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1.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244873, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400700

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have highlighted the negative impact of COVID-19 and its particular effects on vulnerable sub-populations. Complementing this work, here, we report on the social patterning of self-reported positive changes experienced during COVID-19 national lockdown in Scotland. METHODS: The CATALYST study collected data from 3342 adults in Scotland during weeks 9-12 of a national lockdown. Using a cross-sectional design, participants completed an online questionnaire providing data on key sociodemographic and health variables, and completed a measure of positive change. The positive change measure spanned diverse domains (e.g., more quality time with family, developing new hobbies, more physical activity, and better quality of sleep). We used univariate analysis and stepwise regression to examine the contribution of a range of sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, and employment status) in explaining positive change. RESULTS: There were clear sociodemographic differences across positive change scores. Those reporting higher levels of positive change were female, from younger age groups, married or living with their partner, employed, and in better health. CONCLUSION: Overall our results highlight the social patterning of positive changes during lockdown in Scotland. These findings begin to illuminate the complexity of the unanticipated effects of national lockdown and will be used to support future intervention development work sharing lessons learned from lockdown to increase positive health change amongst those who may benefit.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/prevención & control , /prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Familia/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Escocia/epidemiología , Sueño/fisiología , Higiene del Sueño , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 26, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419420

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social isolation among older adults raises major issues for equity in healthcare in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. MAIN TEXT: This commentary describes current challenges in preventing social isolation among older adults and proposes pathways to develop inclusive approaches to intervention in this vulnerable population. Building interventions that take account of structural inequities among older persons, as well as their subjective experiences, expectations and perspectives, appears fundamental to improve their health and quality of life in pandemic and post-pandemic contexts. CONCLUSIONS: We argue that equity-based and person-centered approaches are critical to counter the negative outcomes of social isolation in the vulnerable older population.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud/organización & administración , Aislamiento Social , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Humanos , Poblaciones Vulnerables
3.
Global Health ; 17(1): 10, 2021 01 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430894

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During isolation, sharing physical activity experiences on social network sites (SNS) can enhance individual social connectedness. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between sharing physical activity experiences on SNS, positive self-presentation, positive feedback, and social connectedness during isolation. METHODS: Based on the Physical Activity Experience Sharing Scale, Social Connectedness Scale, Positive Self-Presentation Scale, and Online Positive Feedback Scale, we collected 460 questionnaires online from across 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China. We used multiple linear regression models to investigate the relationship between variables, and used bootstrapping to test for mediation.. RESULTS: During isolation, sharing physical activity experiences was positively associated with social connectedness (b = 0.308, p < 0.001), as well as with positive self-presentation(b = 0.956, p < 0.001)and positive feedback(b = 0.421, p < 0.001). In addition,we found that positive self-presentation showed a significant positive impact on positive feedback (b = 0.563, p < 0.001), and that positive self-presentation(b = 0.331, p < 0.001) and positive feedback(b = 0.311, p < 0.001) were positively associated with social connectedness. Finally, we found an effect on sharing physical activity experiences indirectly through positive self-presentation (b = 0.316, 95% CI: [0.180, 0.463]),and positive feedback (b = 0.131, 95% CI: [0.063, 0.207]) and that the mediation chain between the two also had a significant impact on social connectedness (b = 0.167, 95% CI: [0.088, 0.251]). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, sharing physical activity experiences on SNS can create a positive, healthy, and energetic personal image, gain recognition from others, and establish new interpersonal relationships.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Ejercicio Físico , Cuarentena , Aislamiento Social , Red Social , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419145

RESUMEN

Pregnant women face many physical and psychological changes during their pregnancy. It is known that stress, caused by many factors and life events such as the COVID-19 pandemic, can negatively impact the health of mothers and offspring. It is the first time social media, such as Twitter, are available and commonly used during a global pandemic; this allows access to a rich set of data. The objective of this study was to characterize the content of an international sample of tweets related to pregnancy and mental health during the first wave of COVID-19, from March to June 2020. Tweets were collected using GetOldTweets3. Sentiment analysis was performed using the VADER sentiment analysis tool, and a thematic analysis was performed. In total, 192 tweets were analyzed: 51 were from individuals, 37 from companies, 56 from non-profit organizations, and 48 from health professionals/researchers. Findings showed discrepancies between individual and non-individual tweets. Women expressed anxiety, depressive symptoms, sleeping problems, and distress related to isolation. Alarmingly, there was a discrepancy between distress expressed by women with isolation and sleep difficulties compared to support offered by non-individuals. Concrete efforts should be made to acknowledge these issues on Twitter while maintaining the current support offered.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Sueño , Aislamiento Social , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Apoyo Social , Análisis de Datos , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias , Embarazo
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419194

