Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20.640
Filtrar
1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 233, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561647

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The study focuses on the global challenge of drought stress, which significantly impedes wheat production, a cornerstone of global food security. Drought stress disrupts cellular and physiological processes in wheat, leading to substantial yield losses, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The research investigates the use of Spirulina platensis aqueous extract (SPAE) as a biostimulant to enhance the drought resistance of two Egyptian wheat cultivars, Sakha 95 (drought-tolerant) and Shandawel 1 (drought-sensitive). Each cultivar's grains were divided into four treatments: Cont, DS, SPAE-Cont, and SPAE + DS. Cont and DS grains were presoaked in distilled water for 18 h while SPAE-Cont and SPAE + DS were presoaked in 10% SPAE, and then all treatments were cultivated for 96 days in a semi-field experiment. During the heading stage (45 days: 66 days), two drought treatments, DS and SPAE + DS, were not irrigated. In contrast, the Cont and SPAE-Cont treatments were irrigated during the entire experiment period. At the end of the heading stage, agronomy, pigment fractions, gas exchange, and carbohydrate content parameters of the flag leaf were assessed. Also, at the harvest stage, yield attributes and biochemical aspects of yielded grains (total carbohydrates and proteins) were evaluated. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that SPAE treatments significantly enhanced the growth vigor, photosynthetic rate, and yield components of both wheat cultivars under standard and drought conditions. Specifically, SPAE treatments increased photosynthetic rate by up to 53.4%, number of spikes by 76.5%, and economic yield by 190% for the control and 153% for the drought-stressed cultivars pre-soaked in SPAE. Leaf agronomy, pigment fractions, gas exchange parameters, and carbohydrate content were positively influenced by SPAE treatments, suggesting their effectiveness in mitigating drought adverse effects, and improving wheat crop performance. CONCLUSION: The application of S. platensis aqueous extract appears to ameliorate the adverse effects of drought stress on wheat, enhancing the growth vigor, metabolism, and productivity of the cultivars studied. This indicates the potential of SPAE as an eco-friendly biostimulant for improving crop resilience, nutrition, and yield under various environmental challenges, thus contributing to global food security.


Asunto(s)
Sequías , Pueblo del Norte de Asia , Spirulina , Triticum , Triticum/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo , Carbohidratos , Grano Comestible/metabolismo
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 235, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561649

RESUMEN

Drought stress considered a key restrictive factor for a warm-season bermudagrass growth during summers in China. Genotypic variation against drought stress exists among bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.), but the selection of highly drought-tolerant germplasm is important for its growth in limited water regions and for future breeding. Our study aimed to investigate the most tolerant bermudagrass germplasm among thirteen, along latitude and longitudinal gradient under a well-watered and drought stress condition. Current study included high drought-resistant germplasm, "Tianshui" and "Linxiang", and drought-sensitive cultivars; "Zhengzhou" and "Cixian" under drought treatments along longitude and latitudinal gradients, respectively. Under water deficit conditions, the tolerant genotypes showed over-expression of a dehydrin gene cdDHN4, antioxidant genes Cu/ZnSOD and APX which leads to higher antioxidant activities to scavenge the excessive reactive oxygen species and minimizing the membrane damage. It helps in maintenance of cell membrane permeability and osmotic adjustment by producing organic osmolytes. Proline an osmolyte has the ability to keep osmotic water potential and water use efficiency high via stomatal conductance and maintain transpiration rate. It leads to optimum CO2 assimilation rate, high chlorophyll contents for photosynthesis and elongation of leaf mesophyll, palisade and thick spongy cells. Consequently, it results in elongation of leaf length, stolon and internode length; plant height and deep rooting system. The CdDHN4 gene highly expressed in "Tianshui" and "Youxian", Cu/ZnSOD gene in "Tianshui" and "Linxiang" and APX gene in "Shanxian" and "Linxiang". The genotypes "Zhongshan" and "Xiaochang" showed no gene expression under water deficit conditions. Our results indicate that turfgrass show morphological modifications firstly when subjected to drought stress; however the gene expression is directly associated and crucial for drought tolerance in bermudagrass. Hence, current research has provided excellent germplasm of drought tolerant bermudagrass for physiological and molecular study and future breeding.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Cynodon , Cynodon/fisiología , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Sequías , Fitomejoramiento , Fotosíntesis/genética , Agua/metabolismo , Expresión Génica
3.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14271, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566130

