostly used in rural communities where the access to potable water is the most vulnerable. In this review paper, the salient advantages and most notable challenges of membrane-based technologies for the removal of arsenate As(V) and arsenite As(III) are evaluated and systematically compared to alternative technologies such as e.g. adsorption. A comparison of different scientific papers, case studies and pilot trials is used to discuss the most important aspects when evaluating As mitigation technologies, including the ability to comply with the stringent WHO drinking water guideline limit value of 10 µg/L As and the safe disposal of produced As-laden waste. The use of renewable energies such as solar power in small-scale (<10 m³/day) membrane applications is evaluated. Finally, a conceptual approach for holistic As mitigation is proposed as an important approach to prevent exposure to As by providing a safe water supply.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Adsorción , Arsénico/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Abastecimiento de Agua
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...