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1.
Behav Brain Res ; 437: 114157, 2023 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241070

RESUMEN

Vocal communication, cognition, and affective state are key features of sustained health and wellness, and because vocalizations are often socially-motivated, social experience likely plays a role in these behaviors. The monoaminergic systems of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the locus coeruleus (LC) are associated with social and reward processing, vocalization production, and neurotransmitter changes in response to environmental stressors. The effect of social isolation on these complex behaviors and the underlying neural mechanisms is relatively unknown. To add to this body of literature, we randomized adult male Long-Evans rats to control (housed with a cagemate) or isolated (housed individually) conditions and assayed ultrasonic vocalizations, cognition (novel object recognition test), anxiety (elevated plus maze) and anhedonia (sucrose preference test) at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 months of age. At 10 months, VTA and LC samples were assayed for dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin using high performance liquid chromatography. We tested the hypotheses that isolation 1) diminishes vocalizations and cognition, 2) increases anxiety and depression, and 3) increases levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in the VTA and LC. Results showed isolation significantly reduced vocalization tonality (signal-to-noise ratio) and increased maximum frequency. There were no significant findings for cognition, anxiety, or anhedonia. Dopamine and serotonin and their respective metabolites were significantly increased in the VTA in isolated rats. These findings suggest chronic changes to social condition such as isolation affects vocalization production and levels of VTA neurotransmitters.


Asunto(s)
Locus Coeruleus , Ultrasonido , Animales , Masculino , Ratas , Anhedonia , Cognición , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurotransmisores/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Ratas Long-Evans , Serotonina/metabolismo , Aislamiento Social , Área Tegmental Ventral , Vocalización Animal/fisiología
2.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 104: 104801, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081231

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Some research suggests social isolation and loneliness are important risk factors for reduced successful aging and cognitive health. However, findings are inconsistent and no prior systematic review has investigated whether social isolation and loneliness are associated with the memory domain of cognition. This review examined whether social isolation and loneliness individually and jointly affected the memory of middle- and older-aged adults. METHODS: We used PubMed, PsycInfo, and Scopus to search for comparative studies that examined the impact of both loneliness and social isolation (e.g., social activity, social networks) on memory (including all subtypes) in populations aged ≥ 45 years. Three raters performed data extraction and risk of bias assessment using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist. Data were synthesized narratively following the Synthesis without Meta-Analysis guideline. RESULTS: In 12 included articles, higher levels of loneliness and social isolation (combining a range of different indicators) were associated with lower memory performance, where the interaction between loneliness and social isolation had the largest adverse effect on memory, followed by social isolation alone, and followed by loneliness alone. However, substantial heterogeneity was observed in the composition of the two most common indicators of social isolation (social network size, social activity participation), with the magnitude of most results being clinically non-important. Most articles had moderate risk of bias. CONCLUSION: This review found an inverse association between social isolation/loneliness and memory, and outlines future steps to systematically combine the two constructs and measure social isolation in a consistent, multi-modal format.


Asunto(s)
Soledad , Aislamiento Social , Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Soledad/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , Envejecimiento , Cognición
3.
Appl Ergon ; 106: 103894, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152448

RESUMEN

Despite the negative impact of social isolation on wellbeing, research has yet to address how organisations may mitigate the effects of workplace isolation and loneliness. The main objective of the study is to explore the mediating role of task interdependence and supportive behaviours of colleagues on the relationship between workplace isolation on workplace wellbeing. A total of 137 volunteers completed a survey assessing workplace isolation, loneliness, task interdependence, supportive behaviours of colleagues and wellbeing at work. SEM analyses supported the negative effects of company isolation on workplace wellbeing. While supportive behaviours had a mediating role, task interdependence did not mediate the relationships between company isolation and loneliness, and wellbeing. The findings show that increased opportunities for interpersonal interactions at work through greater task interdependence are not enough to reverse the negative effects of workplace isolation on wellbeing. In contrast, an investment in a supportive environment may reverse the negative effects of workplace isolation on wellbeing, highlighting the importance of a supportive culture.


