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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248305, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339359

RESUMEN

Abstract Fertilization with dehydrated sewage sludge can speed up the recovery process of degraded areas due to nutrients concentration, favoring the development of pioneer plants such as Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Beth (Fabales: Fabaceae) and the emergence of insects. This study aimed the evaluation of chewing, pollinating insects, predators, their ecological indices and relationships on A. auriculiformis plants fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (with and without dehydrated sewage sludge) and 24 repetitions. The prevalence of chewing insects Parasyphraea sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Nasutitermes sp. (Blattodea: Termitidae), and Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813) (Orthoptera: Romaleidae), defoliation, and ecological indices of abundance of Coleoptera and Orthoptera were observed on fertilized A. auriculiformis. Acacia auriculiformis plants, with a superior number of branches/tree, revealed greater abundance of Coleoptera and Orthoptera, species richness of pollinating insects, defoliation, numbers of Parasyphraea sp. and T. collaris. The ones with larger leaves/branches displayed greater abundance of species richness of Coleoptera and Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Therefore, the use of A. auriculiformis plants, fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge, is promising in the recovery of degraded areas due to the ecological indices increase of chewing and pollinators insects and spiders in the analyzed area.


Resumo A fertilização com lodo de esgoto desidratado pode acelerar o processo de recuperação de áreas degradadas devido à concentração de nutrientes, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de plantas pioneiras tais como Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Beth (Fabales: Fabaceae) e de seus insetos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os insetos mastigadores, polinizadores e predadores e seus índices e relações ecológicas em plantas de A. auriculiformis fertilizadas com lodo de esgoto desidratado, em área degradada, durante 24 meses. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizados com dois tratamentos (com e sem adubação com lodo de esgoto desidratado) e 24 repetições (uma repetição = uma planta). O maior número de insetos mastigadores Parasyphraea sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Nasutitermes sp. (Blattodea: Termitidae) e Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813) (Orthoptera: Romaleidae), de desfolha, e do índice ecológico abundância de Coleoptera e de Orthoptera foram maiores em plantas de A. auriculiformis fertilizadas do que nas não fertilizadas com lodo de esgoto desidratado. Plantas de A. auriculiformis, com maior quantidade de galhos/árvore, apresentaram maiores abundâncias de Coleoptera e Orthoptera, riqueza de espécies de insetos polinizadores, desfolha e números de Parasyphraea sp. e T. collaris, e as com maior folhas/galho os de riqueza de espécies de Coleoptera e Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Por tanto, a utilização de A. auriculiformis, adubada com lodo de esgoto desidratado, é promissora na recuperação de áreas degradadas devido ao aumento dos índices ecológicos de insetos mastigadores, polinizadores e aranhas na área.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Acacia , Fabaceae , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Fertilización , Insectos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243874, 2023. graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285606

RESUMEN

Abstract In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Resumo Nos últimos dias, a fonte alternativa de carbono mais barata para fins de fermentação é desejável para minimizar o custo de produção. As xilanases têm se tornado enzimas atraentes como seu potencial no biobranqueamento da indústria de papel e celulose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a capacidade potencial na produção de xilanase por Bacillus pumilus BS131 isolado localmente usando lodo de fibra residual e farelo de trigo em meio de fermentação submersa. As condições de crescimento da cultura foram otimizadas para obter uma quantidade significativa de xilanase. A produção máxima de xilanase foi registrada após 72 horas de incubação a 30 °C e pH 7 com concentração de substrato de 4,0%. Resumindo, a produção de xilanase usando lodo de fibra residual de baixo custo e farelo de trigo como uma alternativa no lugar do substrato de xilano caro foi mais econômica e ecológica.