RESUMEN

Seed dormancy is an important life history state in which intact viable seeds delay or prevent germination under suitable conditions. Ascorbic acid (AsA) acts as a small molecule antioxidant, and breaking seed dormancy and promoting subsequent growth are among its numerous functions. In this study, a germination test using Pyrus betulifolia seeds treated with exogenous AsA or AsA synthesis inhibitor lycorine (Lyc) and water absorption was conducted. The results indicated that AsA released dormancy and increased germination and 20 mmol L-1 AsA promoted cell division, whereas Lyc reduced germination. Seed germination showed typical three phases of water absorption; and seeds at five key time points were sampled for transcriptome analysis. It revealed that multiple pathways were involved in breaking dormancy and promoting germination through transcriptome data, and 12 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to the metabolism and signal transduction of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GA) were verified by subsequent RT-qPCR. For metabolites, exogenous AsA increased endogenous AsA and GA3 but reduced ABA and the ABA/GA3 ratio. In addition, three genes regulating ABA synthesis were downregulated by AsA, while five genes mediating ABA degradation were upregulated. Taken together, AsA regulates the pathways associated with ABA and GA synthesis, catalysis, and signal transduction, with subsequent reduction in ABA and increase in GA and further the balance of ABA/GA, ultimately releasing dormancy and promoting germination.


Asunto(s)
Giberelinas , Pyrus , Giberelinas/farmacología , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacología , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Germinación , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/farmacología , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Latencia en las Plantas/genética , Semillas , Agua/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas
4.
Exp Gerontol ; 189: 112404, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492656

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To explore the mechanism by which Remazolam affects the phenotype and function of astrocytes to improve traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: The oxygen -glucose deprivation/recovery (OGD/R) cell model was constructed to simulate the pathological state of astrocytes in a TBI environment. The viability of astrocytes was measured by CCK-8, and the cytoskeleton changes were observed by Phalloidin- TRITC staining. The expressions of differentiation markers, Cx43 and phosphorylated Cx43 (P-Cx43) of A1/A2 astrocytes were detected by Western blot, and the complement C3 and S100A10 of A1/A2 astrocytes were detected by ELISA. The TBI rat model was established. The water content of brain tissue was measured by dry-wet specific gravity method, the pathological morphology of brain tissue in cortical injury area was observed by HE staining method, ROS was detected by fluorescence quantitative method, Cx43 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry method, and the differentiation markers of A1/A2 astrocytes were detected by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In the TBI environment, astrocytes showed decreased cell viability, blurred skeleton, and increased expression of Cx43. In TBI rats, the water content of brain tissue increased, the brain tissue in the cortex injury area was seriously damaged, ROS and Cx43 expression were significantly increased, and mainly distributed in A2 astrocytes. Remazolam can reverse the above results after the intervention. CONCLUSION: Remazolam affects the phenotype and function of astrocytes to improve TBI via regulating Cx43, and plays a role in protecting the neurological function of TBI rats.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo , Conexina 43 , Ratas , Animales , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Astrocitos/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/tratamiento farmacológico , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/metabolismo , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/patología , Fenotipo , Antígenos de Diferenciación/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 209: 108565, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537380

RESUMEN

Numerous studies have clarified the impacts of magnesium (Mg) on leaf photosynthesis from the perspectives of protein synthesis, enzymes activation and carbohydrate partitioning. However, it still remains largely unknown how stomatal and mesophyll conductances (gs and gm, respectively) are regulated by Mg. In the present study, leaf gas exchanges, leaf hydraulic parameters, leaf structural traits and cell wall composition were examined in rice plants grown under high and low Mg treatments to elucidate the impacts of Mg on gs and gm. Our results showed that reduction of leaf photosynthesis under Mg deficiency was mainly caused by the decreased gm, followed by reduced leaf biochemical capacity and gs, and leaf outside-xylem hydraulic conductance (Kox) was the major factor restricting gs under Mg deficiency. Moreover, increased leaf hemicellulose, lignin and pectin contents and decreased cell wall effective porosity were observed in low Mg plants relative to high Mg plants. These results suggest that Kox and cell wall composition play important roles in regulating gs and gm, respectively, in rice plants under Mg shortages.


