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1.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1250, 2024 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714949

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Being socially excluded has detrimental effects, with prolonged exclusion linked to loneliness and social isolation. Social disconnection interventions that do not require direct support actions (e.g., "how can I help?") offer promise in mitigating the affective and cognitive consequences of social exclusion. We examine how various social disconnection interventions involving friends and unknown peers might mitigate social exclusion by buffering (intervening before) and by promoting recovery (intervening after). METHODS: We present an integrative data analysis (IDA) of five studies (N = 664) that systematically exposed participants to exclusion (vs. inclusion) social dynamics. Using a well-validated paradigm, participants had a virtual interaction with two other people. Unbeknownst to participants, the other people's behavior was programmed to either behave inclusively toward the participant or for one to behave exclusively. Critically, our social disconnection interventions experimentally manipulated whether a friend was present (vs. an unknown peer vs. being alone), the nature of interpersonal engagement (having a face-to-face conversation vs. a reminder of an upcoming interaction vs. mere presence), and the timing of the intervention in relation to the social dynamic (before vs. during vs. after). We then assessed participants' in-the-moment affective and cognitive responses, which included mood, feelings of belonging, sense of control, and social comfort. RESULTS: Experiencing exclusion (vs. inclusion) led to negative affective and cognitive consequences. However, engaging in a face-to-face conversation with a friend before the exclusion lessened its impact (p < .001). Moreover, a face-to-face conversation with a friend after exclusion, and even a reminder of an upcoming interaction with a friend, sped-up recovery (ps < .001). There was less conclusive evidence that a face-to-face conversation with an unknown peer, or that the mere presence of a friend or unknown peer, conferred protective benefits. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide support for the effectiveness of social disconnection interventions that involve actual (i.e., face-to-face) or symbolic (i.e., reminders) interactions with friends. These interventions target momentary vulnerabilities that arise from social exclusion by addressing negative affect and cognitions before or after they emerge. As such, they offer a promising approach to primary prevention prior to the onset of loneliness and social isolation.


Asunto(s)
Aislamiento Social , Humanos , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Cognición , Afecto , Soledad/psicología , Adulto Joven , Análisis de Datos , Interacción Social , Relaciones Interpersonales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Amigos/psicología , Grupo Paritario
2.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1262, 2024 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720290

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The international education sector is important not only to Australian society, but also to the national economy. There are growing concerns about the potential wellbeing challenges facing international students in their host country, owing to acculturative stress; including loneliness, isolation and experiences of racism. Risks include poor mental health and decreased likelihood to access support due to stigma, language and cultural barriers, not knowing where to seek help, and poor mental health knowledge. METHODS: This study explored students' perceptions of their accommodation, subjective wellbeing (through the Personal Wellbeing Index, ['PWI']), mental health help-seeking and individual engagement with evidence-based everyday health promotion actions (informed by the '5 Ways to Wellbeing' model) through an online survey (N = 375) and three online focus groups (N = 19). A mixed-methods approach using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, regression analysis and thematic analysis, were used. RESULTS: The PWI of international students in the survey was observed to be substantially lower (M = 60.7) than that reported for the Australian population (M = 77.5). Accommodation impacted on wellbeing (loneliness, belonging, connectedness) in a number of different ways including through location, safety, and shared accommodation. In terms of help-seeking, international students noted a number of barriers to accessing support for mental health: cost of accessing support, language and cultural barriers, lack of information on where to find support and stigma. CONCLUSIONS: In the discussion, implications of the findings are considered, including that more could be done to shape policy and practice in service and facility provision around wellbeing, connectedness, and help-seeking for mental health support of international students.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Australia , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Grupos Focales , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Conducta de Búsqueda de Ayuda , Salud Mental , Soledad/psicología , Servicios de Salud Mental , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Aculturación
3.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1285, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730388