Asunto(s)
Soledad , Aislamiento Social , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga.2010) ; 13(1): 1-16, 20221213.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369178

RESUMEN

Introdução: Necessitando de medidas de combate à pandemia por SARS-CoV-2, a Organização Mundial da Saúde orientou o distanciamento social como estratégia para mitigar seus impactos. Dentre as medidas adotadas para evitar aglomerações, universidades se adaptaram para modalidade de ensino online. O objetivo é refletir sobre a influência do distanciamento social por covid-19, na rotina de estudantes de ciências da saúde. Materiais e Métodos: É uma revisão integrativa, com buscas nas bases de dados Pubmed, MEDLINE, LILACS, WHO COVID, bioRxiv, e medRxiv, nos sites da Pubmed, BVS e Portal de buscas da Organização Mundial da Saúde para covid-19, com descritores nas seguintes combinações: "Infecções por coronavírus e estudantes de ciências de saúde" e "Covid-19 e estudantes de ciências de saúde". Inicialmente encontrou-se 1069 artigos. Resultados: Após refinamento 23 artigos compuseram o estudo. Os resultados foram categorizados como 1-desordens nas competências emocionais, 2-ensino, 3-alimentação, sono e atividade física e 4-efeitos de natureza diversas. Manifestações frequentes: ansiedade, depressão, estresse, incerteza e angústia, mudanças no sono e atividade física. Vantagem ou desvantagem do ensino online, teve percentual de 50% cada. Conclusão: Conhecer como o distanciamento social influenciou na rotina dos estudantes é relevante para que as universidades desenvolvam programas de suporte para as necessidades apresentadas na realidade atual, e consigam projetar programas de enfrentamento para futuras crises epidêmicas, auxiliando na redução dos impactos resultantes.


Introduction: In response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the World Health Organization recommended social distancing as a strategy to mitigate the impacts of the coronavirus disease. Among measures adopted to avoid crowds, universities then switched to virtual education. The objective is to reflect on the influence of social distancing during COVID-19 on the daily routine of health sciences students. Materials and methods: A systematic literature review was conducted by searching on PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS, bioRxiv, medRxiv, as well as BVS and the World Health Organization site for COVID-19 (WHO COVID-19) databases, using combined descriptors such as "coronavirus infections and health science students" and "COVID-19 and health science students". A total of 1069 articles were initially found, being later refined to 23 for the study. Results were classified into 1) emotional competence disorder, 2) education, 3) eating, sleep and physical activity, and 4) various kind of impacts with frequent manifestations of anxiety, depression, stress, uncertainty distress and changes in physical activity and sleep habits. Student dropout in virtual programs is about 50% in all cases. Conclusions: Knowing how social distancing influenced the daily routine of college students is important for universities to develop support programs tailored to current reality needs and implement future epidemic preparedness programs, helping reduce possible impacts.


Introducción: Ante la necesidad de combatir la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2, la Organización Mundial de la Salud recomendó el distanciamiento social como estrategia para mitigar los impactos de la enfermedad. Entre las medidas adoptadas para evitar aglomeraciones, las universidades se han adaptado a la modalidad de educación virtual. El objetivo es reflexionar sobre la influencia del distanciamiento social por COVID-19 en la rutina de los estudiantes de ciencias de la salud. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura a través de búsquedas en PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS, bioRxiv, medRxiv, así como en BVS y el portal de búsqueda de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para COVID-19 (WHO COVID-19), con descriptores combinados de la siguiente forma: "infecciones por coronavirus y estudiantes de ciencias de la salud" y "COVID-19 y estudiantes de ciencias de la salud". Se encontraron 1069 artículos inicialmente, que luego fueron depurados a 23 para conformar el estudio. Los resultados se categorizaron en: 1) trastorno en las competencias emocionales, 2) educación, 3) alimentación, sueño y actividad física, y 4) efectos de diversa índole, con manifestaciones frecuentes de ansiedad, depresión, estrés, incertidumbre y angustia, y cambios en el sueño y la actividad física. La deserción escolar en entornos virtuales es del 50% en todos los casos. Conclusiones: Es importante saber la forma en la que el distanciamiento social influyó en la rutina de los estudiantes, para que así las universidades logren desarrollar programas de apoyo que se ajusten a las necesidades de la realidad actual e implementar programas de respuesta a futuras crisis epidemiológicas, lo que ayudaría a reducir los posibles impactos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Aislamiento Social , Salud del Estudiante , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias
5.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 24(3): 25-26, noviembre 2022.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-JHG-1138