Asunto(s)
Deficiencia de Magnesio , Oryza , Oryza/metabolismo , Estomas de Plantas/fisiología , Agua/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Fotosíntesis/fisiología , Células del Mesófilo/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo
6.
Funct Plant Biol ; 512024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479792

RESUMEN

Pugionium cornutum is an annual or biennial xerophyte distributed in arid regions, with drought resistance properties. While previous studies have predominantly focused on the physiological changes of P. cornutum , the understanding of its metabolite variations remains limited. In this study, untargeted metabolomic technology was performed to analyse the change of metabolites in the roots of P. cornutum seedlings under drought stress. Our findings revealed that compared to the R1, the root water potential and the number of lateral roots increased, while the length of the tap root and fresh weight increased first and then decreased. In the R1-R2, a total of 45 differential metabolites (DMs) were identified, whereas in the R1-R3 82 DMs were observed. Subsequently, KEGG analysis revealed a significant enrichment of microbial metabolism in diverse environments and aminobenzoate degradation in the R1-R2, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, ubiquinone, and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis and isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis were significantly enriched in the R1-R3. The upregulation DMs, including L-arginosuccinate, L-tyrosine, p-coumarate, caffeate, ferulate, vanillin, coniferin, 5-aminopentanoate, 2-methylmaleate and 2-furoate in P. cornutum seedlings may play a crucial role in enhancing root growth and improving drought resistance. These findings provide a basis for future investigations into the underlying mechanisms of drought resistance in P. cornutum .


Asunto(s)
Brassicaceae , Plantones , Sequías , Metabolómica , Agua/metabolismo , Regulación hacia Arriba , Brassicaceae/metabolismo
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 924: 171576, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461997

RESUMEN

Ammonia pollution is an important environmental stress factors in water eutrophication. The intrinsic effects of ammonia stress on liver toxicity and muscle quality of rainbow trout were still unclear. In this study, we focused on investigating difference in muscle metabolism caused by metabolism disorder of rainbow trout liver at exposure times of 0, 3, 6, 9 h at 30 mg/L concentrations. Liver transcriptomic analysis revealed that short-term (3 h) ammonia stress inhibited carbohydrate metabolism and glycerophospholipid production but long-term (9 h) ammonia stress inhibited the biosynthesis and degradation of fatty acids, activated pyrimidine metabolism and mismatch repair, lead to DNA strand breakage and cell death, and ultimately caused liver damage. Metabolomic analysis of muscle revealed that ammonia stress promoted the reaction of glutamic acid and ammonia to synthesize glutamine to alleviate ammonia toxicity, and long-term (9 h) ammonia stress inhibited urea cycle, hindering the alleviation of ammonia toxicity. Moreover, it accelerated the consumption of flavor amino acids such as arginine and aspartic acid, and increased the accumulation of bitter substances (xanthine) and odorous substances (histamine). These findings provide valuable insights into the potential risks and hazards of ammonia in eutrophic water bodies subject to rainbow trout.