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite growing recognition of loneliness as a global public health concern, research on its occurrence and precipitants among men across different life stages remains limited and inconclusive. This study aims to address this gap by investigating the prevalence and predictors of loneliness among a large, representative data set of Australian adult men. METHODS: The study used longitudinal data from waves 2-21 of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, including men aged 15-98. Estimating linear fixed effects regressions that account for unobserved time-invariant individual heterogeneity, a single-item measure of loneliness was regressed on a set of selected explanatory variables over different parts of the life course. RESULTS: Increased social isolation, romantic partnership dissolution, having a long-term disability, and stronger beliefs that the man, rather than the woman, should be the breadwinner of the household, are associated with greater loneliness. Frequent social connection, having a romantic partner, and high neighbourhood satisfaction are protective against loneliness. The findings also reveal several differences in the predictors of loneliness over the life course. Job security is especially important for younger men, whereas for older men volunteering and less conservative gender role attitudes are important factors that can decrease loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: The results emphasise the need to consider age-specific factors and societal expectations in understanding and addressing loneliness amongst men. Additionally, the findings underscore the importance of raising awareness about the impact of societal norms and expectations on men's mental health. The results offer valuable insights for policymakers, healthcare providers, and researchers to develop effective strategies and support systems to combat loneliness and promote well-being among men.


Asunto(s)
Soledad , Humanos , Soledad/psicología , Masculino , Estudios Longitudinales , Australia , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Factores de Riesgo , Aislamiento Social/psicología
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11557, 2024 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773352

RESUMEN

Juvenile loneliness is a risk factor for psychopathology in later life. Deprivation of early social experience due to peer rejection has a detrimental impact on emotional and cognitive brain function in adulthood. Accumulating evidence indicates that soy peptides have many positive effects on higher brain function in rodents and humans. However, the effects of soy peptide use on juvenile social isolation are unknown. Here, we demonstrated that soy peptides reduced the deterioration of behavioral and cellular functions resulting from juvenile socially-isolated rearing. We found that prolonged social isolation post-weaning in male C57BL/6J mice resulted in higher aggression and impulsivity and fear memory deficits at 7 weeks of age, and that these behavioral abnormalities, except impulsivity, were mitigated by ingestion of soy peptides. Furthermore, we found that daily intake of soy peptides caused upregulation of postsynaptic density 95 in the medial prefrontal cortex and phosphorylation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein in the hippocampus of socially isolated mice, increased phosphorylation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in the hippocampus, and altered the microbiota composition. These results suggest that soy peptides have protective effects against juvenile social isolation-induced behavioral deficits via synaptic maturation and cellular functionalization.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Suplementos Dietéticos , Miedo , Hipocampo , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Aislamiento Social , Animales , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Masculino , Miedo/efectos de los fármacos , Agresión/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas de Soja/farmacología , Memoria/efectos de los fármacos , Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Corteza Prefrontal/efectos de los fármacos , Corteza Prefrontal/metabolismo , Homólogo 4 de la Proteína Discs Large/metabolismo , Proteína de Unión a Elemento de Respuesta al AMP Cíclico/metabolismo
5.
Health Promot Int ; 39(3)2024 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770900

RESUMEN

Social support is a well-established determinant of mental wellbeing. Community initiatives, which combine a purposeful activity with social connection, may be appropriate to promote the mental wellbeing of middle-aged men in Ireland-a group at risk of poor mental wellbeing due to social isolation. parkrun offers free, weekly, 5km run or walk events in 22 countries. This study aims to explore the social experience of parkrun participation for middle-aged men in Ireland and considers how social connections made at parkrun relate to mental wellbeing. Online semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2022/23 with 39 men aged 45-64 years, who run, walk or volunteer at parkrun in Ireland, recruited purposively in rural and urban communities. Men with a range of parkrun experience gave interviews lasting a mean of 32 minutes. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Reflexive thematic analysis resulted in three themes and ten subthemes. The men described parkrun as offering a welcoming and supportive environment (Theme 1). Men at parkrun could choose the level of social connections, building strong or weak social ties to provide social support and improve mental wellbeing (Theme 2). Social engagement with parkrun evolved following repeated participation (Theme 3). The results suggest that parkrun is a suitable community initiative for middle-aged men at risk of poor mental wellbeing due to social isolation. Social connections were developed after repeated participation in parkrun and these connections improved subjective mental wellbeing. The findings from this study could be used to design new initiatives for mental health promotion.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Investigación Cualitativa , Apoyo Social , Humanos , Masculino , Irlanda , Persona de Mediana Edad , Entrevistas como Asunto , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Amigos/psicología
6.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1390459, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721531