RESUMEN

Introducción: La soledad no deseada es un problema social en todo el mundo. La soledad no deseada y el aislamiento social están invisibilizados en la actividad asistencial.Objetivos. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es analizar una herramienta de trabajo que permita comprender el problema.Métodos. Se revisa la página web del Observatorio Estatal de la Soledad no Deseada.Resultados. El Observatorio está impulsado por la Fundación ONCE junto con otras entidades. Define la soledad no deseada, sus factores y consecuencias. Ofrece estudios nacionales e internacionalesDiscusión. El Observatorio pone de manifiesto el problema social. Permite disponer de información organizada. Posibilita el desarrollo de nuevas intervenciones. (AU)


Introduction: Unwanted loneliness is a global social problem. Unwanted loneliness and social isolation are invisible in care activity.Objectives. The main aim of this work is to analyze a working tool to understand the problem.Methods. The State Observatory of Unwanted Loneliness website is reviewed.Results. The observatory is promoted by the ONCE foundation together with other entities. It defines unwanted loneliness, its factors and consequences. It offers national and international studies.Discussion. The observatory highlights social problems. It provides organized information. It enables the development of new interventions. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Soledad , Aislamiento Social , Medios de Comunicación
6.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276590, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327259

RESUMEN

Prolonged periods of social isolation are known to have significant negative health consequences and reduce quality of life, an effect that is particularly pronounced in older populations. Despite the known deleterious effects of social isolation, a key component of the response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been the issuance of stay at home and/or shelter in place orders. Relatively little is known about the potential effects these periods of social isolation could have on older adults, and less still is known about potential risk factors or protective factors that modulate these effects. Here, we describe results from a longitudinal study in which we measured quality of life both prior to and immediately following a one-month period of social isolation associated with the issuance and revocation of a shelter in place order (April 6, 2020 through May 4, 2020) in the state of South Carolina. Healthy adult participants (N = 62) between the ages of 60 and 80 who had already completed quality of life questionnaires prior to isolation again completed the questionnaires following a one-month order to shelter in place. Quality of life significantly decreased during the social isolation period, with older participants showing the greatest declines. Participants with higher levels of physical activity and better physical/mental health going into the isolation period tended to show greater decreases in quality of life over time. These results highlight the negative consequences of even short bouts of social isolation for the elderly and suggest that reductions in social contact related to COVID-19 may have significant effects on mental health and emotional well-being, at least among older individuals.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Depresión/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 858512, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339148

RESUMEN

Background: Oil is the mainstay revenue for a number of African countries. However, extraction can result in multiple impacts on the health and wellbeing of communities living in oil-rich areas. This review explored evidence of oil industry-related social exclusion on community health and wellbeing on the African continent. Methods: We used a systematic approach guided by PRISMA to search six databases for empirical and descriptive sources focused on oil industry impacts, in any African country, between 1960 to 2021. Findings were grouped according to four dimensions of the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network (SEKN) framework: political, social, economic, and cultural. Results: Fifteen articles were identified, of which 13 articles focused on Nigeria; while one focused on Sudan, and one on Côte d'Ivoire and South Africa. Evidence relating to political aspects of social exclusion encompassed marginalization of indigenous communities through land grabs and unequal representation in political decision making. Limited compensation for environmental damage and livelihood displacement caused by oil-extraction, and high rates of unemployment and poverty were key themes of the economic dimension. Evidence of social impacts included lack of government, or oil-industry investment in social infrastructure; poor health and wellbeing linked to land, air, and water pollution; homelessness and lack of social cohesion. The cultural dimension of social exclusion was comparatively underexplored and only six sources included data collection with indigenous residents, and comparatively more sources were written by non-citizens or non-residents of oil-industry affected areas. Major themes included impacts on collective identity, ways of life and values, particularly where loss of ownership or access to land was experienced. Conclusion: Oil industry activities in African countries are clearly associated with multiple exclusionary impacts. However, the narrow body of empirical research limits understanding of the lived experiences and management of social exclusion by residents of oil-rich areas themselves and is an area deserving of further attention.