RESUMEN

Loneliness is a pervasive problem recognised as a serious social issue, and the prevailing COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated loneliness to greater prominence and concern. We expect a rise of a massive group of 'lonely' consumers who are deeply entrenched in the social isolation caused by COVID-19. There is an urgent need to revisit the phenomenon of lonely consumers to better prepare academic researchers, public policy makers and commercial managers in the post-COVID-19 era. Thus, this study conducts a synthesised review on past studies of lonely consumers. Based on an inductive analysis of 56 articles, 74 key themes are identified. These key themes are further categorised into five major clusters by way of a co-occurrence network analysis. Respectively, the five clusters address the psychological implications related to the dynamics between nonhuman attachment and consumers' loneliness, the commercial implications related to the paradoxical motivations of affiliation and self-affirmation in product selection and the dual information processing mechanism in response to advertisement appeals, and the social implications related to consumers' well-being in an ageing society and the anthropomorphic companionship in a virtual world. A list of research questions is proposed that concludes the review study.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Soledad , Pandemias , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Humanos
8.
Res Dev Disabil ; 108: 103813, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271448

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) represent a particularly vulnerable group to the threats posed by COVID-19. However, they have not yet been given a voice on how their living conditions have been affected by COVID-19. AIMS: This study aims to report the impact on people with IDD of COVID-19 and the response measures applied in Spain during the lockdown. METHOD: Data on 582 individuals with IDD were collected through a survey. Seven open questions were included to capture the perspectives of people with IDD on COVID-19 and its consequences. Content analysis was performed to identify themes and categories across participant responses. Chi-square tests were used to analyze the relationship between reporting a specific category and participants' characteristics. RESULTS: Supports have been conditioned by the living context. People living in specific settings had fewer natural supports, while those living with their family relied heavily on it. Participants also lacked supports considered necessary. It is worth stressing that persons with IDD have also provided support to others. CONCLUSIONS: Although people with IDD have generally received the assistance they need during the lockdown, it must be ensured that appropriate supports are provided regardless of the context in which they live.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/psicología , Discapacidad Intelectual/psicología , Tratamiento Domiciliario/métodos , Autocuidado , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Adulto , /prevención & control , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/epidemiología , Salud de la Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Discapacidad Intelectual/epidemiología , Masculino , Sistemas de Apoyo Psicosocial , Autocuidado/métodos , Autocuidado/psicología , Autoimagen , España
9.
Qual Health Res ; 31(2): 203-217, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213283

RESUMEN

For people in single households, living alone has become literal and absolute during the social-distancing measures related to COVID-19 and can lead to decreased health and wellbeing. In this article, we examine how solo-living women think, feel, make sense of, and practice COVID-19-related social-distancing measures and, consequently, physical isolation. During lockdown, we interviewed 23 solo-living women between the ages of 25 and 69 years living in Slovenia. We present three levels of responses to social-distancing measures: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. We identified dissonances between these levels of responses, and we learned that affective responses play a significant role in shaping one's orientation toward and respect for the social-distancing measures.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Adulto , Conducta , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Entrevistas como Asunto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias
10.
Am Heart J ; 231: 157-159, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010246

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic there has been a reduction in hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction. This manuscript presents the analysis of Google Trends meta-data and shows a marked spike in search volume for chest pain that is strongly correlated with COVID-19 case numbers in the United States. This raises a concern that fear of contracting COVID-19 may be leading patients to self-triage using internet searches.


Asunto(s)
Dolor en el Pecho , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , /epidemiología , Dolor en el Pecho/diagnóstico , Dolor en el Pecho/epidemiología , Dolor en el Pecho/psicología , Correlación de Datos , Miedo , Humanos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Aislamiento Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
J Theor Biol ; 509: 110501, 2021 01 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980371

RESUMEN

We model the COVID-19 coronavirus epidemics in China, South Korea, Italy, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. We identify the early phase of the epidemics, when the number of cases grows exponentially, before government implementation of major control measures. We identify the next phase of the epidemics, when these social measures result in a time-dependent exponentially decreasing number of cases. We use reported case data, both asymptomatic and symptomatic, to model the transmission dynamics. We also incorporate into the transmission dynamics unreported cases. We construct our models with comprehensive consideration of the identification of model parameters. A key feature of our model is the evaluation of the timing and magnitude of implementation of major public policies restricting social movement. We project forward in time the development of the epidemics in these countries based on our model analysis.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Epidemias , Predicción/métodos , Modelos Estadísticos , /transmisión , China/epidemiología , Francia/epidemiología , Alemania/epidemiología , Implementación de Plan de Salud/normas , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Pandemias , Política Pública , Cuarentena , República de Corea/epidemiología , Aislamiento Social , Reino Unido/epidemiología
12.
Matern Child Nutr ; 17(1): e13088, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969184