RESUMEN

Introduction: The aging population in South Korea, characterized by an increasing number of older adults living alone, has raised concerns about its implications on mental health, specifically social isolation and loneliness that accompanies solitary living arrangements. This study explores the impact of living arrangements on the mental well-being of Korean older adults by focusing on the prevalence of depression and the role of social isolation in the context of evolving family structures and the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed the responses of older adults aged 65 years and above (mean: 73.1, SD: 5.1) by using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2018 and 2020. In total, responses from 3,365 older adults (1,653 in 2018 and 1,712 in 2020) were employed in this research. The participants' mental health status was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, with living arrangements categorized by household size. A zero-inflated Poisson regression analysis was employed to investigate the relationship between living arrangements and depression severity, controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and psychological factors. Results: The study found that older adults living with others exhibited a lower depression severity than those living alone. Notably, the severity of depression decreased as the number of household members increased up to a certain threshold. Socio-economic factors, such as income level, marital status, and psychological stress were also identified as significant predictors of depression severity. However, the COVID-19 pandemic did not have a statistically significant impact on depression rates among older adults during the study period. Conclusion: Living arrangements play a critical role in the mental health of Korean older adults, with solitary living being associated with higher levels of depression. These findings underscore the importance of social support systems and suggest the need for policies and interventions that promote social connectivity and address the challenges of loneliness faced by them. Future research should explore longitudinal and qualitative studies to further understand causal relationships and develop targeted interventions to improve the mental well-being of the aging population.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Depresión , Salud Mental , Aislamiento Social , Humanos , Anciano , República de Corea , Masculino , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Aislamiento Social/psicología , COVID-19/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Soledad/psicología
7.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 39(5): e6101, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752797

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence of loneliness and social isolation among informal carers of individuals with dementia and to identify potential influencing factors. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search across 10 electronic databases, including PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Scopus, Chinese Biomedical, China National Knowledge Internet, and WANFANG. Our search strategy covered the inception of the databases up to September 16, 2023, with an updated search conducted on March 8, 2024. Prevalence estimates of loneliness and social isolation, presented with 95% confidence intervals, were synthesized through meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression were employed to explore potential moderating variables and heterogeneity. RESULTS: The study encompassed 27 research papers involving 11,134 informal carers from 17 different countries. The pooled prevalence of loneliness among informal carers of individuals with dementia was 50.8% (95% CI: 41.8%-59.8%), while the pooled prevalence of social isolation was 37.1% (95% CI: 26.7%-47.6%). Subgroup analyses and meta-regression indicated that various factors significantly influenced the prevalence of loneliness and social isolation. These factors included the caregiving setting, study design, the intensity of loneliness, geographical location (continent), data collection time, and the choice of assessment tools. CONCLUSIONS: This study underscores the substantial prevalence of loneliness and social isolation among informal carers of individuals with dementia. It suggests that policymakers and healthcare providers should prioritize the development of targeted interventions and support systems to alleviate loneliness and social isolation within this vulnerable population.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Demencia , Soledad , Aislamiento Social , Humanos , Soledad/psicología , Demencia/psicología , Demencia/enfermería , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Cuidadores/psicología , Prevalencia
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(10): e032716, 2024 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726923

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social factors encompass a broad spectrum of nonmedical factors, including objective (social isolation [SI]) and perceived (loneliness) conditions. Although social factors have attracted considerable research attention, information regarding their impact on patients with heart failure is scarce. We aimed to investigate the prognostic impact of objective SI and loneliness in older patients with heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was conducted using the FRAGILE-HF (Prevalence and Prognostic Value of Physical and Social Frailty in Geriatric Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure; derivation cohort) and Kitasato cohorts (validation cohort), which included hospitalized patients with heart failure aged ≥65 years. Objective SI and loneliness were defined using the Japanese version of Lubben Social Network Scale-6 and diagnosed when the total score for objective and perceived questions on the Lubben Social Network Scale-6 was below the median in the FRAGILE-HF. The primary outcome was 1-year death. Overall, 1232 and 405 patients in the FRAGILE-HF and Kitasato cohorts, respectively, were analyzed. Objective SI and loneliness were observed in 57.8% and 51.4% of patients in the FRAGILE-HF and 55.4% and 46.2% of those in the Kitasato cohort, respectively. During the 1-year follow-up, 149 and 31 patients died in the FRAGILE-HF and Kitasato cohorts, respectively. Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that objective SI, but not loneliness, was significantly associated with 1-year death after adjustment for conventional risk factors in the FRAGILE-HF. These findings were consistent with the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Objective SI assessed using the Lubben Social Network Scale-6 may be a prognostic indicator in older patients with heart failure. Given the lack of established SI assessment methods in this population, further research is required to refine such methods.