Asunto(s)
Industrias , Aislamiento Social , Pobreza , Sudáfrica
8.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277562, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417414

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although research shows that the Covid-19 pandemic has led to declines in mental health, the existing research has not identified the pathways through which this decline happens. AIMS: The current study identifies the distinct pathways through which COVID-induced stressors (i.e., social distancing, disease risk, and financial stressors) trigger mental distress and examines the causal impact of these stressors on mental distress. METHODS: We combined evidence of objective pandemic-related stressors collected at the county level (e.g., lack of social contact, infection rates, and unemployment rates) with self-reported survey data from over 11.5 million adult respondents in the United States collected daily for eight months. We used mediation analysis to examine the extent to which the objective stressors influenced mental health by influencing individual respondents' behavior and fears. RESULTS: County-level, day-to-day social distancing predicted significantly greater mental distress, both directly and indirectly through its effects on individual social contacts, worries about getting ill, and concerns about finances. Economic hardships were indirectly linked to increased mental distress by elevating people's concerns about their household's finances. Disease threats were both directly linked to mental distress and indirectly through its effects on individual worries about getting ill. Although one might expect that social distancing from people outside the home would have a greater influence on people who live alone, sub-analyses based on household composition do not support this expectation. CONCLUSION: This research provides evidence consistent with the thesis that the COVID-19 pandemic harmed the mental well-being of adults in the United States and identifies specific stressors associated with the pandemic that are responsible for increasing mental distress.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Mental , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Aislamiento Social , Distanciamiento Físico
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e063246, 2022 11 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400737

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Perceived social isolation and loneliness are understudied in individuals with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). The few existing studies reported that they are common, yet poorly treated, in persons with SCI/D. We developed an intervention called Caring Connections (CC) aimed at reducing loneliness and perceived social isolation in persons with SCI/D. CC is a peer-based, recurrent letter writing programme designed to provide moments of positivity. We will conduct and evaluate a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess changes in loneliness and social isolation outcomes between the CC intervention and control conditions in community-dwelling individuals with SCI/D. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: RCT to compare outcomes of community-dwelling individuals with SCI/D undergoing the CC intervention to an attention control group (receiving informational materials on life domains important to a good quality of life). Eligible participants include adults with chronic SCI/D who have been injured for >1 year. The primary outcome is loneliness, measured using the UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) 3-item Loneliness Scale. Other outcomes include perceived social isolation and social support. A post-trial process evaluation will assess perceived benefits, negative impacts and satisfaction with the intervention, and areas for improvement. We will test the hypotheses of reduced loneliness and perceived social isolation in the CC intervention arm from baseline to 6 months and will also measure the magnitude of effect (difference between CC arm and attention control arm). We will use generalised linear models for repeated measures. We will assume a one-tailed, α=0.05 level of significance for comparisons. Process outcomes will be analysed using mixed methods, including frequencies for the rating items and thematic analysis for open-ended item responses. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has received Hines Veterans Affairs Institutional Review Board approval (#1673654). Findings will be disseminated widely through healthcare organisations, peer-reviewed publications and conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05295108.


Asunto(s)
Soledad , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal , Humanos , Adulto , Aislamiento Social , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/terapia , Apoyo Social , Vida Independiente , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19706, 2022 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385625

RESUMEN

Human visitors affect the behavior of captive animals, which is the so-called visitor effect. The number and behavior of visitors may influence stress-related behaviors in captive animals, such as self-scratching, yawning, and visitor-directed vigilance. A social group setting can be applied to alleviate such negative visitor effects and facilitate social behavior and interactions between individuals. In this study, we examined how the number and behavior of visitors are related to stress-related behaviors of a captive mixed-species gibbon pair comprising a yellow-cheek gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae) and a white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar). The two gibbons were separated during the study period, and we examined whether the social isolation stimulated the visitor effect. The frequency of stress-related behaviors of the gibbons increased and the social playing between them decreased proportionally to visitor number. In the indoor enclosure, the gibbons increased their visitor-directed vigilance when visitors shouted or struck the glass partition. Our findings indicate that the number and behavior of visitors negatively affect captive gibbons and that a mixed-species social setting can help gibbons reduce visitor-induced stress. Future studies with larger sample sizes will improve the understanding of the visitor effect and the social setting in the captivity.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Hylobates , Aislamiento Social , Animales , Conducta Social
11.
Prev Med ; 164: 107329, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334683