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdown and social distancing led to changes to breastfeeding support available to women in the United Kingdom. Face-to-face professional support was reduced, and face-to-face peer support was cancelled. Anecdotal media accounts highlighted practices separating some mothers and babies in hospitals, alongside inaccurate stories of the safety of breastfeeding circulating. Meanwhile, new families were confined to their homes, separated from families and support networks. Given that we know breastfeeding is best supported by practices that keep mother and baby together, high-quality professional and peer-to-peer support, and positive maternal well-being, it is important to understand the impact of the pandemic upon the ability to breastfeed. To explore this, we conducted an online survey with 1219 breastfeeding mothers in the United Kingdom with a baby 0-12 months old to understand the impact of the pandemic upon breastfeeding duration, experiences and support. The results highlighted two very different experiences: 41.8% of mothers felt that breastfeeding was protected due to lockdown, but 27.0% of mothers struggled to get support and had numerous barriers stemming from lockdown with some stopped breastfeeding before they were ready. Mothers with a lower education, with more challenging living circumstances and from Black and minority ethnic backgrounds were more likely to find the impact of lockdown challenging and stop breastfeeding. The findings are vital in understanding how we now support those women who may be grieving their loss of breastfeeding and are affected by their negative experiences and how we can learn from those with a positive experience to make sure all breastfeeding women are better supported if similar future events arise.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/psicología , Madres/psicología , Apoyo Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Alimentación Artificial , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
13.
Appetite ; 156: 104977, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991945

RESUMEN

COVID-19 may have substantial impact on the mental health at a population level, but also has the potential to significantly affect those with pre-existing mental health difficulties such as eating disorders. This qualitative study explores the impact of COVID-19 and associated public health measures on adults with eating disorders within the UK. We conducted 10 in depth interviews with adults (24-38 years) with a self-reported eating disorder during lockdown. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic analysis approach. We identified core themes related to social restrictions (social isolation, changes in accountability to others, and increased responsibility for self and others), functional restrictions (lack of routine and structure, a need to intentionally plan activity, a desire for secrecy particularly around food shopping) and restrictions in access to mental health services. Overall, the impact of the lockdown was experienced as a catalyst for either increased disordered eating behaviours or for a drive for recovery, depending on individual circumstances going into these restrictions. This study is the first in depth interview approach with adults with mixed eating disorder presentations in the UK during COVID-19. Findings have important implications for post lockdown intervention care and practice.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Pública , Investigación Cualitativa , Reino Unido
14.
Appetite ; 156: 104985, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038477

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 New Mum Study is recording maternal experiences and infant feeding during the UK lockdown. This report from week 1 of the survey describes and compares the delivery and post-natal experiences of women who delivered before (BL) versus during (DL) the lockdown. METHODS: Women living in the UK aged ≥18 years with an infant ≤12 months of age completed an anonymous online survey (https://is.gd/covid19newmumstudy). Information/links are shared via websites, social media and existing contacts. RESULTS: From 27.5.20-3.6.20, 1365 women provided data (94% white, 95% married/with partner, 66% degree/higher qualification, 86% living in house; 1049 (77%) delivered BL and 316 (23%) DL. Delivery mode, skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding initiation did not differ between groups. DL women had shorter hospital stays (p < 0.001). 39% reported changes to their birth plan. Reflecting younger infant age, 59% of DL infants were exclusively breast-fed/mixed fed versus 39% of BL (p < 0.05). 13% reported a change in feeding; often related to lack of breastfeeding support, especially with practical problems. Important sources of feeding support were the partner (60%), health professional (50%) and online groups (47%). 45% of DL women reported insufficient feeding support. Among BL women, 57% and 69% reported decreased feeding support and childcare, respectively. 40% BL/45% DL women reported insufficient support with their own health, 8%/9% contacted a mental health professional; 11% reported their mental health was affected. 9% highlighted lack of contact/support from family and distress that they had missed seeing the baby. CONCLUSION: Lockdown has impacted maternal experiences, resulting in distress for many women. Our findings suggest the need for better infant feeding support, especially 'face-to-face' support for practical issues; and recognising and supporting mothers who are struggling with mental health challenges or other aspects of their health. The effectiveness of online versus face-to-face contact is currently uncertain, and requires further evaluation.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Madres , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico , Adulto , Lactancia Materna , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Salud Mental , Madres/psicología , Datos Preliminares , Aislamiento Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido
15.
Appetite ; 156: 104853, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038479