Asunto(s)
Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animales , Oncorhynchus mykiss/fisiología , Amoníaco/toxicidad , Amoníaco/metabolismo , Hígado/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo
8.
Food Funct ; 15(7): 3669-3679, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38487922

RESUMEN

Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalized age-related skeletal muscle (SkM) disorder characterized by the accelerated loss of muscle mass (atrophy) and function. SkM atrophy is associated with increased incidence of falls, functional decline, frailty and mortality. In its early stage, SkM atrophy is associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and proteasome-mediated protein degradation. These processes also link to the activation of atrophy associated factors and signaling pathways for which, there is a lack of approved pharmacotherapies. The objective of this study, was to characterize the capacity of the flavanol (+)-epicatechin (+Epi) to favorably modulate SkM mass and function in a rat model of aging induced sarcopenia and profile candidate mechanisms. Using 23 month old male Sprague-Dawley rats, an 8 weeks oral administration of the +Epi (1 mg per kg per day in water by gavage) was implemented while control rats only received water. SkM strength (grip), treadmill endurance, muscle mass, myofiber area, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, troponin, α-actin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and atrophy related endpoints (follistatin, myostatin, NFκB, MuRF 1, atrogin 1) were quantified in plasma and/or gastrocnemius. We also evaluated effects on insulin growth factor (IGF)-1 levels and downstream signaling (AKT/mTORC1). Treatment of aged rats with +Epi, led to significant increases in front paw grip strength, treadmill time and SkM mass vs. controls as well as beneficial changes in makers of myofiber integrity. Treatment significantly reversed adverse changes in plasma and/or SkM TNF-α, IGF-1, atrophy and protein synthesis related endpoints vs. controls. In conclusion, +Epi has the capacity to reverse sarcopenia associated detrimental changes in regulatory pathways leading to improved SkM mass and function. Given these results and its recognized safety and tolerance profile, +Epi warrants consideration for clinical trials.


Asunto(s)
Catequina , Sarcopenia , Masculino , Ratas , Animales , Sarcopenia/metabolismo , Catequina/farmacología , Roedores , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Envejecimiento , Atrofia Muscular/tratamiento farmacológico , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 924: 171701, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490412

RESUMEN

Triclosan (TCS), a biocide used in various day-to-day products, has been associated with several toxic effects in aquatic organisms. In the present study, biochemical and hematological alterations were evaluated after 14 d (sublethal) exposure of tap water (control), acetone (solvent control), 5, 10, 20, and 50 µg/L (environmentally relevant concentrations) TCS to the embryos/hatchlings of Cirrhinus mrigala, a major freshwater carp distributed in tropic and sub-tropical areas of Asia. A concentration-dependent increase in the content of urea and protein carbonyl, while a decrease in the total protein, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, and bilirubin was observed after the exposure. Hematological analysis revealed a decrease in the total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and partial pressure of oxygen, while there was an increase in the total leucocyte count, carbon dioxide, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide and serum electrolytes. Comet assay demonstrates a concentration-dependent increase in tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment, and percent tail DNA. An amino acid analyzer showed a TCS-dose-dependent increase in various amino acids. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed different proteins ranging from 6.5 to 200 kDa, demonstrating TCS-induced upregulation. Fourier transform infrared spectra analysis exhibited a decline in peak area percents with an increase in the concentration of TCS in water. Curve fitting of amide I (1,700-1600 cm-1) showed a decline in α-helix and turns and an increase in ß-sheets. Nuclear magnetic resonance study also revealed concentration-dependent alterations in the metabolites after 14 d exposure. TCS caused alterations in the biomolecules and heamatological parameters of fish, raising the possibility that small amounts of TCS may change the species richness in natural aquatic habitats. In addition, consuming TCS-contaminated fish may have detrimental effects on human health. Consequently, there is a need for the proper utilisation and disposal of this hazardous compound in legitimate quantities.


Asunto(s)
Carpas , Cyprinidae , Triclosán , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Humanos , Triclosán/toxicidad , Triclosán/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo
10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 208: 108477, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442626

RESUMEN

Tomato fruit consumption is influenced by flavor and nutrient quality. In the present study, we investigate the impact of water saving irrigation (WSI) as a pre-harvest management on flavor and nutrient quality of tomato fruit. Our results demonstrate that WSI-treated tomato fruit exhibited improved sensory scores as assessed by a taste panel, accompanied by elevated levels of SlGLK2 expression, sugars, acids, and carotenoid contents compared to non-treated fruit. Notably, WSI treatment significantly enhanced the development of chloroplast and plastoglobulus in chromoplast, which served as carotenoid storage sites and upregulated the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Furthermore, integrated transcriptome and metabolome analysis revealed heightened expression of sugar and flavonoid metabolism pathways in WSI-treated tomato fruit. Remarkably, the master regulator SlMYB12 displayed a substantially increased expression due to WSI. These findings suggest that WSI is an effective and sustainable approach to enhance the pigments metabolism and storage capacity as well as the organoleptic characteristics and nutritional value of tomato fruit, offering a win-win solution for both water conservation and quality improvement in agro-food production.