RESUMEN

Many studies have found adverse effects of the coronavirus disease pandemic on health. Irrespective of being infected by the coronavirus, lockdowns and other measures to restrict mobility have worsened an individual's subjective health assessment. Unlike previous studies, this study examined how pre-pandemic social isolation (in the form of no interaction with others and having no social support) affected the impact of the pandemic on self-rated health in Japan. To this end, we estimated fixed-effects models using 4172 observations of 2086 individuals obtained from a three-wave Internet nationwide survey conducted in January/February 2019 and February 2020 (before the pandemic), in March 2021 (when the pandemic-related state of emergency was effective in four prefectures and just after it was lifted in six prefectures), and in October/November (a full month after the state of emergency was lifted in all prefectures). The state of emergency raised the probability of reporting poor health by 17.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]:1.9-33.8) percentage points among the participants who had not interacted with others before the pandemic, compared with only 0.7 (95% CI: -3.1-4.5) percentage points among other participants. Similar results were obtained in the absence of social support prior to the pandemic. In conclusion, pre-pandemic social isolation was detrimental to health, suggesting that policy measures are needed to avoid social isolation to increase the resilience of public health to external shocks.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Aislamiento Social
12.
Prof Case Manag ; 28(1): 20-32, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36394858

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Stigmatizing anyone during a pandemic poses a threat to everyone and can be an obstacle to disease treatment. The stigma around COVID-19 stems from the fact that it is a life-threatening disease and a lot is unknown about it. AIM: This study was conducted with the aim of analyzing and clarifying the concept of stigma in the context of COVID-19; determining its psychological and socio-psychological outcomes; enhancing understanding and recognition of features, antecedents, and consequences of the concept; and proposing an adequate definition for use in clinical practice or research. METHODS: Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis was used. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: Stigma in the context of COVID-19 has antecedents, which include informational and psychological issues, media performance, and some governments' policies and actions to control COVID-19 pandemic. The attributes of COVID-19 stigma are subjective and variable, perceived, and/or experienced with interrelated intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural or institutional dimensions that can be summarized as social stigma and self-stigma. The consequences of COVID-19 stigma are social isolation and psychological burden, physical and mental violence and harassment, hiding disease, and reduced care-seeking behavior. These results will extend the body of knowledge on theory and practice and also assists future researchers in many folds. IMPLICATIONS FOR CASE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE: These findings will be a major tool for the case manager/health care team, policy makers, and other human resource planning professionals to develop plans for preventing, combating, and stopping the COVID-19-related stigma.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estigma Social , Humanos , Pandemias , Aislamiento Social
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19088, 2022 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352002

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing social restrictions disrupted young people's social interactions and resulted in several periods during which school closures necessitated online learning. We hypothesised that digitally excluded young people would demonstrate greater deterioration in their mental health than their digitally connected peers during this time. We analysed representative mental health data from a sample of UK 10-15-year-olds (N = 1387) who completed a mental health inventory in 2017-2019 and thrice during the pandemic (July 2020, November 2020 and March 2021). We employed longitudinal modelling to describe trajectories of adolescent mental health for participants with and without access to a computer or a good internet connection for schoolwork. Adolescent mental health symptoms rose early in the COVID-19 pandemic, with the highest mean Total Difficulties score around December 2020. The worsening and subsequent recovery of mental health during the pandemic was greatly pronounced among those without access to a computer, although we did not find evidence for a similar effect among those without a good internet connection. We conclude that lack of access to a computer is a tractable risk factor that likely compounds other adversities facing children and young people during periods of social isolation or educational disruption.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos Mentales , Niño , Adolescente , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Salud Mental , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 770, 2022 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352435