Asunto(s)
Bacillus/metabolismo , Bacillus pumilus/metabolismo , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Temperatura , Fibras de la Dieta , Endo-1,4-beta Xilanasas/metabolismo , Fermentación , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno
3.
Fungal Biol ; 126(5): 356-365, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501031

RESUMEN

Successful application of microbial biofertilizers, such as phosphorus (P) solubilizing fungi to agroecosystems, is constrained from the lack of knowledge about their ecology; for example in terms of how they respond to an external input of carbon (C) to get established in the soil. In two soil incubation experiments we examined the performance of the P solubilizing fungus Penicillium aculeatum in non-sterile and semi-sterile (γ-irradiated) soil with different C and P sources. Results from the first experiment with C sources showed that starch and cellulose generally improved P solubilization by P. aculeatum measured as water extractable P (Pwep), though only significantly in non-sterile soil. This coincided with an increased population density of P. aculeatum measured with a hygromycin B resistant strain of this fungus. Soil respiration used to measure soil microbial activity was overall much higher in treatments with C compounds than without C in both non-sterile and semi-sterile soil. However, soil respiration was highest with cellulose in semi-sterile soil, especially in combination with P. aculeatum. Hence, for the second experiment with P sources (tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and sewage sludge ash) cellulose was used as a C source for P. aculeatum growth in all treatments. Main results showed that P. aculeatum in combination with cellulose soil amendment increased soil Pwep independent of soil sterilization and P source treatments. Soil resin P (Pres) and microbial P (Pmic), which represents stocks of potentially plant available P, were also affected from P. aculeatum inoculation. Increased soil Pres from TCP and sewage sludge ash was observed with P. aculeatum independent of soil type. On the other hand soil Pmic was higher after P. aculeatum inoculation only in semi-sterile soil. Population density of P. aculeatum measured with qPCR was maintained or increased in non-sterile and semi-sterile soil, respectively, compared to the original inoculum load of P. aculeatum. In conclusion, our results underline the importance of C source addition for P. aculeatum if used as a biofertilizer. For this, cellulose seems to be a promising option promoting P. aculeatum growth and P solubilization also in non-sterilized soil.


Asunto(s)
Suelo , Talaromyces , Celulosa , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Microbiología del Suelo , Esterilización
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 407, 2022 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524884

RESUMEN

Gastrointestinal diseases caused by protozoan parasites remain a major challenge in developing countries and ingestion of contaminated surface water represents one of the main sources by which these diseases are contracted. This study assessed the risk of infection and diseases caused by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. due to ingestion of surface water used for public supply and recreational activities, focusing on the southeastern Brazilian Pardo River and applying the USEPA 1623 method to quantify (oo)cyst concentrations. Infection and disease probabilities due to ingestion of drinking water or during recreational activities were estimated using the Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) approach. Mean concentrations of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in surface water ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 oocysts L-1 and 0.2 to 4.4 cysts L-1, respectively. Considering public water supply, annual infection probabilities were higher for adults than children and exceeded the USEPA limit; also, disease probabilities were higher for adults than children. For recreational activities, annual infection and disease probabilities were higher for children, followed by men and women. The occurrence of both parasites likely reflects raw sewage discharge, effluent from sewage treatment plants, and diffuse sources of pollution, such as runoff from pasture lands and deforested riparian forest corridors. Our results highlight substantial infection risks by both parasite types after conventional treatment of water used for public supply and also call for careful monitoring of water bodies used for recreational purposes.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Agua Potable , Parásitos , Animales , Niño , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Agua Potable/parasitología , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Femenino , Giardia , Humanos , Oocistos , Medición de Riesgo , Aguas del Alcantarillado/parasitología , Abastecimiento de Agua
5.
Technol Cult ; 63(2): 427-449, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531805

RESUMEN

Early modern Tokyo was a city of water with rivers and canals crisscrossing the city and connecting its commercial centers. However, modern Tokyo's rivers have disappeared-filled in, or converted into concrete-lined sewers. This article explores what happened to these waterways during Japan's period of rapid economic growth. It focuses on the 1961 policy decision by city planners and water engineers that resulted in the rivers-to-sewers transition in the lead-up to the 1964 Tokyo Olympics. The process of making this policy sheds light on the interface of the long-term urban industrial pollution and the short-term pressures of urban clean up before the 1964 Olympics. Contributing an envirotech perspective on industrial waste management during Japan's high-speed economic growth period, this article brings to focus a rush to pave with concrete Japan's return on the international scene, as part of the showcasing recovery from the political and economic catastrophe of World War II.