Asunto(s)
Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Carotenoides/metabolismo
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 208: 108443, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479079

RESUMEN

Drought is a major limiting factor for the growth and development of pumpkins. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are major water channels that play a crucial role in the regulation of cellular water status and solute trafficking during drought conditions. CmoPIP1-4 is a plasma membrane-localized protein that is significantly upregulated in roots and leaves under drought-stress conditions. In this study, the overexpression of CmoPIP1-4 enhances drought resistance in yeast. In contrast, CRISPR-mediated CmoPIP1-4 knockout in pumpkin roots increased drought sensitivity. This increased drought sensitivity of CmoPIP1-4 knockout plants is associated with a decline in the levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and abscisic acid (ABA), accompanied by an increase in water loss caused by greater levels of transpiration and stomatal conductance. In addition, the sensitivity of CmoPIP1-4 CRISPR plants is further aggravated by reduced antioxidative enzyme activity, decreased proline and sugar contents, and extensive root damage. Furthermore, expression profiles of genes such as CmoHSP70s, CmoNCED3, CmoNCED4, and others involved in metabolic activities were markedly reduced in CmoPIP1-4 CRISPR plants. Moreover, we also discovered an interaction between the drought-responsive gene CmoDCD and CmoPIP1-4, indicating their potential role in activating H2S-mediated signaling in pumpkin, which could confer drought tolerance. The findings of our study collectively demonstrate CmoPIP1-4 plays a crucial role in the regulation of H2S-mediated signaling, influencing stomatal density and aperture in pumpkin plants, and thereby enhancing their drought tolerance.


Asunto(s)
Cucurbita , Sulfuro de Hidrógeno , Sulfuro de Hidrógeno/metabolismo , Resistencia a la Sequía , Cucurbita/genética , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequías , Agua/metabolismo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas
12.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300340, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517879

RESUMEN

Monoamine transporters including transporters for serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine play key roles in monoaminergic synaptic signaling, involving in the molecular etiology of a wide range of neurological and physiological disorders. Despite being crucial drug targets, the study of transmembrane proteins remains challenging due to their localization within the cell membrane. To address this, we present the structural bioinformatics studies of 7 monoamine transporters and their water-soluble variants designed using the QTY code, by systematically replacing the hydrophobic amino acids leucine (L), valine (V), isoleucine (I) and phenylalanine (F) with hydrophilic amino acids (glutamine (Q), threonine (T) and tyrosine (Y). The resulting QTY variants, despite significant protein transmembrane sequence differences (44.27%-51.85%), showed similar isoelectric points (pI) and molecular weights. While their hydrophobic surfaces significantly reduced, this change resulted in a minimal structural alteration. Quantitatively, Alphafold2 predicted QTY variant structures displayed remarkable similarity with RMSD 0.492Å-1.619Å. Accompanied by the structural similarities of substituted amino acids in the context of 1.5Å electron density maps, our study revealed multiple QTY and reverse QTY variations in genomic databases. We further analyzed their phenotypical and topological characteristics. By extending evolutionary game theory to the molecular foundations of biology, we provided insights into the evolutionary dynamics of chemically distinct alpha-helices, their usage in different chemotherapeutic applications, and open possibilities of diagnostic medicine. Our study rationalizes that QTY variants of monoamine transporters may not only become distinct tools for medical, structural, and evolutionary research, but these transporters may also emerge as contemporary therapeutic targets, providing a new approach to treatment for several conditions.