Asunto(s)
Insuficiencia Cardíaca , Soledad , Aislamiento Social , Humanos , Soledad/psicología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/psicología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/mortalidad , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Pronóstico , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Japón/epidemiología , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Factores de Riesgo , Prevalencia , Fragilidad/psicología , Fragilidad/diagnóstico , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo
9.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1207, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693471

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Even prior to the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was ample evidence that loneliness and social isolation negatively impacted physical and mental health, employability, and are a financial burden on the state. In response, there has been significant policy-level attention on tackling loneliness. The objective of this scoping review was to conduct a loneliness policy landscape analysis across 52 countries of the UN European country groups. Our policy analysis sought to highlight commonalities and differences between the different national approaches to manage loneliness, with the goal to provide actionable recommendations for the consideration of policymakers wishing to develop, expand or review existing loneliness policies. METHODS: We searched governmental websites using the Google search engine for publicly available documents related to loneliness and social isolation. Seventy-eight documents were identified in total, from which 23 documents were retained. Exclusion of documents was based on predetermined criteria. A structured content analysis approach was used to capture key information from the policy documents. Contextual data were captured in a configuration matrix to highlight common and unique themes. RESULTS: We could show that most policies describe loneliness as a phenomenon that was addressed to varying degrees in different domains such as social, health, geographical, economic and political. Limited evidence was found regarding funding for suggested interventions. We synthesised actionable recommendations for the consideration of policy makers focusing on the use of language, prioritisation of interventions, revisiting previous campaigns, sharing best practice across borders, setting out a vision, evaluating interventions, and the need for the rapid and sustainable scalability of interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first overview of the national loneliness policy landscape, highlighting the increasing prioritisation of loneliness and social isolation as a major public health and societal issue. Our findings suggest that policymakers can sustain this momentum and strengthen their strategies by incorporating rigorous, evidence-based intervention evaluations and fostering international collaborations for knowledge sharing. We believe that policymakers can more effectively address loneliness by directing funds to develop and implement interventions that impact the individual, the community and society.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Política de Salud , Soledad , Aislamiento Social , Humanos , Soledad/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/psicología , Europa (Continente)
10.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 246, 2024 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702805

RESUMEN

This study explores the relationship between social withdrawal and problematic social media use among college students, with a focus on the mediating roles of alexithymia and negative body image. Using the University Student Social Withdrawal Questionnaire, Social Media Addiction Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Negative Body Image Scale, 2582 college students (33.46% male, average age = 19.46 years, SD = 2.23) were surveyed. Social withdrawal, alexithymia, negative body image, and problematic social media use were significantly correlated with each other. Social withdrawal positively predicted problematic social media use, and both alexithymia and negative body image played a chain mediating role between social withdrawal and problematic social media use. The findings indicate that individual social withdrawal is associated with college students' problematic use of social media. The results suggest that alexithymia and negative body image may mediate this association, highlighting a potential pathway through which social withdrawal influences social media use patterns.