Asunto(s)
Ríos , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Ciudades , Tokio , Agua
6.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 104, 2022 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421928

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bacterial floc formation plays a central role in the activated sludge (AS) process. The formation of AS flocs has long been known to require exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. We had demonstrated that both expolysaccharides and PEP-CTERM (a short C-terminal domain includes a near-invariant motif Pro-Glu-Pro (PEP)) proteins were required for floc-forming in Zoogloea resiniphila MMB, a dominant AS bacterium. However, the PEP-CTERM proteins are not encoded in the genome of AS bacterium Shinella zoogloeoides ATCC 19623 (formerly known as Zoogloea ramigera I-16-M) and other sequenced AS bacteria strains. The mechanism underlying floc formation of Shinella and related AS bacteria remained largely unclear. RESULTS: In this study, we have sequenced and annotated the complete genome of S. zoogloeoides ATCC 19623 (aka I-16-M), previously isolated in USA and treated as the neotype for the AS floc-forming bacterium Zoogloea ramigera I-16-M, and another AS strain XJ20 isolated in China. Mariner transposon mutagenesis had been conducted to isolate floc-forming-deficient mutants in the strain ATCC 19623 as previously performed by using Tn5 transposon three decades ago. The transposon insertional sites of multiple mutants were mapped to the gene cluster for bacterial cellulose synthesis (bcs) and secretion, and the role played by these genes in floc-formation had been further confirmed by genetic complementation. Interestingly, the restriction map of this bcs locus-flanking region was highly similar to that of the previously identified DNA fragment required for floc-formation in 1980s. Cellulase treatment abolished the floc-forming phenotype of S. zoogloeoides ATCC 19623 but not that of Z. resiniphila MMB strain. The FTIR spectral analyses revealed that the samples extracted from S. zoogloeoides ATCC 19623 were cellulose polymer. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that we have largely reproduced and completed the unfinished pioneering work on AS floc-formation mechanism, demonstrating that the floc-formation and flocculating capability of Shinella were mediated by extracellular cellulose polymers.


Asunto(s)
Rhizobiaceae , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Celulosa , Aguas del Alcantarillado/microbiología , Zoogloea
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6749, 2022 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468927

RESUMEN

The positive impact of the thermal hydrolysis process (THP) of sewage sludge on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) removal during anaerobic digestion (AD) has been reported in the literature. However, little information is available on how changes in different extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) due to THP can influence ARG propagation during AD. This study focused on systematically correlating EPS components and ARG abundance in AD of sewage sludge pretreated with THP (80 °C, 110 °C, 140 °C, 170 °C). THP under different conditions improved sludge solubilization followed by improved methane yields in the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test. The highest methane yield of 275 ± 11.5 ml CH4/g COD was observed for THP-140 °C, which was 40.5 ± 2.5% higher than the control. Increasing THP operating temperatures showed a non-linear response of ARG propagation in AD due to the rebound effect. The highest ARGs removal in AD was achieved with THP at 140 °C. The multivariate analysis showed that EPS polysaccharides positively correlated with most ARGs and integrons, except for macrolides resistance genes. In contrast, EPS protein was only strongly correlated with ß-lactam resistance genes. These results suggest that manipulating THP operating conditions targeting specific EPS components will be critical to effectively mitigating the dissemination of particular ARG types in AD.