Asunto(s)
Dopamina , Serotonina , Dopamina/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Membrana , Aminoácidos , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Biología Computacional , Mutación , Proteínas de Transporte de Dopamina a través de la Membrana Plasmática/metabolismo
13.
Planta ; 259(4): 78, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427069

RESUMEN

MAIN CONCLUSION: The Arabidopsis Pentatricopeptide repeat 40 (PPR40) insertion mutants have increased tolerance to water deficit compared to wild-type plants. Tolerance is likely the consequence of ABA hypersensitivity of the mutants. Plant growth and development depend on multiple environmental factors whose alterations can disrupt plant homeostasis and trigger complex molecular and physiological responses. Water deficit is one of the factors which can seriously restrict plant growth and viability. Mitochondria play an important role in cellular metabolism, energy production, and redox homeostasis. During drought and salinity stress, mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to ROS overproduction and oxidative stress, affecting plant growth and survival. Alternative oxidases (AOXs) and stabilization of mitochondrial electron transport chain help mitigate ROS damage. The mitochondrial Pentatricopeptide repeat 40 (PPR40) protein was implicated in stress regulation as ppr40 mutants were found to be hypersensitive to ABA and high salinity during germination. This study investigated the tolerance of the knockout ppr40-1 and knockdown ppr40-2 mutants to water deprivation. Our results show that these mutants display an enhanced tolerance to water deficit. The mutants had higher relative water content, reduced level of oxidative damage, and better photosynthetic parameters in water-limited conditions compared to wild-type plants. ppr40 mutants had considerable differences in metabolic profiles and expression of a number of stress-related genes, suggesting important metabolic reprogramming. Tolerance to water deficit was also manifested in higher survival rates and alleviated growth reduction when watering was suspended. Enhanced sensitivity to ABA and fast stomata closure was suggested to lead to improved capacity for water conservation in such environment. Overall, this study highlights the importance of mitochondrial functions and in particular PPR40 in plant responses to abiotic stress, particularly drought.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacología , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico/genética , Mutación , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Sequías , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/metabolismo
14.
J Plant Physiol ; 295: 154207, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430574

RESUMEN

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is one of the most widely cultivated forage crops in the world. However, alfalfa yield and quality are adversely affected by salinity stress. Nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs) play essential roles in water and small molecules transport and response to salt stress. Here, we isolated a salt stress responsive MsNIP2 gene and demonstrated its functions by overexpression in alfalfa. The open reading frame of MsNIP2 is 816 bp in length, and it encodes 272 amino acids. It has six transmembrane domains and two NPA motifs. MsNIP2 showed high identity to other known NIP proteins, and its tertiary model was similar to the crystal structure of OsNIP2-1 (7cjs) tetramer. Subcellular localization analysis showed that MsNIP2 protein fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was localized to the plasma membrane. Transgenic alfalfa lines overexpressing MsNIP2 showed significantly higher height and branch number compared with the non-transgenic control. The POD and CAT activity of the transgenic alfalfa lines was significantly increased and their MDA content was notably reduced compared with the control group under the treatment of NaCl. The transgenic lines showed higher capability in scavenging oxygen radicals with lighter NBT staining than the control under salt stress. The transgenic lines showed relative lower water loss rate and electrolyte leakage, but relatively higher Na+ content than the control line under salt stress. The relative expression levels of abiotic-stress-related genes (MsHSP23, MsCOR47, MsATPase, and MsRD2) in three transgenic lines were compared with the control, among them, only the expression of MsCOR47 was up-regulated. Consequently, this study offers a novel perspective for exploring the function of MsNIP2 in improving salt tolerance of alfalfa.