RESUMEN

Eating, physical activity and other weight-related lifestyle behaviors may have been impacted by the COVID-19 crisis and people with obesity may be disproportionately affected. We examined weight-related behaviors and weight management barriers among UK adults during the COVID-19 social lockdown. During April-May of the 2020 COVID-19 social lockdown, UK adults (N = 2002) completed an online survey including measures relating to physical activity, diet quality, overeating and how mental/physical health had been affected by lockdown. Participants also reported on perceived changes in weight-related behaviors and whether they had experienced barriers to weight management, compared to before the lockdown. A large number of participants reported negative changes in eating and physical activity behavior (e.g. 56% reported snacking more frequently) and experiencing barriers to weight management (e.g. problems with motivation and control around food) compared to before lockdown. These trends were particularly pronounced among participants with higher BMI. During lockdown, higher BMI was associated with lower levels of physical activity and diet quality, and a greater reported frequency of overeating. Reporting a decline in mental health because of the COVID-19 crisis was not associated with higher BMI, but was predictive of greater overeating and lower physical activity in lockdown. The COVID-19 crisis may have had a disproportionately large and negative influence on weight-related behaviors among adults with higher BMI.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria , Salud Mental , Obesidad , Pandemias , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/etiología , Hiperfagia/psicología , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/psicología , Bocadillos , Aislamiento Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
16.
Child Care Health Dev ; 47(1): 128-135, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047842

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Lockdown is one of the prevalent tools that are used to control the spread of COVID-19 virus in India. Under the circumstances created during lockdown period, children are deprived from the social interaction and companionship; because of which, they are susceptible to psychiatric disorders. Therefore, in this study, efforts were to understand the impacts of lockdown on the mental status of the children of India and their specific causes. STUDY DESIGN: It is a questionnaire-based study. METHODS: A web-based questionnaire was prepared, and 400 parents from four districts of Punjab, India, namely, Ludhiana, Sahibzada Ajit Singh (SAS) Nagar, Sangrur and Ferozepur, were telephonically interviewed. Further, the information collected from the interviews was statistically analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. RESULTS: Findings from this study revealed that 73.15% and 51.25% of the children were having signs of increased irritation and anger, respectively; 18.7% and 17.6% of the parents also mentioned the symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively, among their children, which were also augmented by the changes in their diet, sleep, weight and more usage of the electronic equipment. Children (~76.3%) persistently urge to go outdoors and play with their friends; therefore, they could lag in social development. Further, observations from Pearson's correlation revealed that during lockdown, children's mental health is significantly related to the area of their house, number of children in the family, qualification of their mother and socio-economic status of their family. CONCLUSIONS: This study made it evident that the mental health of the children residing in Punjab, India, was compromised during the lockdown period induced by the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings of this study may also trigger the international authorities to frame the guidelines of lockdown in the interest of mental health of their native children.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Ira , Ansiedad/epidemiología , /transmisión , Niño , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , India , Genio Irritable , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
J Appl Gerontol ; 40(1): 3-13, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914668

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with several short- and long-term negative impacts on the well-being of older adults. Physical distancing recommendations to reduce transmission of the SARS-CoV2-19 virus increase the risk of social isolation and loneliness, which are associated with negative outcomes including anxiety, depression, cognitive decline, and mortality. Taken together, social isolation and additional psychological impacts of the pandemic (e.g., worry, grief) underscore the importance of intervention efforts to older adults. This narrative review draws upon a wide range of evidence to provide a comprehensive overview of appropriate remotely-delivered interventions for older adults that target loneliness and psychological symptoms. These include interventions delivered by a range of individuals (i.e., community members to mental health professionals), and interventions that vary by implementation (e.g., self-guided therapy, remotely-delivered interventions via telephone or video call). Recommendations to overcome barriers to implementation and delivery are provided, with consideration given to the different living situations.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Distrés Psicológico , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Telecomunicaciones , Anciano , Ansiedad/etiología , Ansiedad/terapia , Instituciones de Vida Asistida , Actitud hacia los Computadores , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Depresión/etiología , Depresión/terapia , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Soledad/psicología , Casas de Salud , Privacidad , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
19.
Camb Q Healthc Ethics ; 30(1): 114-122, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349824

RESUMEN

The role of bioethicists amidst crises like the COVID-19 pandemic is not well defined. As professionals in the field, they should respond, but how? The observation of the early days of pandemic confinement in Finland showed that moral philosophers with limited experience in bioethics tended to apply their favorite theories to public decisions, with varying results. Medical ethicists were more likely to lend support to the public authorities by soothing or descriptive accounts of the solutions assumed. These are approaches that Tuija Takala has called the firefighting and window dressing models of bioethics. Human rights lawyers drew attention to the flaws of the government's regulative thinking. Critical bioethicists offered analyses of the arguments presented and the moral and political theories that could be used as the basis of good and acceptable decisions.


Asunto(s)
Bioética , Pandemias , Teoría Ética , Finlandia , Regulación Gubernamental , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Aislamiento Social
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