Asunto(s)
Matriz Extracelular de Sustancias Poliméricas , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Matriz Extracelular de Sustancias Poliméricas/genética , Metano
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6894, 2022 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477966

RESUMEN

Direct sewage discharge could cause copious numbers of serious and irreversible harm to the environment. This study investigated the impacts of treated and raw sewage on the river ecosystem. Through our analysis, sewage carried various nutrients into the river, leading to changes in the microbial community in the river and reducing the diversity and richness of bacteria. The relative abundances of Hydrogenophaga, Thauera, Planctomyces, Zoogloea, and Pseudomonas boosted from 0.25, 0.01, 0.00, 0.05, and 0.08% to 3.33, 3.43, 0.02, 6.28, and 2.69%, before and after raw sewage discharge, respectively. The gene abundance of pathogenic bacteria significantly increased after raw sewage discharge. For instance, the gene abundance of Vibrio, Helicobacter, Tuberculosis, and Staphylococcus augmented from 4055, 3797, 13,545, 33 reads at Site-1 to 23,556, 13,163, 19,887, 734 reads at Site-2, respectively. In addition, according to the redundancy analysis (RDA), the infectious pathogens were positively related to the environmental parameters, in which COD showed the highest positive correlation with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Additionally, river self-purification may contribute to improving water quality and reducing pathogenicity. The outcomes of this study showed that direct discharge brought pathogens and changed microbial community structure of the river.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Ríos , Bacterias/genética , Ríos/química , Aguas del Alcantarillado/microbiología , Virulencia , Calidad del Agua
9.
Water Sci Technol ; 85(8): 2318-2331, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486457

RESUMEN

While soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in wastewater bioprocesses have been widely studied, a lack of standard quantification procedures make it difficult to compare results between studies. This study investigated the effect of temperature on SMP and EPS profiles for biological nutrient removal (BNR) sludges and aerobic membrane bioreactor sludge by adapting the commonly used heat extraction and centrifugation scheme, followed by colorimetric quantification of the carbohydrate and protein fractions using the phenol-sulfuric acid (PS) and the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) methods, respectively. To overcome known inconsistencies in colorimetry, total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and fluorometry analyses were performed in tandem. SMP samples marginally benefitted from heat extraction, owing to their mostly soluble nature, while EPS profiles were greatly influenced by temperature. 60 °C appears to be a suitable general-purpose extraction temperature near the lysis threshold for the sludges tested. The PS method's misestimation due to lack of specificity was observed and contrasted by TC analyses, while the TN analyses corroborated the BCA assays. Fluorometry proved to be a sensitive and rapid analytical method that provided semi-quantitative information on SMP and EPS constituents, particularly its proteinaceous components, with positive implications for robust wastewater process control.


Asunto(s)
Matriz Extracelular de Sustancias Poliméricas , Aguas Residuales , Carbono , Calor , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Temperatura
10.
Water Sci Technol ; 85(8): 2332-2349, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486458

RESUMEN

In this work, iron was recovered from a kind of iron-rich pickling sludge by an acid leaching process, and the recycled iron was used as a catalyst to activate peroxydisulfate (PS) for the degradation of phenol. Different kinds of sludge catalysts were prepared by different drying methods such as ordinary drying (Ods), freeze drying (Fds) and vacuum drying (Vds). The degradation performance of the different catalysts/PS system under different conditions was explored, the vacuum drying sludge catalyst (Vds) has the best activity in a wide pH range (pH = 3-10) and a wide temperature range (0-40 °C). At the same time, the effect of a series of chelating agents (Oxalic acid (OA), Citric acid (CA), Tartaric acid (TA), Malic acid (DL-MA) and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)) on Vds/PS system was verified, and TA was selected as the best chelating agent to promote the degradation of the second stage where the degradation rate is limited. The quenching experiment and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis indicated that hydroxyl radical (·OH) and sulfate radical (SO4̇-) were responsible for the abatement of the organic contaminant with ·OH playing a more important role. In summary, this study proposed an environmentally-friendly approach for the application of iron-rich pickling sludge in the remediation of phenol-contaminated water.