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to identify the nature and extent of the available published research on the impact of social isolation, on the psychological wellbeing of medical students, who had to quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Design. Scoping review. SEARCH STRATEGY: The PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews), guideline, was used to structure this study. A search strategy was carried out across six bibliographic databases. PubMed, Embase, ERIC, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Web of Science. The following search terms were used, "medical student*" AND "impact" AND "quarantine" AND "COVID-19". Searches were initially confined to articles published (excluding conference abstracts) between 1 January 2019- 21 August 2021 but updated in September 2022 with the original search terms expanded to include "isolation" or "lockdown" as well as "quarantine" and the period of search extended to 21 August 2022. A search of secondary references was conducted. Data from the selected studies were extracted, and the following variables recorded; first author and year of publication, country of study, study design, sample size, participants, mode of analysing impact of quarantine from COVID-19 on mental health and results of the studies. RESULTS: A total of 223 articles were identified in the original search in 2021 and 387 articles, in the updated search in 2022. Following the exclusion of duplicates and application of the agreed inclusion and exclusion criteria, 31 full-text articles were identified for the final review, most of which were cross sectional studies. Sample sizes ranged from 13 to 4193 students and most studies used a variety of self-administered questionnaires to measure psychological wellbeing. Overall, 26 of the 31 articles showed that quarantine had a negative impact on the psychological well-being of medical students. However, two studies showed no impact, and three studies showed an improvement. CONCLUSION: The evidence is growing. Quarantine because of the COVID-19 pandemic may have had a negative impact on the psychological wellbeing of medical students, but this is not certain. There is therefore a need for more studies to further evaluate this research question.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estudiantes de Medicina , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Cuarentena/métodos , Cuarentena/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361450

RESUMEN

Older adults living alone present a vulnerable physical and mental health group with public health and service needs. This situation has risen and is therefore expected to increase calls for urgent attention from concerned authorities. This article focuses on the study of factors related to different living arrangements of older adults and also examines the extent to which baseline variables explained the association between living alone and social isolation characteristics. A questionnaire survey restricted to respondents aged 60 years and over, living in Ban Phaeo, Samutsakhon, Thailand, was scoped for data collection. Older adults living alone and in co-residence (living together) constitute a total of 1162 samples. The binary logistic regression model was applied to examine the association between living alone and social isolation characteristics. The result found that factors relating to older adults' different living arrangements are marital status, household members numbers, level of dependency, and type of caregivers. An association was found between the characteristics of living alone and social isolation in three relative variables, which are age, activities of daily living (ADLs), and type of caregivers. In conclusion, household living arrangements have different related factors like marital status, where a single or divorced person is more likely to live alone. Furthermore, it is also influenced by the need for caregiving on the part of the older adult or family members; particularly, their children typically emerge as the unpaid assistance from families. When only a sample of older adults living alone with social isolation is considered, it was discovered that with the advancing age of older adults living alone, whether single or married, encountered problems with the activities of daily living (ADLs). This set of people rarely goes out to perform activities outside their home and seldom attend social and physical activities. This could lead to a risk of social isolation with a greater risk of physical and mental health problems, including the well-being of older adults living alone in later life. Thus, family caregivers play a key role as a primary source of support to prevent older adults from being socially isolated, which has become an integral part of our healthcare system in promoting physical, mental, and functional health among older adults in a positive way.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Ambiente en el Hogar , Niño , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Tailandia , Aislamiento Social , Cuidadores/psicología
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(22)2022 Nov 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36433398

RESUMEN

Social isolation is likely to be one of the most serious health outcomes for the elderly due to the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for seniors living alone at home. In fact, two approaches have been used to assess social isolation. The first is a self-reported survey designed for research purposes. The second approach is the use of monitoring technology. The objective of this paper is to provide some illustrative publications, works and examples of the current status and future prospects in the field of monitoring systems that focused on two main activities of daily living: meal-taking activity (shopping, cooking, eating and washing dishes) and mobility (inside the home and the act of going out). These two activities combined seem relevant to a potential risk of social isolation in the elderly. Although current research focuses on identifying only ADLs, we propose to use them as a first step to extract daily habits and risk level of social isolation. Moreover, since activity recognition is a recent field, we raise specific problems as well as needed contributions and we propose directions and research opportunities to accelerate advances in this field.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , COVID-19 , Humanos , Anciano , Pandemias/prevención & control , Aislamiento Social , Tecnología
17.
Aten Primaria ; 54 Suppl 1: 102438, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435582