Asunto(s)
Medicago sativa , Tolerancia a la Sal , Tolerancia a la Sal/genética , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/genética , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Salinidad
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6678, 2024 03 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509214

RESUMEN

Failure in irrigation management of grapevines grown in the Brazilian semiarid region can affect bud fertility. Adequate irrigation, considering both the development of bunches in the current cycle and the formation of fertile buds for subsequent cycles, can bring significant advances to viticulture. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effect of different irrigation levels during flowering on the formation of buds and potential bunches of 'Arra 15' grapevine and its relationship with metabolic processes. A field experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil, during the 2021 and 2022 seasons. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with four replications and five irrigation levels (70; 85; 100; 115 and 130% of crop evapotranspiration - ETc) during three production cycles. The variables fertile bud, vegetative bud, dead bud, potential fertility of the basal, median, and apical regions of the branches, number of potential bunches, reducing sugar, total soluble sugar, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, and relative chlorophyll index were evaluated. The 115% ETc irrigation level improved the number of fertile buds and number of potential bunches. Irrigation level above 115% ETc increased gas exchange and relative chlorophyll index, while 70% ETc increased leaf sugar content. The most appropriate irrigation strategy is the application of 115% ETc during the flowering stage, for the increase of fertile buds and potential bunches of the next cycle, without influencing the vine metabolism. Total soluble sugars are a promising indicator of water deficit during flowering and as an indicator of vegetative bud formation for the next cycle.


Asunto(s)
Vitis , Vitis/metabolismo , Brasil , Inflorescencia/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Carbohidratos , Azúcares/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 131: 111776, 2024 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471363

RESUMEN

The aim of this study is to explore the potential of repurposing the antiarthritic drug diacerein (DCN) against diclofenac (DCF)-induced acute nephrotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into four groups: Group I (CTRL) served as the negative control; Group II (DCF) served as the positive control and was injected with DCF (50 mg/kg/day) for three consecutive days (fourth-sixth) while being deprived of water starting on day 5; Group III (DCF + DCN50) and Group IV (DCF + DCN100) were orally administered DCN (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively) for six days and injected with DCF, while being deprived of water as described above. Changes in kidney function biomarkers were assessed. Levels of MDA and GSH along with NO content in kidney tissues were measured as indicators of oxidative stress status. Histopathological changes of the renal cortex and medulla were evaluated. Changes in renal NF-κB and SIRT-1 levels were immunohistochemically addressed. Western blotting was used to estimate the relative expressions of HIF-1α, p53, and active caspase-3. Our results showed that DCN inhibited kidney dysfunction and suppressed oxidative stress, which were reflected in improved kidney architecture, including less tubular degeneration and necrosis in the cortex and medulla. Interestingly, DCN reduced renal HIF-1α, p53, and active caspase-3 expression and NF-κB activation while increasing renal SIRT1 expression. In conclusion, for the first time, DCN counteracts acute kidney injury induced by DCF in rats by its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, antinecrotic, and anti-apoptotic effects in a dose-dependent manner, which are mainly via targeting SIRT1/HIF-1α/NF-κB and SIRT1/p53 regulatory axes.


Asunto(s)
Diclofenaco , FN-kappa B , Ratas , Animales , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Diclofenaco/uso terapéutico , Caspasa 3/metabolismo , Proteína p53 Supresora de Tumor/metabolismo , Sirtuina 1/metabolismo , Apoptosis , Riñón , Estrés Oxidativo , Agua/metabolismo , Agua/farmacología
17.
Nature ; 627(8005): 905-914, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448589

RESUMEN

A string of nucleotides confined within a protein capsid contains all the instructions necessary to make a functional virus particle, a virion. Although the structure of the protein capsid is known for many virus species1,2, the three-dimensional organization of viral genomes has mostly eluded experimental probes3,4. Here we report all-atom structural models of an HK97 virion5, including its entire 39,732 base pair genome, obtained through multiresolution simulations. Mimicking the action of a packaging motor6, the genome was gradually loaded into the capsid. The structure of the packaged capsid was then refined through simulations of increasing resolution, which produced a 26 million atom model of the complete virion, including water and ions confined within the capsid. DNA packaging occurs through a loop extrusion mechanism7 that produces globally different configurations of the packaged genome and gives each viral particle individual traits. Multiple microsecond-long all-atom simulations characterized the effect of the packaged genome on capsid structure, internal pressure, electrostatics and diffusion of water, ions and DNA, and revealed the structural imprints of the capsid onto the genome. Our approach can be generalized to obtain complete all-atom structural models of other virus species, thereby potentially revealing new drug targets at the genome-capsid interface.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriófagos , Cápside , ADN Viral , Genoma Viral , Virión , Ensamble de Virus , Bacteriófagos/química , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bacteriófagos/metabolismo , Cápside/química , Cápside/metabolismo , Proteínas de la Cápside/química , Proteínas de la Cápside/metabolismo , Difusión , ADN Viral/química , ADN Viral/genética , ADN Viral/metabolismo , Iones/análisis , Iones/química , Iones/metabolismo , Electricidad Estática , Virión/química , Virión/genética , Virión/metabolismo , Ensamble de Virus/genética , Agua/análisis , Agua/química , Agua/metabolismo
18.
Neuroreport ; 35(6): 387-398, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526944