Asunto(s)
Fenol , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Catálisis , Quelantes , Radical Hidroxilo , Hierro
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(5): 367, 2022 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35426058

RESUMEN

CrAssphage is a novel and by far the most abundant bacteriophage in the human gut and has been proposed as a human-specific microbial source tracking (MST) marker. However, its global use as a human-specific MST marker requires validation in more extensive regions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the specificity and abundance of the human-specific MST marker crAssphage with PCR and RT-PCR assays in human and animal feces in Korea. The prevalence of crAssphage was confirmed in 94 human feces samples (subjects: 19 to 45 years old) and 56 animal feces samples (from birds, raccoons, squirrels, weasels, deer, wild boars, hares, cats, and dogs). CrAssphage showed sensitivity of 0.39 and specificity of 1.00 in Korea, with a sequencing analysis showing that genotype II was dominant at 71.9%. The quantitative analysis showed that crAssphage is sufficiently abundant in human feces given the high concentration range of 4.26 to 8.25 log gene copies (GC)/ng in human feces. In conclusion, this study confirmed the crAssphage as a specific and abundant MST marker with which to identify human fecal contamination in Korea.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriófagos , Ciervos , Animales , Bacteriófagos/genética , Biomarcadores , Perros , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Heces/química , Humanos , Aguas del Alcantarillado/análisis , Microbiología del Agua , Contaminación del Agua/análisis
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(4): 323, 2022 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35359231

RESUMEN

Conventional activated sludge system is confidently widely used for biological treatment plants of municipal wastewater but suffering from operation problems that affect their efficiencies and effluent qualities, especially when treating low-strength wastewater with increasing incoming flow. The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the novel methods used in upgrading conventional activated sludge treatment systems receiving low-strength wastewater to generate good effluent quality. GPS-X Simulator V 8.0 was used for model calibration and plant performance prediction. The calibrated GPS-X model proved that eliminating primary settling from the treatment process does not affect BOD5 and COD removal, while TSS removal is decreased, and NH4-N removal is increased. Increasing the return activated sludge flow from 50 to 150% of influent flow does not affect conventional activated sludge process, while the change of waste activated flow had a vital effect on process performance. The presence of an anoxic zone in conventional activated sludge processes treating low-strength wastewater has no significant impact on plant performance. Also, the model outputs proved that adding filling media to the aeration tank was able to handle an increase of influent flow and a stable performance of BOD5, and NH4-N removal was observed.


Asunto(s)
Aguas del Alcantarillado , Aguas Residuales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos
13.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(8): e0001922, 2022 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380451

RESUMEN

Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producers are an emerging threat to global health, and the hospital water environment is considered an important reservoir of these life-threatening bacteria. We characterized plasmids of KPC-2-producing Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella variicola isolates recovered from hospital sewage in Japan. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, whole-genome sequencing analysis, bacterial conjugation, and transformation experiments were performed for both KPC-2 producers. The blaKPC-2 gene was located on the Tn3 transposon-related region from an IncP-6 replicon plasmid that could not be transferred via conjugation. Compared to the blaKPC-2-encoding plasmid of the C. freundii isolate, alignment analysis of plasmids with blaKPC-2 showed that the blaKPC-2-encoding plasmid of the K. variicola isolate was a novel IncP-6/IncF-like hybrid plasmid containing a 75,218-bp insertion sequence composed of IncF-like plasmid conjugative transfer proteins. Carbapenem-resistant transformants harboring blaKPC-2 were obtained for both isolates. However, no IncF-like insertion region was found in the K. variicola donor plasmid of the transformant, suggesting that this IncF-like region is not readily functional for plasmid conjugative transfer and is maintained depending on the host cells. The findings on the KPC-2 producers and novel genetic content emphasize the key role of hospital sewage as a potential reservoir of pathogens and its linked dissemination of blaKPC-2 through the hospital water environment. Our results indicate that continuous monitoring for environmental emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria might be needed to control the spread of these infectious bacteria. Moreover, it will help elucidate both the evolution and transmission pathways of these bacteria harboring antimicrobial resistance. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is a significant problem for global health, and the hospital environment has been recognized as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance. Here, we provide insight into the genomic features of blaKPC-2-harboring isolates of Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella variicola obtained from hospital sewage in Japan. The findings of carbapenem-resistant bacteria containing this novel genetic context emphasize that hospital sewage could act as a potential reservoir of pathogens and cause the subsequent spread of blaKPC-2 via horizontal gene transfer in the hospital water environment. This indicates that serial monitoring for environmental bacteria possessing antimicrobial resistance may help us control the spread of infection and also lead to elucidating the evolution and transmission pathways of these bacteria.