Asunto(s)
Síntomas Afectivos , Imagen Corporal , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Estudiantes , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Síntomas Afectivos/psicología , Imagen Corporal/psicología , Universidades , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , China , Adulto , Adolescente , Trastorno de Adicción a Internet/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología
11.
Lupus Sci Med ; 11(1)2024 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754905

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Trauma history is associated with SLE onset and worse patient-reported outcomes; perceived stress is associated with greater SLE disease activity. Stress perceptions vary in response to life events and may be influenced by psychosocial factors. In an SLE cohort, we examined whether stressful events associated with perceived stress, whether psychosocial factors affected perceived stress, and whether these relationships varied by prior trauma exposure. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from the California Lupus Epidemiology Study, an adult SLE cohort. Multivariable linear regression analyses controlling for age, gender, educational attainment, income, SLE damage, comorbid conditions, glucocorticoids ≥7.5 mg/day and depression examined associations of recent stressful events (Life Events Inventory) and positive (resilience, self-efficacy, emotional support) and negative (social isolation) psychosocial factors with perceived stress. Analyses were stratified by lifetime trauma history (Brief Trauma Questionnaire (BTQ)) and by adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in a subset. RESULTS: Among 242 individuals with SLE, a greater number of recent stressful events was associated with greater perceived stress (beta (95% CI)=0.20 (0.07 to 0.33), p=0.003). Positive psychosocial factor score representing resilience, self-efficacy and emotional support was associated with lower perceived stress when accounting for number of stressful events (-0.67 (-0.94 to -0.40), p<0.0001); social isolation was associated with higher stress (0.20 (0.14 to 0.25), p<0.0001). In analyses stratified by BTQ trauma and ACEs, associations of psychosocial factors and perceived stress were similar between groups. However, the number of recent stressful events was significantly associated with perceived stress only for people with BTQ trauma (0.17 (0.05 to 0.29), p=0.0077) and ACEs (0.37 (0.15 to 0.58), p=0.0011). CONCLUSION: Enhancing positive and lessening negative psychosocial factors may mitigate deleterious perceived stress, which may improve outcomes in SLE, even among individuals with a history of prior trauma who may be more vulnerable to recent stressful events.


Asunto(s)
Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico , Autoeficacia , Apoyo Social , Estrés Psicológico , Humanos , Femenino , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/psicología , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/complicaciones , Masculino , Adulto , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/complicaciones , Estudios Transversales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Resiliencia Psicológica , California/epidemiología , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia/psicología , Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/etiología
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 33(2): 626-635, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557549

RESUMEN

The Covid-19 pandemic has introduced the world to a new chapter in the last three to four years. The focus of this review is on a significant but often overlooked group and topic that has received limited research attention. Recent studies show that the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is still intense, even around three years later. This article will summarize and discuss the results of 52 studies on anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), fear of loneliness, suicidal ideation, and resilience in the elderly population before and after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In addition to detrimental effects, attention is also given to the improved coping abilities and lack of significant psychological distress among the geriatric population when compared to younger age groups. This review will encompass research conducted on both the population of Bangladesh and the global population as a whole.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Anciano , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Salud Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Envejecimiento , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/etiología , Depresión/psicología
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e244855, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573637

RESUMEN

Importance: Perceived social isolation is associated with negative health outcomes, including increased risk for altered eating behaviors, obesity, and psychological symptoms. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of these pathways are unknown. Objective: To investigate the association of perceived social isolation with brain reactivity to food cues, altered eating behaviors, obesity, and mental health symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional, single-center study recruited healthy, premenopausal female participants from the Los Angeles, California, community from September 7, 2021, through February 27, 2023. Exposure: Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a food cue viewing task. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes included brain reactivity to food cues, body composition, self-reported eating behaviors (food cravings, reward-based eating, food addiction, and maladaptive eating behaviors), and mental health symptoms (anxiety, depression, positive and negative affect, and psychological resilience). Results: The study included 93 participants (mean [SD] age, 25.38 [7.07] years). Participants with higher perceived social isolation reported higher fat mass percentage, lower diet quality, increased maladaptive eating behaviors (cravings, reward-based eating, uncontrolled eating, and food addiction), and poor mental health (anxiety, depression, and psychological resilience). In whole-brain comparisons, the higher social isolation group showed altered brain reactivity to food cues in regions of the default mode, executive control, and visual attention networks. Isolation-related neural changes in response to sweet foods correlated with various altered eating behaviors and psychological symptoms. These altered brain responses mediated the connection between social isolation and maladaptive eating behaviors (ß for indirect effect, 0.111; 95% CI, 0.013-0.210; P = .03), increased body fat composition (ß, -0.141; 95% CI, -0.260 to -0.021; P = .02), and diminished positive affect (ß, -0.089; 95% CI, -0.188 to 0.011; P = .09). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that social isolation is associated with altered neural reactivity to food cues within specific brain regions responsible for processing internal appetite-related states and compromised executive control and attentional bias and motivation toward external food cues. These neural responses toward specific foods were associated with an increased risk for higher body fat composition, worsened maladaptive eating behaviors, and compromised mental health. These findings underscore the need for holistic mind-body-directed interventions that may mitigate the adverse health consequences of social isolation.