RESUMEN

Emerging evidence indicates that dysfunctional autophagic flux significantly contributes to the pathology of experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current study aims to clarify its role post-TBI using brain tissues from TBI patients. Histological examinations, including hematoxylin and eosin, Nissl staining, and brain water content analysis, were employed to monitor brain damage progression. Electron microscopy was used to visualize autophagic vesicles. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to analyze the levels of important autophagic flux-related proteins such as Beclin1, autophagy-related protein 5, lipidated microtubule-associated protein light-chain 3 (LC3-II), autophagic substrate sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/p62), and cathepsin D (CTSD), a lysosomal enzyme. Immunofluorescence assays evaluated LC3 colocalization with NeuN, P62, or CTSD, and correlation analysis linked autophagy-related protein levels with brain water content and Nissl bodies. Early-stage TBI results showed increased autophagic vesicles and LC3-positive neurons, suggesting autophagosome accumulation due to enhanced initiation and reduced clearance. As TBI progressed, LC3-II and P62 levels increased, while CTSD levels decreased. This indicates autophagosome overload from impaired degradation rather than increased initiation. The study reveals a potential association between worsening brain damage and impaired autophagic flux post-TBI, positioning improved autophagic flux as a viable therapeutic target for TBI.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo , Lesiones Encefálicas , Humanos , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Autofagia/fisiología , Lesiones Encefálicas/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo , Proteínas Asociadas a Microtúbulos/metabolismo
19.
Phytochemistry ; 221: 114040, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428627

RESUMEN

Plants react to drought stress with numerous changes including altered emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from leaves, which provide protection against oxidative tissue damage and mediate numerous biotic interactions. Despite the share of grasslands in the terrestrial biosphere, their importance as carbon sinks and their contribution to global biodiversity, little is known about the influence of drought on VOC profiles of grassland species. Using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we analysed the odorants emitted by 22 European grassland species exposed to an eight-week-lasting drought treatment (DT; 30% water holding capacity, WHC). We focused on the odorants emitted during the light phase from whole plant shoots in their vegetative stage. Emission rates were standardised to the dry weight of each shoot. Well-watered (WW) plants (70% WHC) served as control. Drought-induced significant changes included an increase in total emission rates of plant VOC in six and a decrease in three species. Diverging effects on the number of emitted VOC (chemical richness) or on the Shannon diversity of the VOC profiles were detected in 13 species. Biosynthetic pathways-targeted analyses revealed 13 species showing drought-induced higher emission rates of VOC from one, two, three, or four major biosynthetic pathways (lipoxygenase, shikimate, mevalonate and methylerythritol phosphate pathway), while six species exhibited reduced emission rates from one or two of these pathways. Similarity trees of odorant profiles and their drought-induced changes based on a biosynthetically informed distance metric did not match species phylogeny. However, a phylogenetic signal was detected for the amount of terpenoids released by the studied species under WW and DT conditions. A comparative analysis of emission rates of single compounds released by WW and DT plants revealed significant VOC profile dissimilarities in four species only. The moderate drought-induced changes in the odorant emissions of grassland species are discussed with respect to their impact on trophic interactions across the food web. (294 words).


Asunto(s)
Pradera , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Odorantes , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/metabolismo , Sequías , Filogenia , Plantas/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...