Asunto(s)
Citrobacter freundii , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Antibacterianos , Carbapenémicos , Citrobacter freundii/genética , Hospitales , Japón , Klebsiella , Plásmidos/genética , Agua
14.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(8): e0031622, 2022 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384705

RESUMEN

Biosolids that are applied to agricultural soil as an organic fertilizer are frequently contaminated with pharmaceutical residues that have persisted during wastewater treatment and partitioned into the organic phase. Macrolide antibiotics, which serve as a critically important human medicine, have been detected within biosolids. To determine the impacts of macrolide antibiotics on soil bacteria, every year for a decade, a series of replicated field plots received an application of a mixture of erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin at a realistic (0.1 mg kg soil-1) or an unrealistically high (10 mg kg soil-1) dose or were left untreated. The effects of repeated antibiotic exposure on the soil bacterial community, resistome, mobilome, and integron gene cassette content were evaluated by 16S rRNA and integron gene cassette amplicon sequencing, as well as whole-metagenome sequencing. At the unrealistically high dose, the overall diversity of the resistome and mobilome was altered, as 21 clinically important antibiotic resistance genes predicted to encode resistance to 10 different antibiotic drug classes were increased and 20 mobile genetic element variants (tnpA, intI1, tnpAN, and IS91) were increased. In contrast, at the realistic dose, no effect was observed on the overall diversity of the soil bacterial community, resistome, mobilome, or integron gene cassette-carrying genes. Overall, these results suggest that macrolide antibiotics entrained into soil at concentrations anticipated with biosolid applications would not result in major changes to these endpoints. IMPORTANCE Biosolids, produced from the treatment of sewage sludge, are rich in plant nutrients and are a valuable alternative to inorganic fertilizer when applied to agricultural soil. However, the use of biosolids in agriculture, which are frequently contaminated with pharmaceuticals, such as macrolide antibiotics, may pose a risk to human health by selecting for antibiotic resistance genes that could be transferred to plant-based food destined for human consumption. The consequences of long-term, repeated macrolide antibiotic exposure on the diversity of the soil bacterial community, resistome, and mobilome were evaluated. At unrealistically high concentrations, macrolide antibiotics alter the overall diversity of the resistome and mobilome, enriching for antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements of concern to human health. However, at realistic antibiotic concentrations, no effect on these endpoints was observed, suggesting that current biosolids land management practices are unlikely to pose a risk to human health due to macrolide antibiotic contamination alone.


Asunto(s)
Fertilizantes , Suelo , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias , Biosólidos , Fertilizantes/análisis , Humanos , Macrólidos/farmacología , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Aguas del Alcantarillado/microbiología , Suelo/química , Microbiología del Suelo
15.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 8(1): 23, 2022 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411053

RESUMEN

Network models and community phylogenetic analyses are applied to assess the composition, structure, and ecological assembly mechanisms of microbial communities. Here we combine both approaches to investigate the temporal dynamics of network properties in individual samples of two activated sludge systems at different adaptation stages. At initial assembly stages, we observed microbial communities adapting to activated sludge, with an increase in network modularity and co-exclusion proportion, and a decrease in network clustering, here interpreted as a consequence of niche specialization. The selective pressure of deterministic factors at wastewater treatment plants produces this trend and maintains the structure of highly functional and specialized communities responding to seasonal environmental changes.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Reactores Biológicos , Filogenia , Aguas Residuales
16.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1908, 2022 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393411