Asunto(s)
Señales (Psicología) , Salud Mental , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Aislamiento Social , Conducta Alimentaria , Obesidad
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8471, 2024 04 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605132

RESUMEN

Self-identification as a victim of violence may lead to increased negative emotions and stress and thus, may change both structure and function of the underlying neural network(s). In a trans-diagnostic sample of individuals who identified themselves as victims of violence and a matched control group with no prior exposure to violence, we employed a social exclusion paradigm, the Cyberball task, to stimulate the re-experience of stress. Participants were partially excluded in the ball-tossing game without prior knowledge. We analyzed group differences in brain activity and functional connectivity during exclusion versus inclusion in exclusion-related regions. The victim group showed increased anger and stress levels during all conditions. Activation patterns during the task did not differ between groups but an enhanced functional connectivity between the IFG and the right vmPFC distinguished victims from controls during exclusion. This effect was driven by aberrant connectivity in victims during inclusion rather than exclusion, indicating that victimization affects emotional responses and inclusion-related brain connectivity rather than exclusion-related brain activity or connectivity. Victims may respond differently to the social context itself. Enhanced negative emotions and connectivity deviations during social inclusion may depict altered social processing and may thus affect social interactions.


Asunto(s)
Ira , Interacción Social , Humanos , Ira/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Aislamiento Social/psicología
16.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1010, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605388

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Workplace social isolation and loneliness have been found to result in a decline in job satisfaction and an increase in burnout among working individuals. The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated feelings of loneliness and social isolation among healthcare workers. The majority of research on healthcare worker experiences is conducted in siloes which does not reflect the shared experiences of interprofessional teams. The purpose of this study is to understand stress from social isolation or loneliness across the entire clinical and non-clinical healthcare team over the course of the pandemic. METHODS: Data was acquired using a cross-sectional survey distributed to healthcare workers once a year at a large academic medical center in the Southeastern United States during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2022). Information pertaining to job role, work location, and demographic factors was collected. Participants were also asked to assess individual well-being and resilience, in addition to reporting stress derived from various sources including job demands and social isolation or loneliness. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were conducted to assess the association between stress from social isolation or loneliness and individual characteristics. RESULTS: Stress from social isolation or loneliness was found to decrease over the survey period across all measured variables. Trainees and physician-scientists were found to report the highest rates of this stressor compared to other job roles, while Hospital-Based ICU and Non-ICU work locations reported the highest rates of loneliness and social isolation stress. Younger workers and individuals from marginalized gender and racial groups were at greater risk for stress from social isolation or loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of social connections for well-being and job performance, organizations have a responsibility to create conditions and mechanisms to foster social connections. This includes establishing and reinforcing norms of behavior, and developing connection mechanisms, particularly for groups at high risk of loneliness and social isolation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Soledad , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Aislamiento Social , Personal de Salud
17.
Health Promot Int ; 39(2)2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610110

RESUMEN

Adults often experience a loss of social relations and sense of belonging in later life, leading to the risk of social isolation. Municipal senior centres offer a potential site for intervention, as they provide social communities targeting older people. However, not all older people find it easy to access these social communities due to experiencing physical and/or psychosocial frailties and could therefore continue to experience a decline in social relations and sense of belonging, which potentiates poor physical and psychosocial health and well-being. To date, there are limited evidence-based interventions in Denmark. The present article describes the development of an intervention to increase belongingness and decrease social isolation among older people with frailties who attend Danish municipal senior centres. The development process was conducted with reference to the INDEX (IdentifyiNg and assessing different approaches to DEveloping compleX intervention) guidance. The development process resulted in a 6-month supportive intervention, consisting of four elements: skills development workshops for all staff members; a start conversation including frailty screening; allocation of a 'buddy' among existing service users; and monthly follow-up conversations with staff members. This theory-informed approach can progress to feasibility testing and outcome evaluation in order to generate an evidence base. Concurrently, the article reflects on current guidance for intervention development and how it may be used and optimized to strengthen developmental processes in the future.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Adulto , Humanos , Anciano , Centros para Personas Mayores , Comunicación , Aislamiento Social , Dinamarca
18.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 76(2): 309-318, 2024 Apr 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658379