RESUMEN

This article examines the latest available evidence on preventive activities in the elderly, including sleep disorders, physical exercise, deprescription, cognitive disorders and dementias, nutrition, social isolation and frailty.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Conocimiento , Fragilidad , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia , Humanos , Anciano , Anciano Frágil , Fragilidad/diagnóstico , Fragilidad/prevención & control , Aislamiento Social
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429388

RESUMEN

Social exclusion has led to increased negative emotions and aggressive behaviors, two outcomes that are correlated with each other. Thus, the down-regulation of negative emotions appears to play a crucial role in reducing the tendency for aggressive behavior. However, this assumption has not yet been tested. To this end, a total of 397 undergraduates reported their aggressive tendencies, state emotions and trait acceptance by completing corresponding questionnaires, and a recall paradigm was used to induce experiences of social exclusion. The results showed that in the context of social exclusion, (1) trait acceptance was negatively correlated with negative emotions and aggressive tendency but was positively correlated with positive emotions; (2) negative emotions, rather than positive emotions, were positively correlated with aggressive tendency; (3) increased trait acceptance buffered the experience of anger, which is, in turn, related to reduced aggressive tendency; (4) trait acceptance also downregulated the feeling of sadness, which is, however, related to increased aggression; (5) the mediator of sadness was smaller in effect size than that of anger. Taken together, these results suggest that negative emotions are associated with aggression in the context of social exclusion, and the habitual use of an acceptance strategy was conductive to decreasing aggressive tendencies by decreasing anger.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Ira , Ira/fisiología , Agresión/psicología , Emociones/fisiología , Aislamiento Social , Tristeza
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429549

RESUMEN

(1) Background: The aim of the presented research was to examine if emotional intelligence (EI) could be regarded as a mechanism mediating the relationship between attachment and loneliness. The authors also tested the moderating role of this variable, investigating whether EI was a protective factor against loneliness in insecurely attached individuals. (2) Methods: In two cross-sectional studies (N = 246 in Study 1 and N = 186 in Study 2), participants completed a set of questionnaires measuring attachment styles, trait emotional intelligence, and loneliness. (3) Results: Both studies revealed a consistent pattern of results, indicating a dual role of EI in the relationships between attachment styles and loneliness. Firstly, EI was a mediator between attachment and loneliness-both anxious and avoidant attachment were associated with a low level of EI, which in turn translated into increased loneliness. Secondly, EI moderated the relationship between anxious attachment and loneliness. It turned out that the strength of the positive relationship between anxious attachment and loneliness decreased with an increase in EI. (4) Conclusions: These results point to EI as an underlying mechanism between insecure attachment and loneliness. They also suggest that EI is an important psychological resource protecting anxiously attached individuals against a subjective sense of social isolation.


Asunto(s)
Soledad , Apego a Objetos , Humanos , Soledad/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Inteligencia Emocional , Aislamiento Social
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429713

RESUMEN

AIM: The goal of this study was to investigate the association of climate anxiety with loneliness and perceived social isolation (also stratified by age group). METHODS: Data were taken from the general adult population aged 18 to 74 years (n = 3091). Data collection took place in March 2022. Climate anxiety was measured using the Climate Anxiety Scale. The De Jong Gierveld tool was used to quantify loneliness and the Bude and Lantermann tool was used to assess perceived social isolation. RESULTS: Multiple linear regressions revealed an association between higher climate anxiety and higher loneliness (ß = 0.06, p < 0.001) as well as higher perceived social isolation (ß = 0.10, p < 0.001) among the total sample. A similar picture was identified in age-stratified regressions (i.e., among individuals aged 18 to 29 years, 30 to 49 years, and among individuals aged 50 to 64 years). However, climate anxiety was neither associated with loneliness nor with perceived social isolation among individuals aged 65 to 74 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our current study adds first evidence regarding the link between climate anxiety and loneliness as well as perceived social isolation and can serve as a basis for upcoming studies.


Asunto(s)
Soledad , Aislamiento Social , Adulto , Humanos , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Modelos Lineales
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