RESUMEN

Microbial communities are responsible for biological wastewater treatment, but our knowledge of their diversity and function is still poor. Here, we sequence more than 5 million high-quality, full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences from 740 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across the world and use the sequences to construct the 'MiDAS 4' database. MiDAS 4 is an amplicon sequence variant resolved, full-length 16S rRNA gene reference database with a comprehensive taxonomy from domain to species level for all sequences. We use an independent dataset (269 WWTPs) to show that MiDAS 4, compared to commonly used universal reference databases, provides a better coverage for WWTP bacteria and an improved rate of genus and species level classification. Taking advantage of MiDAS 4, we carry out an amplicon-based, global-scale microbial community profiling of activated sludge plants using two common sets of primers targeting regions of the 16S rRNA gene, revealing how environmental conditions and biogeography shape the activated sludge microbiota. We also identify core and conditionally rare or abundant taxa, encompassing 966 genera and 1530 species that represent approximately 80% and 50% of the accumulated read abundance, respectively. Finally, we show that for well-studied functional guilds, such as nitrifiers or polyphosphate-accumulating organisms, the same genera are prevalent worldwide, with only a few abundant species in each genus.


Asunto(s)
Aguas del Alcantarillado , Purificación del Agua , Bacterias/genética , Genes de ARNr , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Aguas del Alcantarillado/microbiología , Aguas Residuales/microbiología
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6401, 2022 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430621

RESUMEN

Plastic contamination of terrestrial ecosystems and arable soils pose potentially negative impacts on several soil functions. Whereas substantial plastic contamination is now traceable in agro-landscapes, often internal-caused by the application of fertilizers such as sewage sludge, questions remain unanswered concerning what happens to the plastic after incorporation. Based on a combined surface and depth sampling approach, including density separation, fluorescence staining and ATR-FTIR or µFTIR analyses, we quantified macro- and microplastic abundance on two agricultural fields-34 years after the last sewage sludge application. By sub-dividing the study area around sludge application sites, we were able to determine spatial distribution and spreading of plastics. Past sewage sludge application led to a still high density of macroplastics (637.12 items per hectare) on agricultural soil surfaces. Microplastic concentration, measured down to 90 cm depth, ranged from 0.00 to 56.18 particles per kg of dry soil weight. Maximum microplastic concentrations were found in regularly ploughed topsoils. After 34 years without sewage sludge application, macro- and microplastic loads were significantly higher on former application areas, compared to surrounding areas without history of direct sewage application. We found that anthropogenic ploughing was mainly responsible for plastic spread, as opposed to natural transport processes like erosion. Furthermore, small-scale lateral to vertical heterogeneous distribution of macro- and microplastics highlights the need to determine appropriate sampling strategies and the modelling of macro- and microplastic transport in soils.


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plásticos , Suelo
18.
Water Res ; 216: 118332, 2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364350

RESUMEN

Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been widely employed for wastewater and organic waste treatment, in which methanogenesis is highly driven by close microbial interactions among intricate microbial communities. However, the ecological processes underpinning the community assembly that support methanogenesis in such engineered ecosystems remain largely unknown, especially when exposed to challenging circumstances (e.g., high temperature, ammonium content). Here, eight AD bioreactors were seeded with four different inocula (two from full-scale mesophilic AD systems and the other two from lab-scale mesophilic AD systems), and were operated under thermophilic conditions (55 °C) for treating thermal hydrolysis process (THP) pre-treated waste activated sludge to investigate how mesophilic community responds to thermophilic conditions during the long-term cultivation. Results showed that the inocula collected from the full-scale systems were more resilient than that from the lab-scale systems, which may be primarily attributed to indigenous robust methanogens. As a result, the former efficiently generated methane which was predominantly contributed by Methanothermobacter and Methanosarcina (healthy AD ecosystem), while methanogenic activity was remarkably prohibited in the latter (dysfunctional AD ecosystem). Thermophilic environment was a strong selection force, resulting in the convergence of microbial communities in both the healthy and dysfunctional AD ecosystems. Deterministic processes predominated the community assembly regardless of AD ecosystem function, but stronger influences of stochastic processes were observed in dysfunctional AD ecosystems, which was likely attributable from the stronger effect of immigrants from the feedstock. As indicated by molecular ecological network analysis, the microbial network structures in the healthy AD ecosystems were more stable than those in the dysfunctional AD ecosystems. Although keystone taxa were different among the bioreactors, most of which played vital roles in organic hydrolysis/fermentation. To sum up, this study greatly improved our understanding of the relationships between microbiological traits and AD ecosystem function under thermophilic conditions, which could provide useful information to guide thermophilic AD (e.g., THP-AD) start-up and health diagnosis during operation.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Hidrólisis , Metano , Methanosarcina , Temperatura
19.
Water Res ; 216: 118340, 2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364352