RESUMEN

Innate behavior is mainly controlled by genetics, but is also regulated by social experiences such as social isolation. Studies in animal models such as Drosophila and mice have found that social isolation can regulate innate behaviors through the changes at the molecular level, such as hormone, neurotransmitter, neuropeptide level, and at the level of neural circuits. In this review, we summarized the research progress on the regulation of social isolation on various animal innate behaviors, such as sleep, reproduction and aggression by altering the expression of conserved neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, hoping to deepen the understanding of the key and conserved signal pathways that regulate innate behavior by social isolation.


Asunto(s)
Neuropéptidos , Aislamiento Social , Animales , Neuropéptidos/fisiología , Neuropéptidos/metabolismo , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Ratones , Instinto , Sueño/fisiología , Agresión/fisiología , Humanos , Reproducción/fisiología , Neurotransmisores/fisiología , Neurotransmisores/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300401, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656929

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to elucidate the complex relationship among social isolation, loneliness, and perception of social isolation and its influence on depressive symptoms by evaluating a hypothetical model. This understanding is essential for the formulation of effective intervention strategies. METHODS: We conducted an online survey on Japanese adults (N = 3,315) and used the six-item Lubben Social Network Scale to assess the size of their social networks. We employed a single question to gauge their perception of social isolation. Loneliness was assessed using the three-item UCLA Loneliness Scale, and depressive symptoms were examined using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the hypothesized model. RESULTS: The final model demonstrated satisfactory fit with data (χ2 (1) = 3.73; not significant; RMSEA = 0.03; CFI = 1.00; TLI = 1.00). The size of social network demonstrated a weak negative path to loneliness and depressive symptoms (ß = -.13 to -.04). Notably, a strong positive association existed between perception of social isolation and loneliness (ß = .66) and depressive symptoms (ß = .27). Additionally, a significant positive relationship was found between loneliness and depressive symptoms (ß = .40). Mediation analysis indicated that perception of social isolation and loneliness significantly intensified the relationships between social networks and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that interventions of psychological approaches, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, are effective in reducing the perception of social isolation and loneliness, which may lead to the prevention of depressive symptoms. Future longitudinal studies are expected to refine and strengthen the proposed model.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Soledad , Aislamiento Social , Humanos , Soledad/psicología , Masculino , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Adulto , Japón , Persona de Mediana Edad , Red Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Anciano , Adulto Joven , Apoyo Social , Percepción , Pueblos del Este de Asia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1148, 2024 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658908

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems and financial difficulties each increase the risk of social exclusion. However, few large studies representing a broad age range have investigated the combined social effect of having both difficulties. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine associations of mental health problems, financial difficulties, and the combination of both with social exclusion. METHODS: This analysis was based on responses from 28,047 adults (age > 18 years) from the general population participating in The Norwegian Counties Public Health Survey 2019. Respondents answered questions about their financial situation, mental health problems, and social exclusion. Social exclusion was measured as a lack of social support, low participation in organized social activities, low participation in other activities, missing someone to be with, feeling excluded, and feeling isolated. Adjustments for sex and age were made in multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Having mental health problems or financial difficulties was associated with various measures of social exclusion (odds ratios [ORs] with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]: 1.33 [1.23-1.43] to 12.63 [10.90-14.64]). However, the odds of social exclusion strongly increased for respondents who reported a combination of mental health problems and financial difficulties compared with those who did not report either (ORs [CIs]: 2.08 [1.90-2.27] to 29.46 [25.32-34.27]). CONCLUSIONS: Having the combination of mental health problems and financial difficulties is strongly associated with increased risk for social exclusion, far beyond the effect of either factor alone.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Noruega/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Anciano , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Apoyo Social , Encuestas Epidemiológicas
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