RESUMEN

The activated sludge wastewater treatment process has been thoroughly researched in more than 100 years, yet there are still operational challenges that have not been fully resolved. Such a challenge is the control of filamentous bulking caused by the overgrowth of certain filamentous bacteria. In this study, we tested different mitigation strategies to reduce filamentous bulking, caused by two common filamentous genera found in full-scale water resource recovery facilities (WRRF), Candidatus Microthrix and Candidatus Amarolinea. PAX dosing, ozone addition, hydrocyclone implementation, and the addition of nano-coagulants were tested as mitigation strategies in four parallel treatment lines in a full-scale WRRF over three consecutive years. Unexpectedly, the activated sludge settleability was not affected by any of the mitigation strategies. Some of the strategies appeared to have a strong mitigating effect on the two filamentous species. However, detailed analyses of the microbial communities revealed strong recurrent seasonal variations in all four lines, including the control line which masked the real effect. After removing the effect of the seasonal variation by using a time-series decomposition approach, it was clear that the filamentous bacteria were mostly unaffected by the mitigation strategies. Only PAX dosing had some effect on Ca. Microthrix, but only on one species, Ca. Microthrix subdominans, and not on the most common Ca. Microthrix parvicella. Overall, our study shows the importance of long-term monitoring of microbial communities at species level to understand the normal seasonal pattern to effectively plan and execute full-scale experiments. Moreover, the results highlight the importance of using parallel reference treatment lines when evaluating the effect of mitigation strategies in full-scale treatment plants.


Asunto(s)
Actinobacteria , Microbiota , Bacterias , Estaciones del Año , Aguas del Alcantarillado/microbiología , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos
20.
Water Res ; 216: 118373, 2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366495

RESUMEN

Anammox process has been widely regarded as an energy-efficient method for sludge digestion filtrate treatment. However, the complex high-strength organics in the filtrate, especially of Anaerobic Digestion after Thermal Hydrolysis Pretreatment (THP-AD), brings serious threat to anammox bacteria, and the high nitrate residue in effluent remains another significant barrier in operation. In this study, a novel double-line anammox-mediated system, integrating the Partial Nitrification/Anammox (PNA) with Partial Denitrification/Anammox (PDA) processes in separately sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), was developed to polish the THP-AD filtrate. When the real THP-AD filtrate (1946.5 mg NH4+-N/L, 2076.0 mg COD/L) was fed to the front PNA reactor (SBRPNA) with 5-fold dilution, effluent total nitrogen (TN) remained at 93.0 mg/L. Notably, the final effluent TN was effectively polished to as low as 8.8 mg/L by the following PDA reactor (SBRPDA), which was fed with the SBRPNA effluent and real domestic wastewater (71.0 mg NH4+-N/L, 209.1 mg COD/L). More severe inhibition on anammox activity was observed in SBRPNA rather than SBRPDA by refractory organics in filtrate. Fortunately, it could be alleviated with the enhanced degradability of particulate organics and aromatic protein-like compounds, attributed to the enrichment of class Anaerolineae in both SBRPNA and SBRPDA. This further stimulated the electron donor supply for PDA process with much lower external carbon source demand. 16S rRNA sequencing analysis revealed that Candidatus Brocadia as dominant anammox bacteria were efficiently enriched in both SBRPNA and SBRPDA, indicating its unexpected toughness and adaptability to the complex organic compounds in THP-AD filtrate. Overall, this study suggested that the novel double-line anammox would be a promising alternative for cost-efficient nitrogen removal from high-strength wastewater containing complex organic matter.


Asunto(s)
Desnitrificación , Aguas Residuales , Bacterias , Reactores Biológicos/microbiología , Nitrógeno , Oxidación-Reducción , Polonia , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Aguas del Alcantarillado
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